Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Zamkatimu

Kusamalira magalimoto ndichimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri kuti chitetezo pamsewu chikudalira. Magalimoto ambiri amakono amakhala ndi zotumiza zomwe zimafalitsa makokedwe pagudumu limodzi (kutsogolo kapena kumbuyo pagudumu). Koma mphamvu yayikulu yamagetsi ena akukakamiza opanga makina kuti apange zosintha zamagudumu onse. Ngati mungasinthe makokedwe kuchokera pagalimoto yothamanga kwambiri kupita pa chitsulo chimodzi, kutsetsereka kwa magudumu oyendetsa kumachitika mosalephera.

Kuti kukhazikika pamsewu kuyende bwino ndikupangitsa kuti ikhale yotetezeka komanso yodalirika pamayendedwe amasewera, ndikofunikira kugawa makokedwe pamawilo onse. Izi zimawonjezera bata ndi kuyendetsa mayendedwe pamisewu yosakhazikika, monga ayezi, matope kapena mchenga.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Ngati mugawira bwino gudumu lirilonse, makinawo saopa ngakhale misewu yoyipa kwambiri ndi malo osakhazikika. Kuti akwaniritse masomphenya awa, opanga makina akhala akupanga makina amitundu yonse omwe apangidwa kuti azitha kuyendetsa bwino motere. Chitsanzo cha izi ndi kusiyanasiyana (mwatsatanetsatane kuti ndi chiyani, akufotokozedwa m'nkhani ina). Itha kukhala yapakatikati kapena yolumikizana.

Zina mwazochitika ndi 4Matic system, yomwe idapangidwa ndi akatswiri odziwika bwino achigalimoto achi Germany a Mercedes-Benz. Tiyeni tiwone chomwe chodabwitsa pakukula uku, momwe zidawonekera komanso mtundu wanji wazida.

Kodi 4Matic wheel wheel system ndi chiyani?

Monga momwe kwadziwika kale kumayambiriro, 4Matic ndi makina oyendetsa magudumu onse, kutanthauza kuti, makokedwe amagetsi amagawidwa kuma gudumu onse kuti, kutengera momwe misewu ilili, lirilonse limakhala lotsogola. Sikuti ma SUV athunthu amakhala ndi dongosolo lotere (kuti mumve zambiri za mtundu wa galimotoyo, ndi momwe zimasiyanirana ndi ma crossovers, werengani apa), komanso magalimoto, pansi pa nyumba yomwe ili ndi injini yamphamvu yoyaka mkati.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Dzina la dongosololi likuchokera 4WD (ie 4-wheel drive) ndi autoMATIC (ntchito zodziwikiratu za njira). Kugawidwa kwa ma torque kumayendetsedwa pakompyuta, koma mphamvu yodziyendetsa yokha ndiyamtundu wamakina, osati kuyerekezera kwamagetsi. Lero, pakuchitika konseku, dongosololi limawerengedwa kuti ndi limodzi lamatekinoloje apamwamba kwambiri okhala ndi makonda osiyanasiyana.

Ganizirani momwe dongosololi lidawonekera ndikukula, ndiyeno zomwe zikuphatikizidwa.

Mbiri ya chilengedwe chonse

Lingaliro lokhazikitsa magalimoto onse pamagudumu silachilendo. Galimoto yoyamba yoyendetsa ndi 60 Dutch Spyker 80 / 1903HP yamagalimoto. Panthawiyo, inali galimoto yolemera kwambiri yomwe imalandira zida zabwino. Kuphatikiza pofalitsa makokedwe amtundu uliwonse, pansi pa nyumbayo panali cholumikizira champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu champhamvu. Njira yama braking idachedwetsa kuzungulira kwa magudumu onse, ndipo panali kusiyanasiyana kokwanira katatu, komwe kumodzi kunali pakati.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Patatha chaka chimodzi chokha, mzere wathunthu wamagalimoto oyendetsa onse udapangidwa pazosowa zankhondo yaku Austria, zomwe zidaperekedwa ndi Austro-Daimler. Zitsanzo izi pambuyo pake zidagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati poyambira magalimoto okhala ndi zida. Chakumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana la makumi awiri, kuyendetsa kwamagudumu onse sikungadabwitsenso aliyense. Ndipo a Mercedes-Benz nawonso anali otanganidwa ndikukula ndi kukonza dongosolo lino.

M'badwo woyamba

Zofunikira kuti pakhale kusintha kosintha kwa njirazo zinali kuwonetsa zachilendo kuchokera pamtunduwu, zomwe zidachitika mu chiwonetsero cha magalimoto otchuka ku Frankfurt. Chochitikacho chinachitika mu 1985. Koma m'badwo woyamba wa magudumu onse kuchokera ku automaker waku Germany adayamba kupanga zaka ziwiri pambuyo pake.

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Chithunzichi pansipa chikuwonetsa chithunzi chomwe chidayikidwa pa mtundu wa 124 Mercedes-Benz W1984:

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Panali kutchinga kolimba kumbuyo ndi pakati (kuti mumve zambiri chifukwa chake muyenera kuletsa kusiyanako, werengani payokha). Chosiyanitsa pakati pamatayala chidayikidwanso pazitsulo zakutsogolo, koma sichinatsekedwe, chifukwa panthawiyi magwiridwe antchito agalimoto adasokonekera.

Makina oyambilira opangidwa ndi 4Matic adachita nawo kufalitsa kwa torque pokhapokha kukazungulira kwa chitsulo chachikulu. Kulepheretsa kuyendetsa kwamagudumu onse kunalinso ndi njira zodziwikira zokha - makina odana ndi loko atayambitsidwa, kuyendetsa kwamagudumu onse kunasokonezedwanso.

Pakukula uku, njira zitatu zogwirira ntchito zidapezeka:

  1. 100% yoyendetsa kumbuyo. Makokedwe onse amapita kumtengowo kumbuyo, ndipo mawilo akutsogolo amakhalabe osinthasintha;
  2. Kutumiza pang'ono kwa makokedwe. Mawilo akutsogolo amangoyendetsedwa pang'ono. Kugawidwa kwa magulu ankhondo kutsogolo ndi 35%, ndipo kumbuyo - 65%. Mwanjira imeneyi, mawilo akumbuyo akadali akulu, ndipo kutsogolo kumangothandiza kukhazika galimoto kapena kupita pagawo labwino lamsewu;
  3. Makokedwe a 50% adagawika. Momwemo, mawilo onse amalandila torque yomweyo. Komanso, njirayi idapangitsa kuti zitheke kulepheretsa kumbuyo kwazitsulo zakutsogolo.

Kusinthidwa kwa magalimoto onsewa kudagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga magalimoto mpaka 1997.

Mbadwo wachiwiri

Kusintha kwotsatira kwa kufalikira kwamagudumu onse kuchokera kwa wopanga waku Germany kudayamba kuwonekera muzitsanzo za E-class yomweyo - W210. Itha kukhazikitsidwa pamagalimoto okhawo omwe amayendetsedwa m'misewu yamagalimoto akumanja, kenako pokhapokha. Monga ntchito yayikulu, 4Matic idayikidwa mu W163 M-class SUVs. Poterepa, kuyendetsa kwama wheelchair anayi kunali kosatha.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Maloko osiyana adalandira ma algorithm ena. Zinali kutsanzira loko kwamagetsi, komwe kunayambitsidwa ndi mphamvu yokoka. Dongosololi lidachedwetsa kuzungulira kwa skid wheel, chifukwa chake makokedwewo adagawidwenso pang'ono kumayendedwe ena.

Kuyambira ndi m'badwo uno wa 4Matic, wopanga makinawo asiya maloko osakhazikika. M'badwowu udalipo pamsika mpaka 2002.

III m'badwo

M'badwo wachitatu wa 4Matic udawonekera mu 2002, ndipo udalipo motere:

  • C-kalasi W203;
  • S-kalasi W220;
  • Kalasi ya E-W211.
Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Dongosolo ili lidalandiranso mtundu wamagetsi wazowonjezera maloko. Njirazi, monga m'mibadwo yapitayi, sizinatsekedwe mwamphamvu. Kusinthaku kunakhudza ma algorithms oyeserera kupewa kupewa magudumu oyendetsa. Njirayi imayang'aniridwa ndi dongosolo loyendetsa samatha ndi dongosolo lamphamvu lokhazikika.

IV m'badwo

Mbadwo wachitatu unalipo pamsika kwa zaka zinayi, koma kupanga kwake sikunamalizidwe. Kungoti wogula amatha kusankha njira yomwe angapangire galimotoyo. Mu 2006, dongosolo la 4Matic lidalandiranso zina. Zitha kuwoneka kale pamndandanda wazida za S550. Kusiyana kwa pakati pa asymmetrical kwasinthidwa. M'malo mwake, zida zamagetsi zamapulaneti zinali kugwiritsidwa ntchito tsopano. Ntchito yake idapereka kugawa kwa 45/55% pakati pa ma axel kutsogolo / kumbuyo.

Chithunzicho chikuwonetsa chithunzi cha m'badwo wachinayi wa 4Matic wheel wheel, womwe unkagwiritsidwa ntchito mu Mercedes-Benz S-Class:

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic
1) Gearbox shaft; 2) masiyanidwe ndi zida mapulaneti; 3) Kumbuyo chitsulo chogwira matayala kumbuyo; 4) Zida zotuluka mbali; 5) Kutuluka kwamakhadi; 6) propeller shaft ya axle yakutsogolo; 7) Mipikisano mbale zowalamulira; 8) kufala kwachangu.

Chifukwa chakuti njira zoyendera zamakono zinayamba kulandira zowongolera zowonjezereka, kuwongolera magudumu oyendetsa kumakhala kothandiza kwambiri. Dongosolo lokha limayang'aniridwa chifukwa cha zikwangwani zochokera kuma sensa amachitidwe osiyanasiyana omwe amateteza chitetezo chogwira ntchito cha makina. Mphamvu ya mota idapitilizidwa mosalekeza kumayendedwe onse.

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Ubwino wam'badwo uno ndikuti umapereka mulingo woyenera pakati pa magwiridwe antchito oyendetsa galimoto ndi kutseguka kwabwino mukamalimbana ndi malo ovuta. Ngakhale zabwino za dongosololi, patatha zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri zakapangidwe, kupita patsogolo kwake kunatsatira.

V m'badwo

M'badwo wachisanu wa 4Matic udawonekera kuyambira mu 2013, ndipo ukhoza kupezeka m'mitundu iyi:

  • CLA45 AMG;
  • Gl 500.
Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Chodziwika bwino cha m'badwo uno ndikuti idapangidwira magalimoto okhala ndi magetsi oyenda (pakadali pano, kufalitsa kumayendetsa magudumu akutsogolo). Zamakono zakhudza kapangidwe kake, komanso mfundo zogawa makokedwe.

Poterepa, galimotoyo ndiyotsogola kutsogolo. Kugawa kwamphamvu kwamagudumu onse tsopano kumatha kuyambitsidwa mwa kuyika mawonekedwe ofanana pazowongolera.

Momwe dongosolo la 4Matic limagwirira ntchito

Kapangidwe ka dongosolo la 4Matic lili ndi:

  • Makinawa mabokosi;
  • Chotsatira, kapangidwe kamene kamapereka kukhalapo kwa bokosi lamapulaneti (kuyambira m'badwo wachinayi, limagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati njira ina yosiyanitsira pakati);
  • Kutumiza kwa Cardan (kuti mumve zambiri, komanso komwe amagwiritsidwanso ntchito mgalimoto, werengani kubwereza kwina);
  • Masiyanidwe oyenda kutsogolo (aulere, kapena osatchinga);
  • Masiyanidwe oyenda kumbuyo (nawonso ndiulere).

Pali zosintha ziwiri za 4Matic drive-wheel. Yoyamba imapangidwira magalimoto okwera, ndipo yachiwiri imayikidwa pa ma SUV ndi ma minibasi. Msika lero, nthawi zambiri pamakhala magalimoto okhala ndi m'badwo wachitatu wa dongosolo la 4Matic. Cholinga chake ndikuti mbadwo uno ndiwotsika mtengo kwambiri ndipo umakhala wosasunthika, wodalirika komanso wogwira bwino ntchito.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

China chomwe chinapangitsa kutchuka kwa mbadwo uno ndikukula kwa zochitika za wopanga magalimoto waku Germany a Mercedes. Kuyambira 2000, kampaniyo yaganiza zochepetsa mtengo wazogulitsa zake, ndipo, m'malo mwake, kuti ziwonjezere mtundu wa mitundu. Chifukwa cha ichi, chizindikirocho chidakopeka ndi anthu ambiri ndipo mawu oti "mtundu waku Germany" adakhazikika kwambiri m'maganizo a oyendetsa galimoto.

Makhalidwe a dongosolo la 4Matic

Machitidwe ofananira othamangitsa onse amagwira ntchito ndi zotumiza pamanja, koma 4Matic imayikidwa ngati kufalikira kumangodziyenda. Chifukwa chosagwirizana ndi zimango ndikuti kugawa kwa makokedwe kumachitika osati ndi driver, monga mitundu yonse yamagalimoto oyendetsa matayala azaka zapitazi, koma zamagetsi. Kupezeka kwa zodziwikiratu pakufalitsa galimoto ndichinthu chofunikira kwambiri chomwe chimatsimikizira ngati dongosololi lidzaikidwa mgalimoto kapena ayi.

Mbadwo uliwonse uli ndi mfundo zake zogwirira ntchito. Popeza mibadwo iwiri yoyambirira ndiyosowa pamsika, tiona momwe mibadwo itatu yomalizayi imagwirira ntchito.

III m'badwo

Mtundu uwu wa PP umayikidwa pamakwerero onse ndi ma SUV opepuka. M'magawo oterewa, kugawa kwamagetsi pakati pama axles kumachitika mu gawo la 40 mpaka 60 peresenti (yocheperako - mpaka chitsulo chakutsogolo). Ngati galimotoyo ndi yathunthu ya SUV, ndiye kuti torque imagawidwa wogawana - 50% paliponse pazitsulo.

Mukagwiritsidwa ntchito mgalimoto zamalonda kapena ma sedan a Bizinesi, mawilo akutsogolo azigwira ntchito pa 45 peresenti pomwe mawilo akumbuyo amakhala 55%. Kusintha kosiyana ndikusungidwira mitundu ya AMG - gawo lawo la axle ndi 33/67.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Dongosolo ili limakhala ndi shaft yoyendetsa, chosinthira (chosinthira makokedwe kumbuyo kwa magudumu am'mbuyo), masiyanidwe opingasa kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo, komanso migolo iwiri yoyenda kumbuyo. Njira yayikulu mmenemo ndi nkhani yosamutsira. Chida ichi chimakonza magwiridwe antchito (chimasinthira masiyanidwe apakati). Kutumiza kwa makokedwe kumachitika kudzera pamagetsi a dzuwa (magiya amitundu yosiyanasiyana amagwiritsidwa ntchito poyambira kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo).

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IV m'badwo

M'badwo wachinayi 4Matic imagwiritsa ntchito mawonekedwe amtundu wa cylindrical, womwe umatsekedwa kudzera pa clutch iwiri. Mphamvu imagawidwa peresenti ya 45/55 (zambiri kumbuyo). Galimoto ikathamanga pachipale chofewa, chomata chimatseka masiyanidwe kotero kuti mawilo onse anayi azitha kusewera.

Mukadutsa pakuthwa kwakuthwa, zowomberazo zitha kuwonedwa. Izi zimachitika pakakhala kusiyana kwa 45 Nm pakati pamiyeso yamagudumu. Izi zimapangitsa kuti matayala olemera kwambiri azivala mwachangu. Pogwiritsa ntchito 4Matic, 4ETS, ESP system imagwiritsidwa ntchito (kwa mtundu wanji wamachitidwe, werengani apakomanso ASR.

V m'badwo

Mbali yapadera ya m'badwo wachisanu wa 4Matic ndikuti magudumu anayi amayendetsedwa ngati kuli kofunikira. Galimoto yonseyo imatsalira pagalimoto yoyenda kutsogolo (yolumikizidwa PP). Chifukwa cha izi, kuyendetsa mumsewu kapena koyenda pamsewu kumakhala kopanda ndalama kuposa kukhala ndi magudumu okhazikika. Chitsulo chakumbuyo cham'mbuyo chimatsegulidwa zokha pamene zamagetsi zimazindikira kutumphuka kwa gudumu pachitsulo chachikulu.

Makina oyendetsa magudumu onse a 4Matic

Kuchotsedwa kwa PP kumapangidwanso m'njira zodziwikiratu. Chodziwika bwino cha kusinthaku ndikuti pamlingo winawake amatha kukonza momwe galimoto iliri powonjezera magwiridwe amayendedwe oyendetsa m'makona mpaka makina amachitidwe osinthira ndalama atayambika.

Chipangizocho chimaphatikizapo gawo lina lolamulira, lomwe limayikidwa mu robotic preselective (chonyowa chamtundu wambiri, chomwe chimafotokozedwanso payokha) bokosi lamagetsi. Momwe zinthu ziliri, dongosololi limayambitsa kufalitsa kwa 50%, koma pakagwa mwadzidzidzi, zamagetsi zimasinthira magetsi mosiyana:

  • Galimoto imathamanga - chiwerengerocho ndi 60 mpaka 40;
  • Galimoto imadutsa mosiyanasiyana - chiwerengerocho ndi 50 mpaka 50;
  • Mawilo amtsogolo adatayika - gawo la 10 mpaka 90;
  • Kuswa kwadzidzidzi - mawilo akutsogolo amalandila kuchuluka kwa Nm.

Pomaliza

Masiku ano, oyendetsa galimoto ambiri amvapo za dongosolo la 4Matic. Ena adatha kudziyesa okha momwe adapangira mibadwo ingapo yamagudumu onse kuchokera pagalimoto yotchuka yapadziko lonse lapansi. Makinawa alibe mpikisano waukulu pakati pazomwe zachitikazi, ngakhale sizingatsutsidwe kuti pali zosintha zoyenera zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mitundu ya opanga ena, monga Quattro ya Audi kapena xdrive ya BMW.

Kukula koyamba kwa 4Matic kumapangidwira mitundu yochepa chabe, kenako ngati mwayi. Koma chifukwa chodalirika komanso magwiridwe antchito, dongosololi lidadziwika ndikuyamba kutchuka. Izi zidapangitsa wopanga makina kuti aganizirenso momwe angapangire magalimoto oyendetsa magudumu anayi omwe amagawa zamagetsi zokha.

Kuphatikiza pa kuti 4Matic yoyendetsa magudumu onse zimapangitsa kukhala kosavuta kuthana ndi zigawo za mseu ndi malo ovuta komanso osakhazikika, zimaperekanso chitetezo m'malo owopsa. Ndi makina yogwira ndi zinchito, dalaivala angathe kulamulira galimoto. Koma simuyenera kudalira kotheratu njirayi, chifukwa siyingagonjetse malamulo achilengedwe. Chifukwa chake, simukuyenera kunyalanyaza zofunikira zoyambira kuyendetsa bwino: kukhala ndi mtunda ndi liwiro, makamaka pamisewu yokhotakhota.

Pomaliza - kuyesera pang'ono Mercedes w212 e350 ndi 4Matic system:

Galimoto yoyenda pagalimoto yaying'ono kwambiri ya Mercedes w212 e350 4 matic

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi 4 matic imagwira ntchito bwanji? Pakutumiza kotere, torque imagawidwa ku axle iliyonse yagalimoto, ndikupangitsa kuti ikhale yotsogolera. Kutengera m'badwo (pali 5 mwa iwo), kulumikizana kwa olamulira achiwiri kumachitika zokha kapena pamachitidwe amanja.

Kodi AMG imatanthauza chiyani? Chidule cha AMG chimayimira Aufrecht (dzina la woyambitsa kampaniyo), Melchner (dzina la mnzake) ndi Grossashpach (malo obadwira Aufrecht).

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