Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Zamkatimu

Pogwira ntchito yoyaka moto wamkati, mpweya wotulutsa mpweya umatulutsidwa mumlengalenga, zomwe sizomwe zimayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa mpweya, komanso chimodzi mwazomwe zimayambitsa matenda ambiri.

Mpweyawu, womwe umatuluka munjira zotulutsa utsi zamagalimoto, umakhala ndi zinthu zowopsa kwambiri, ndichifukwa chake magalimoto amakono ali ndi dongosolo lapadera lotulutsa utsi, momwe chothandizira chimakhalapo nthawi zonse.

Chosinthira chothandizira chiwononga mamolekyulu owopsa mumafuta amoto ndikuwapangitsa kukhala otetezeka momwe zingathere kwa anthu komanso chilengedwe.

Kodi chothandizira ndi chiyani?

Chosinthira chothandizira ndi mtundu wa chida chomwe ntchito yake yayikulu ndikuchepetsa mpweya woipa kuchokera ku utsi wamafuta kuchokera ku injini zamagalimoto. Kapangidwe kake kali kosavuta. Ichi ndi chidebe chachitsulo chomwe chimayikidwa mu dongosolo lamagalimoto.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Pali ma payipi awiri mu thankiyo. "Kulowetsa" kosinthira kulumikizidwa ndi injini, ndipo mpweya wotulutsa utsi umadutsamo, ndipo "zotulutsa" zimalumikizidwa ndi resonator yamagetsi yamagalimoto.

Pamene mpweya wa utsi wochokera mu injini umalowa mu chothandizira, kusintha kwa mankhwala kumachitika mmenemo. Amawononga mpweya wovulaza ndikuwasandutsa mpweya wopanda vuto womwe ungatulukire m'chilengedwe.

Kodi ndi chiyani chomwe chimakhala chosinthira othandizira?

Kuti timvetsetse bwino momwe chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwirira ntchito, tiyeni tiwone zomwe zimafunikira. Popanda kufotokoza mwatsatanetsatane, timangolemba zinthu zazikuluzikulu zomwe zimamangidwa.

Gawo lapansi

Gawo lapansi ndilopangidwe mkati mwa chothandizira, pomwe chophimba chothandizira ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali imagwiritsidwa ntchito. Pali mitundu ingapo yamagawo ang'onoang'ono. Kusiyanitsa kwawo kwakukulu ndi zinthu zomwe amapangidwa. Nthawi zambiri, chinthu chopanda mphamvu chimakhazikika pamtunda womwewo.

Kuphimba

Zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pothandizira nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi aluminium dioxide ndi mankhwala monga cerium, zirconium, nickel, barium, lanthanum, ndi ena. Cholinga cha zokutira ndikukulitsa gawo la gawo lapansi ndikukhala maziko a zitsulo zamtengo wapatali.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Zitsulo zamtengo wapatali

Zitsulo zamtengo wapatali zomwe zilipo pakusintha kwa othandizira zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita zofunikira kwambiri. Zitsulo zamtengo wapatali kwambiri zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi platinamu, palladium ndi rhodium, koma mzaka zaposachedwa opanga ambiri ayamba kugwiritsa ntchito golide.

Nyumba

Nyumbayi ndi chipolopolo chakunja cha chipangizocho ndipo chimakhala ndi gawo lapansi ndi zinthu zina zothandizira. Zinthu zomwe zimapangidwira nthawi zambiri ndizitsulo zosapanga dzimbiri.

Mabomba

Mapaipi amalumikiza chosinthira chothandizira cha galimotoyo ndi makina oyatsira magalimoto ndi injini. Zimapangidwa ndi chitsulo chosapanga dzimbiri.

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Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Pogwiritsa ntchito injini yoyaka mkati, ndikofunikira kuti kuyatsa kolimba kwa mafuta osakanikirana ndi mpweya kumachitika muzitsulo zake. Munthawi imeneyi, kumapangidwa mpweya woipa, monga carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons ndi ena.

Ngati galimoto ilibe chosinthira chothandizira, magetsi onse owopsawa, atangotulutsidwa mu utsi wochuluka kuchokera ku injini, adzadutsa makina otulutsa utsiwo ndikulowa mu mpweya womwe timapumira mwachindunji.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Ngati galimotoyo ili ndi chosinthira chothandizira, mpweya wotulutsa utsi umadutsa kuchokera ku injini kupita ku chofufutira kudzera mu zisa za gawo lapansi ndikuchita ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali. Chifukwa chazomwe zimachitika ndi mankhwala, zinthu zovulaza zimachotsedwa, ndipo utsi wokhawo wopanda vuto, womwe makamaka ndi carbon dioxide, umalowa m'chilengedwe kuchokera kutulutsa utsi.

Tikudziwa kuchokera ku maphunziro a chemistry kuti chothandizira ndichinthu chomwe chimayambitsa kapena kufulumizitsa kuyankha kwamankhwala osakhudza. Othandizira amatenga nawo mbali pamachitidwe, koma si ma reagents kapena zinthu zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zithandizire.

Pali magawo awiri omwe mpweya woipa umadutsa chothandizira: kuchepetsa ndi makutidwe ndi okosijeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito?

Kutentha kogwira ntchito kwa chothandizira kumafika 500 mpaka 1200 madigiri Fahrenheit kapena 250-300 madigiri Celsius, zinthu ziwiri zimachitika: kuchepetsedwa, ndipo pambuyo pake mayendedwe a makutidwe ndi okosijeni. Izi zikuwoneka ngati zovuta pang'ono, koma zikutanthauza kuti mamolekyulu azinthu nthawi imodzi amatayika ndikupeza ma elekitironi, omwe amasintha kapangidwe kake.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Kuchepetsa (kutengera kwa oxygen) komwe kumachitika mu chothandizira ndicholinga chosinthira oxide ya nitric kukhala mpweya wosavomerezeka.

Kodi chothandizira magalimoto chimagwira ntchito bwanji pakubwezeretsa?

Pamene nitrous oxide yochokera mu mpweya wa galimoto ikulowa mu chothandizira, platinamu ndi rhodium mmenemo zimayamba kuchita kuwonongeka kwa mamolekyulu a nitrojeni oxide, ndikusandutsa mpweya woipa kukhala wopanda vuto lililonse.

Chimachitika ndi chiani nthawi ya okosijeni?

Gawo lachiwiri lomwe limachitika mu chothandizira limatchedwa kusintha kwa makutidwe ndi okosijeni, momwe ma hydrocarboni osayaka amasandulika kukhala carbon dioxide ndi madzi posakanikirana ndi mpweya (okosijeni).

Zomwe zimachitika mu chothandizira zimasinthira kapangidwe kake ka mpweya wotulutsa utsi, ndikusintha kapangidwe ka atomu yomwe amapangidwira. Mamolekyu a mpweya woipa akadutsa kuchokera mu injini kupita ku chothandizira, amawasandutsa maatomu. Maatomu, amapindanso kukhala mamolekyulu kuti apange zinthu zopanda vuto ngati kaboni dayokisaidi, nayitrogeni ndi madzi, ndipo amatulutsidwa m'chilengedwe kudzera mumachitidwe otulutsa utsi.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Mitundu yayikulu yosinthira othandizira yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito mu injini zamafuta ndi iwiri: mbali ziwiri komanso njira zitatu.

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Mgwirizano

Chothandizira chokhala ndi mipanda iwiri (mbali ziwiri) nthawi imodzi chimagwira ntchito ziwiri: oxidize carbon monoxide ku carbon dioxide ndi oxidize ma hydrocarboni (osapsa kapena owotcha pang'ono) ku carbon dioxide ndi madzi.

Mtundu wamtunduwu wamagalimoto udagwiritsidwa ntchito mu injini za dizilo ndi mafuta kuti muchepetse kutulutsa koipa kwama hydrocarboni ndi kaboni monoxide mpaka 1981, koma popeza sichingasinthe oxide wa nitrogeni, pambuyo pa 81 idasinthidwa ndi othandizira atatu.

Mitundu itatu yosinthira othandizira

Mtundu wamtundu wamagalimoto, monga unachitikira, udayambitsidwa mu 1981, ndipo lero wayikika pa magalimoto onse amakono. Njira zitatuzi zimagwira ntchito zitatu nthawi imodzi:

  • amachepetsa nitric oxide ku nayitrogeni ndi mpweya;
  • amachepetsa mpweya wa carbon monoxide ndi carbon dioxide;
  • amachepetsa ma hydrocarboni osayaka ndi carbon dioxide ndi madzi.

Popeza mtundu wotembenuza woterewu umagwira magawo onse a catalysis - kuchepa ndi makutidwe ndi okosijeni, imagwira ntchito yake moyenera mpaka 98%. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ngati galimoto yanu ili ndi chosinthira chotere, sichiipitsa chilengedwe ndi mpweya wowononga.

Mitundu yothandizira mu injini za dizilo

Pamagalimoto a dizilo, mpaka posachedwa, imodzi mwazomwe amagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri potulutsa zida ndi Dizilo Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). Chothandizira ichi chimagwiritsa ntchito mpweya wampweya wotulutsa mpweya kuti usinthe carbon monoxide kukhala carbon dioxide ndi ma hydrocarboni kukhala madzi ndi carbon dioxide. Tsoka ilo, chothandizira chamtunduwu chimangokhala 90% chokha ndipo chimatha kuthetsa fungo la dizilo ndikuchepetsa ma particles owoneka, koma sichothandiza pakuchepetsa mpweya wa NO x.

Mitengo ya dizilo imatulutsa mpweya womwe umakhala ndi zinthu zazitali kwambiri (masoti), omwe amakhala ndi mpweya woyambira, womwe ma DOC catalysts sangathe kulimbana nawo, chifukwa chake ma particles amayenera kuchotsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito zotchedwa sefa) (DPF).

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Kodi zotetezera zimasungidwa bwanji?

Pofuna kupewa mavuto ndi chothandizira, ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti:

  • Moyo wapakatikati wokhala pafupifupi 160000 km. Mutayenda mtunda wotere, muyenera kuganizira zodzichotsera pa transducer.
  • Ngati galimoto yanu ili ndi chosinthira chothandizira, musagwiritse ntchito mafuta amtsogolo chifukwa izi zitha kuchepetsa mphamvu yothandizira. Mafuta oyenera okha pankhaniyi ndi opanda.

Mosakayikira, maubwino azida izi zachilengedwe ndi thanzi lathu ndi zazikulu, koma kuwonjezera pa zabwino zawo, alinso ndi zovuta zawo.

Chimodzi mwazovuta zawo zazikulu ndikuti amangogwira ntchito kutentha kwambiri. Mwanjira ina, mukayambitsa galimoto yanu, chosinthira chothandizira sichichita chilichonse kuti muchepetse utsi.

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Zimangoyamba kugwira ntchito bwino mpweya wotulutsa utsi utapsa mpaka 250-300 madigiri Celsius. Ichi ndichifukwa chake opanga magalimoto ena achitapo kanthu kuti athane ndi vutoli posunthira chothandizira pafupi ndi injini, yomwe mbali imodzi imathandizira magwiridwe antchito a chipangizocho koma imafupikitsa nthawi yake yamoyo chifukwa kuyandikira kwake kwa injini kumawonetsa kutentha kwambiri.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

M'zaka zaposachedwa, aganiza zoyika chosinthira chothandizira pansi pa mpando wa okwera patali chomwe chingalole kuti chizigwira bwino ntchito popanda kuwonetsedwa ndi kutentha kwa injini.

Zoyipa zina zothandizira ndizoyikika komanso kuphika keke pafupipafupi. Kutopa nthawi zambiri kumachitika chifukwa cha mafuta osayatsa omwe amalowa mu utsi, womwe umayatsa chakudya chothandizira. Kutseka nthawi zambiri kumachitika chifukwa cha mafuta osauka kapena osayenera, kuwonongeka kwanthawi zonse, mawonekedwe oyendetsa galimoto, ndi zina zambiri.

Izi ndizocheperako poyerekeza ndi phindu lalikulu lomwe timapeza chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito magalimoto. Chifukwa cha zida izi, mpweya woipa wamagalimoto ndi ochepa.

Kodi chosinthira chopangira magalimoto chimagwira bwanji?

Otsutsa ena amati mpweya woipa ndi woipa. Amakhulupirira kuti chothandizira sichofunikira m'galimoto, chifukwa mpweyawu umakulitsa kutentha. M'malo mwake, ngati galimoto ilibe chosinthira chotulutsa ndikutulutsa mpweya m'mlengalenga, oxide iyi imadzasandutsa carbon dioxide m'mlengalenga.

Ndani adayambitsa chothandizira?

Ngakhale othandizira samawoneka ochuluka mpaka kumapeto kwa ma 1970, mbiri yawo idayamba kalekale.

Abambo a chothandizira amawerengedwa kuti ndi injiniya waku France - katswiri wamagetsi a Eugene Goodry, yemwe mu 1954 adalemba patenti yake yotchedwa "Catalytic converter of exhaust gases".

Izi zisanachitike, a Goodry adapanga zokhoma zopangira, momwe mankhwala akulu akulu amagawika kukhala zinthu zopanda vuto. Kenako adayesa mitundu yosiyanasiyana yamafuta, cholinga chake chinali choti azitsuka.

Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwenikweni kwa zida zogwiritsira ntchito magalimoto kunachitika mkatikati mwa zaka za m'ma 1970, pamene malamulo okhwima owongolera mpweya adakhazikitsidwa omwe amafuna kuti kuchotsedwa kwa lead kuchokera ku utsi wamafuta otsika kwambiri.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Momwe mungayang'anire kukhalapo kwa chothandizira pagalimoto? Kuti muchite izi, ingoyang'anani pansi pagalimoto. Kuwonjezera pa chowombera chachikulu ndi chowombera chaching'ono (resonator yomwe imakhala kutsogolo kwa mpweya wotulutsa mpweya), chothandizira ndi babu ina.

Kodi chothandizira mgalimoto chili kuti? Popeza chothandizira chiyenera kugwira ntchito pa kutentha kwakukulu, chimakhala pafupi ndi mpweya wambiri momwe zingathere. Ili kutsogolo kwa resonator.

Kodi chothandizira m'galimoto ndi chiyani? Ichi ndi chosinthira chothandizira - babu yowonjezera pamakina otulutsa mpweya. Amadzazidwa ndi zinthu za ceramic, zisa zake zomwe zimakutidwa ndi chitsulo chamtengo wapatali.

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  1. Zikomo chifukwa chothandiza komanso chothandiza! Zitsulo zambiri zapamwamba zimapezeka muzinthu zothandizira. Ichi ndichifukwa chake pakhala kuba kambiri posachedwa. Ambiri sadziwa za izi. Ndipo ngati chothandizira sichingatsukidwe, chikuyenera kusinthidwa. Mutha kugulitsadi wakale ndikupeza ndalama kuchokera pamenepo. Apa ndapeza ogula osinthira wanga othandizira

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