Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Zamkatimu

Pafupifupi ndikuyamba kupanga magalimoto, adayamba kukhala ndi zida zofunikira, zomwe zili ndi othamanga. Zipangizo zamagalimoto zimathandizira kuwongolera njira zofunikira, luso, mulingo ndi kutentha kwa zakumwa.

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Kodi kuthamanga kwa galimoto ndi chiyani?

Speedometer ndi chida choyezera chomwe chikuwonetsa kuthamanga kwenikweni kwagalimoto. Pamagalimoto, makina othamanga ndi makina amagetsi amagwiritsidwa ntchito, ndipo kuthamanga kumawonetsedwa mamailo kapena ma kilomita pa ola limodzi. Speedometer imapezeka pa dashboard, nthawi zambiri patsogolo pa dalaivala, yophatikizidwa ndi odometer. Palinso zosankha zina zomwe gulu lazida limasunthira pakati pa torpedo ndikuyang'ana woyendetsa.

Kodi kuthamanga liwiro ndi chiyani?

Chida ichi chimathandiza dalaivala munthawi yeniyeni kuti adziwe:

  • kuchuluka kwamagalimoto;
  • liwiro la kuyenda;
  • mafuta pa liwiro linalake.

Mwa njira, nthawi zambiri pama liwiro othamanga kwambiri pamakhala pokwera pang'ono kuposa zomwe zimawonetsedwa mgalimoto.

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Mbiri ya chilengedwe

Speedometer yoyamba yoyikidwa pagalimoto yonyamula idawonekera mu 1901, motero galimotoyo inali Oldsmobile. Komabe, pali malingaliro pa intaneti kuti analogue yoyamba ya othamangawo adapangidwa ndi mmisiri waku Russia Yegor Kuznetsov. Kwa nthawi yoyamba, liwiro lokhala ndi liwiro lakhala njira yovomerezeka mu 1910. OS Autometer anali woyamba kupanga kutulutsa ma speedometer agalimoto.

Mu 1916, Nikola Tesla adapanga makina othamanga kwambiri omwe adapangidwanso, omwe maziko ake amagwiritsidwabe ntchito masiku ano.

Kuyambira 1908 mpaka 1915, ma drum ndi ma pointer othamanga adapangidwa. Pambuyo pake adayamba kugwiritsa ntchito digito ndi pointer. Mwa njira, opanga makina onse asankha ma gaugeji ocheperako chifukwa chowerenga mosavuta.

Kuyambira zaka za m'ma 50 mpaka 80 za m'zaka zapitazi, ma speedometers adagwiritsidwa ntchito, nthawi zambiri pamagalimoto aku America, ngati ng'oma. Mitundu iyi yothamanga kwambiri idasiyidwa chifukwa chazidziwitso zochepa, zomwe zitha kubweretsa zoopsa panjira.

M'zaka za m'ma 80, anthu aku Japan pang'onopang'ono akuyambitsa ma digito a digito, koma izi sizinagwiritsidwe ntchito modabwitsa chifukwa cha zovuta zina. Kunapezeka kuti zizindikiro za analogi zimawerengedwa bwino. Ma speedometer a digito alowa njinga zamoto zamasewera, pomwe zatsimikizika kuti ndizosavuta.

Mitundu

Ngakhale kuti pali ma speedometers ambiri, amagawidwa m'magulu awiri:

  • njira yanji yogwiritsira ntchito imagwiritsidwa ntchito;
  • chizindikiro chanji.

Zosiyanasiyana zagawidwa m'magulu atatu:

  • makina;
  • zamagetsi;
  • zamagetsi.
Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Mphamvu chiwongolero. Ntchito ndi zolakwika

Kuti timvetsetse kuthamanga kwa kayendedwe ka galimoto, komwe kuthamanga kwake kumawonetsera, ndi momwe muyeso umaperekedwera, tilingalira mwatsatanetsatane tanthauzo la ntchito ndikukonzekera deta.

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Njira yoyezera

M'gululi, ma liwiro agalimoto amagawika m'magulu otsatirawa:

  • chronometric. Kugwiritsa ntchito kutengera kuwerengera kwa odometer ndi mawotchi - mtunda wogawika ndi nthawi yatha. Njirayi imakhazikitsidwa ndi malamulo a sayansi;
  • chimakuma. Njirayi idakhazikitsidwa ndi ntchito ya mphamvu ya centrifugal, pomwe cholembera dzanja chokhazikitsidwa ndi kasupe chimasunthira mbali chifukwa cha mphamvu ya centrifugal. Mtunda wa offset ndi wofanana ndi kuchuluka kwa magalimoto;
  • akututuma. Chifukwa chakumveka kwakanthawi konyamula kapena chimango, kugwedeza kogwirana kofanana ndi kuchuluka kwa kusinthasintha kwamagudumu kumapangidwa;
  • kupatsidwa ulemu. Ntchito yamaginito amatengedwa ngati maziko. Maginito okhazikika amagwiritsidwa ntchito pachokhotakhota, pomwe magetsi amakongoletsa gudumu likazungulira. Diski yokhala ndi kasupe imakhudzidwa ndi mayendedwe, omwe amayang'anira kuwerengera kolondola kwa muvi wa othamanga;
  • mu atomu. Liwiro kachipangizo, poyenda, amatumiza chizindikiro, chiwerengero cha amene ali ofanana ndi chiwerengero cha kayendedwe ka sensa galimoto;
  • zamagetsi. Apa, gawo lamakina limaperekedwa ndimatumba amakono omwe amafalitsidwa pomwe spindle imazungulira. Chidziwitsocho chimalandiridwa ndi kauntala, chomwe chimatsimikizira kuchuluka kwa nthawi yokhazikika. Zambiri zimasinthidwa kukhala ma kilomita pa ola ndikuwonetsedwa pazenera.

Chochititsa chidwi! Kuyambitsa kwakukulu kwa makina othamanga othamanga kunayamba mu 1923, kuyambira pamenepo kapangidwe kake kasintha pang'ono mpaka nthawi yathu ino. Ma mita othamanga othamanga adawonekera m'ma 70s, koma adayamba kufalikira zaka 20.

Ndi mtundu wa chisonyezo

Malinga ndi chiwonetserocho, liwiro lothamanga limagawidwa mu analog ndi digito. Yoyamba imagwira ntchito potumiza makokedwe chifukwa chakazunguliridwe ka gearbox, komwe kumalumikizidwa ku gearbox kapena gearbox axle.

Speedometer yamagetsi imapambana molondola zofananira, ndipo odometer yamagetsi nthawi zonse imawonetsa mtunda woyenera, mtunda wa tsiku ndi tsiku, komanso imachenjezanso zakukakamizidwa koyenera pamtunda wina. 

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Momwe makina amagetsi amagwirira ntchito, momwe amagwirira ntchito

Mawotchi othamanga amakhala ndi zinthu zikuluzikulu izi:

  • zida zamagalimoto othamanga;
  • shaft yosinthira yotumiza chidziwitso pagulu lazida;
  • liwiro lokha;
  • kauntala woyenda mtunda (mfundo).

Msonkhano wamagnetic induction, womwe umatengedwa ngati maziko a makina othamanga, umakhala ndi maginito okhazikika olumikizidwa ndi shaft yoyendetsa, komanso coil cylindrical aluminium. Pakatikati imathandizidwa ndi chimbalangondo. Pofuna kupewa zolakwika pakuwerenga, pamwamba pake pamakhala chophimba cha aluminiyamu chomwe chimateteza ku maginito. 

Bokosi lamagiya limakhala ndi zida zapulasitiki, kapena magiya angapo, omwe amalumikizana ndi amodzi mwa magiya a gearbox, ndikupereka chidziwitso choyambirira kudzera pachingwe. 

Speedometer imagwira ntchito ngati iyi: coil ikazungulira, mafunde addy amapangidwa, chifukwa chake amayamba kupatuka ndi mbali inayake, yomwe imadalira kuthamanga kwa galimoto.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kodi kuyendetsa komaliza ndikutani kwa galimotoyo

Speedometer imayendetsedwa ndikudutsa makokedwe kudzera pa sensa komanso shaft yosinthira pagulu lamagiya. Cholakwika chocheperako pakuwerenga chimaperekedwa ndikulumikizana kwachindunji ndi kusinthasintha kwa magudumu oyendetsa.

Ntchito yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi

Mtundu wamagetsi othamangawu ndiwotchuka kwambiri, makamaka pagalimoto zanyumba. Chofunika cha ntchito chimadutsana ndi makina, koma chimasiyana pakukwaniritsa ndondomekoyi. 

Makina othamanga a electromechanical amagwiritsa ntchito masensa monga:

  • zida zokhala ndi shaft yachiwiri komanso zoyendetsa kumanzere;
  • kugunda (Hall sensor);
  • kuphatikiza;
  • kupatsidwa ulemu.

Chipangizo chosintha kwambiri chimagwiritsa ntchito chiwonetsero cha zida zamagetsi. Milliammeter idagwiritsidwa ntchito kulondola kwa zisonyezo. Kugwiritsa ntchito kachitidwe kotereku kumatsimikiziridwa ndi microcircuit yomwe imatumiza zizindikiritso zamagetsi zamagetsi, ndikumapereka kuwerengera ku singano yothamanga. Mphamvu yomwe ilipo pakadali pano ndiyofanana ndendende ndi kuthamanga kwagalimoto, ndiye apa chiwonetserochi chikuwonetsa zodalirika kwambiri.   

Ntchito yamagetsi yamagetsi

Mawonekedwe othamanga amagetsi amasiyana ndi omwe afotokozedwa pamwambapa chifukwa amalumikizidwa mwachindunji ndi odometer. Tsopano magalimoto onse ali ndi makinawa, omwe samalola njira zosavuta kusintha mileage, yomwe "imakumbukiridwa" ndi magulu ena owongolera. 

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Chifukwa chiyani akunama: cholakwika chomwe chilipo

Zatsimikizika kuti m'magalimoto ambiri, okhala ndi kuthekera kwakukulu, liwiro lothamanga silisonyeza liwiro lolondola. Kusiyana kwa 10% kumaloledwa pa liwiro la 200 km / h, pa 100 km / h zochulukirapo zidzakhala za 7%, ndipo pa 60 km / h palibe cholakwika chilichonse.

Pazifukwa zakunja zolakwika, pali zingapo mwa izi:

  • unsembe wa matayala ndi matayala awiri zazikulu;
  • Kusintha kwa gearbox ndi cholumikizira china chachikulu;
  • m'malo mwa gearbox ndi mitundu iwiri yamagalasi.

Zovuta zazikulu za ma speedometers

Pali mitundu isanu yayikulu yazovuta zomwe zimachitika nthawi yayitali pakugwiritsa ntchito galimoto:

  • kuwonongeka kwachilengedwe kwa magiya apulasitiki;
  • kusweka kwa chingwe pamphambano ndi gawo lozungulira;
  • ojambula okosijeni;
  • kuwonongeka kwa zingwe zamagetsi;
  • zosavomerezeka zamagetsi (zimafunikira zovuta zowunikira, kuphatikiza liwiro la sensor).

Nthawi zambiri kuwonongeka, simusowa kuti mukhale katswiri, chinthu chachikulu ndikuwunika molakwika ndikudzipangira zida zochepa zomwe zili ndi multimeter.

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Mawotchi Achida Kuzindikira ndi Kusaka Mavuto

Kuti mupeze matenda oyenera, gwiritsani ntchito izi:

  1. Kwezani mbali yonyamula yagalimoto pogwiritsa ntchito jack. 
  2. Pogwiritsa ntchito malangizo okonza ndi kuyendetsa galimoto yanu, timasokoneza bwino gulu lazida.
  3. Chotsani mtedza wokonzekera wa chingwe chothamangitsa, chotsani chishango, yambitsani injini ndikuchita zida za 4.
  4. Pazoteteza, chingwechi chimayenera kuzungulira. Ngati ndi choncho, pindani kumapeto kwa chingwecho, gwiraninso zida za 4 ndi injini ikuyenda ndikuwunika zomwe zikuwerengedwa pachizindikiro. Kusintha kwa malo a muvi kukuwonetsa kulephera. 

Ngati chingwechi sichimazungulira, ndiye kuti chikuyenera kutsitsidwa kuchokera pagawo la gearbox ndikuwonetsetsa kuti nsonga yake ndiyofanana. Yesetsani kukoka chingwecho nokha - chikuyenera kukhala chimodzimodzi kumapeto onse azungulira, ndipo ngati ndi choncho, vuto lili m'giya. 

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe kake ka mawonekedwe oyang'anira matayala TPMS

Kukonza ndi kuzindikira kwa makina othamanga a pakompyuta

Apa, kukonza kuli kovuta chifukwa chakuti ndikofunikira kukhala ndi chizindikiritso osachepera, osachepera - oscilloscope kapena sikani kuti iwerengere kuwerengera kwa injini zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi. Mwamtheradi magalimoto onse opangidwa kunja, atatha 2000, amakhala ndi kompyuta yomwe imadziyesa yokha isanayambike galimoto. Ngati pali cholakwika, nambala yake imatha kudziwika pofotokoza tebulo lamakalata amtundu wina wamagalimoto. 

Ngati pali cholakwika chokhudzana ndi kusowa kwa kuthamanga kwa liwiro, ndiye kuti mothandizidwa ndi oscilloscope timalumikizana ndi kulumikizana kwapakati pa sensa yothamanga, ndikuponya "+" pa batri. Chotsatira, mota umayamba ndipo zida zikuyenda. Pafupipafupi pa sensa yogwira ntchito imasiyana kuyambira 4 mpaka 6 Hz, ndipo magetsi amakhala osachepera 9 volts.  

 Zinthu Zogwira Ntchito

Chosavuta chachikulu chomwe zida zina sizikhala ndi zolondola. Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, kuwerenga molondola molingana ndi kusokonekera kwakunja kwa kanemayo pakuyika mawilo akulu ndi mayunitsi opatsirana omwe ali ndi magiya osiyana siyana. Pankhani yovala magiya ovuta, ma liwiro othamanga "amayenda" ndi 10% ina. 

Masensa amagetsi amatha kuwonetsa kuthamanga ndi ma mileage popanda cholakwika, malinga ngati malamulo ogwiritsira ntchito atsatiridwa komanso osapitilira miyeso yovomerezeka yamagudumu. 

Ngati kuthamanga kwake kulibe dongosolo, ndikoletsedwa kuyendetsa galimoto, ngati zingachitike, malinga ndi malamulo amseu.

Kuthamanga. Mitundu ndi chipangizo. Zowona ndi mawonekedwe

Kusiyana: kuthamanga ndi odometer

Odometer ndi sensa yomwe imawerengera kutalika kwa galimotoyo tsiku ndi tsiku. Odometer ikuwonetsa mileage, liwiro lothamanga - liwiro. M'mbuyomu, ma odometers anali amakanika, ndipo ma mileage anali opotozedwa mwamphamvu ndi ogulitsa magalimoto opanda pake. Makina oyendera ma mileage aphunziranso kusintha, koma pali zinthu zambiri m'galimoto zomwe zimalemba ma mileage. Ndipo kuyang'anira kwa injini, kukumbukira kwake, kumalemba zolakwika zonse zomwe zimachitika pamtunda wina.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Dzina la speedometer m'galimoto ndi chiyani? Oyendetsa galimoto ena amatcha odometer kuti ndi speedometer. Kwenikweni, sipidiyomu imayesa liwiro la galimoto, ndipo odometer imayesa mtunda womwe wayenda.

Kodi speedometer yachiwiri imatanthauza chiyani m'galimoto? Ndikoyenera kuyitcha odometer. Imayesa mtunda wonse wagalimoto. Nambala yachiwiri ya odometer ndi kauntala ya tsiku ndi tsiku. Choyamba sichimatayidwa, pamene chachiwiri chikhoza kutayidwa.

Kodi ndingadziwe bwanji liwiro lenileni lagalimoto? Kwa ichi, pali speedometer m'galimoto. M'magalimoto ambiri, giya 1, galimoto Imathandizira kuti 23-35 Km / h, 2 - 35-50 Km / h, 3 - 50-60 Km / h, 4 - 60-80 Km / h, 5. - 80-120 Km / h. koma zimatengera kukula kwa mawilo komanso kuchuluka kwa zida za gearbox.

Kodi dzina la liwiro loyesedwa ndi sipidiyomita ndi chiyani? Speedometer imayesa kuthamanga kwagalimoto panthawi inayake. M'mitundu yaku America, chizindikirocho chimapereka mailosi pa ola, enanso - makilomita pa ola limodzi.

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