Adaway0 (1)

Zamkatimu

Car chassis

Zatsopanozi zidamangidwa pa chisiki cha mtundu wapitawo ndipo zidalandira zosintha zambiri zaukadaulo ndi zowoneka. Umu ndi momwe ndemanga zamagalimoto ambiri am'badwo wotsatira zimayambira. Kodi chassis ndi chiyani chomwe mitundu yotsatirayi imapangidwa? Tiyeni tithetse nkhaniyi mwatsatanetsatane.

Kodi chassis ndi chiyani

Magalimoto onse amakhala ndi zigawo zikuluzikulu zitatu:

  • Power Point;
  • thupi;
  • galimotoyo.

Chassis si gawo lapadera pagalimoto. Nthawi zina mawuwa amatanthauza kapangidwe kothandizira makina.

M'malo mwake, chassis ndi seti ya makina omwe amalumikizana ndi mawilo ndi mayendedwe a galimotoyo. Ichi ndi chida chomwe chimaphatikiza kuyendetsa galimoto, kufalitsa kwake, dongosolo loyeserera ndi chisisi. Machitidwe onsewa amalumikizidwa chimodzimodzi, ndipo ntchito yawo imagwirizanitsidwa kuti galimoto yonse izitha kuyenda. Chassis imaphatikizaponso chimango kuphatikiza powertrains - injini, kufalikira ndi kuyimitsidwa. Ili ndi thupi lomwe limapatsa galimoto mawonekedwe omaliza. 

Adaway2 (1)

Galimoto ya galimotoyo imatanthauzanso magulu ndi misonkhano ikuluikulu momwe kuyenda ndi kuyendetsa kwa galimoto kumadalira. Muzolemba zamatekinoloje agalimoto, ali ndi chodetsa, chomwe chikufanana ndi nambala ya thupi (ndi chiyani nambala ya chassis).

The zigawo zikuluzikulu za galimotoyo galimotoyo ndi suspensions awiri - kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo, komanso mawilo. Kuyimitsidwa ndikofunikira kuti muchepetse kapena kuti muchepetse kugwedezeka poyendetsa, chifukwa chake galimotoyo imagonjetsa mabampu onse mumsewu.

Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zomwe imagwirira ntchito

Ma unit onse oyenera kuyenda amayikika pamunsi pagalimoto m'njira yoti mphamvu yoyenda imafalikira kuchokera ku injini kupita kuma gudumu oyendetsa. Umu ndi momwe ntchito yamagulu onse imagwirizanitsidwira:

  • Subframe yayikidwa galimoto... Kuchokera pa iyo, makokedwewo amapatsira kutsogolo kapena kumbuyo kwa axle (pankhani ya magudumu onse kapena magudumu oyenda kumbuyo). Zotsatira zake, mawilo amayamba kutembenuka ndipo makinawo amapita patsogolo kapena kubwerera kumbuyo.
Injini (1)
  • Kuwongolera kumalumikizidwa ndi galimoto kuti isinthe kolowera. Mawilo oyendetsa anali kuyendetsa galimoto, ndipo mawilo oyendetsa analiyang'ana komwe ikuyenda. Pali zambiri pamfundozi zomwe zimayendetsa bwino mukamakwera.
Adaway1 (1)
  • Kusintha liwiro lagalimoto, bokosi lamagiya limayikidwa pakati pa magetsi ndi mawilo oyendetsa. Iye akhoza kukhala makina kapena zodziwikiratu. Msonkhanowu, makokedwe amakula pogwiritsa ntchito magiya, omwe amathandizira katundu wambiri pa injini.
Bokosi (1)
  • Zimanjenjemera poyendetsa galimoto m'misewu yosiyanasiyana. Kugwedeza ndi kugwedera kumapangitsa kuti zida zoyendetsera ndi chiwongolero zilephereke. Pofuna kulipirira katunduyu, ma levers ndi ma absorbers amakanika amakanika ndi subframe.
Popanda (1)

Monga mukuwonera, galimotoyo chimakupatsani mwayi wokhazikitsira dongosolo lonse, kusintha njira yake ndikuthandizira kugwedezeka komwe kumachitika mukamayendetsa. Chifukwa cha izi, mphamvu zopangidwa ndi injini yoyaka mkati zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito poyendetsa bwino anthu komanso katundu wambiri.

chipangizo

Choncho, pansi pa galimotoyo kumatanthauza kuphatikizika kwa gawo lothandizira ndi zigawo zina zofunika zomwe zimalola galimoto kuyenda palokha. Mitundu yonse ya zomangamanga ili m'magulu awiri.

Gulu loyamba limaphatikizapo magalimoto onse okhala ndi chimango. Pankhaniyi, trolley ya galimoto imakhala ndi chimango chomwe mayunitsi onse, njira ndi zomangamanga zimamangiriridwa. Magalimoto amenewa ndi olemera komanso olimba kwambiri. Kwenikweni, mapangidwe otere amapezeka m'magalimoto ndi ma SUV odzaza.

Nthambi (1)

Gulu lachiwiri limaphatikizapo mtundu wa galimotoyo, yomwe nthawi yomweyo imakhala gawo la thupi la galimoto. Thupi lonyamula katundu silili lolimba monga momwe zimakhalira ndi chimango chonse, koma ndi lopepuka kwambiri, lomwe ndilofunika kwambiri kwa magalimoto okwera. Pokhapokha pakusinthidwa kotere kwa chassis ndikotheka kupanga ma supercars opepuka kwambiri zotheka.

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Akatswiri opanga magalimoto osiyanasiyana amapanga mapangidwe awo a matupi onyamula katundu, omwe amasiyana mosiyana ndi mapangidwe, komanso amapangidwa kuchokera ku zipangizo zosiyanasiyana.

Nayi kanema wachidule wowonetsa kufunikira kogwiritsa ntchito zida zopepuka zamagalimoto amakono pogwiritsa ntchito zitsanzo za Mazda monga chitsanzo:

Mazda. Thupi ndi chisisi.

Zinthu zomanga

Popeza chirichonse chimakhazikika pa galimotoyo, gawo ili la galimoto liyenera kukhala lolimba monga momwe lingathere, ndipo zinthu zake ziyenera kupirira katundu wosiyana, mosasamala kanthu za ntchito.

Chassis yamakono yamagalimoto imakhala ndi magawo ndi mapangidwe awa:

  • Magudumu okhala ndi matayala;
  • Kutumiza;
  • Zolemba;
  • Chiwongolero ndi braking system.

Zinthu zonsezi zimakhazikika pa chimango komanso pagawo lothandizira la thupi.

Machitidwe

Pankhani ya galimoto yonyamula anthu, chassis ya galimotoyi ili ndi ntchito zotsatirazi:

  • Zimakulolani kuti mugwiritse ntchito mphamvu yokoka kuti muziyenda modziyimira pawokha. Pachifukwa ichi, galimotoyo ili ndi chassis;
  • Amapereka kayendedwe kosalala kothekera. Kuyimitsidwa ndi pang'ono matayala ndi amene amachititsa kuti kuyenda bwino. Chitonthozo kwa dalaivala ndi okwera zimadalira mtundu wa kuyimitsidwa ndi khalidwe la damper zinthu;
  • Amakulolani kuti muwongolere kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe kake. Ntchitoyi imaperekedwa kwa chiwongolero.
Nesushij_Kuzov (1)

Chassis iliyonse idapangidwa kuti ikhale yosiyana m'misewu kotero kuti galimotoyo imatha kupirira zolemetsa pothana ndi zopinga. Ngati katunduyo ndi wovuta, gawo lonyamula katundu la galimoto lidzawonongeka, zomwe zidzakhudza machitidwe osiyanasiyana ndi zinthu za thupi (mwachitsanzo, zitseko zidzasiya kutseka).

Pendant

Ichi ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu za chassis. Kukhazikika kwagalimoto mukamakwera pamakona kumadalira mtundu ndi mawonekedwe a gawo ili. Komanso, kuyimitsidwa kumapangidwa poganizira zofunikira za chitetezo malinga ndi zosowa za woyendetsa galimoto zamakono ponena za chitonthozo.

Chiyambireni kulengedwa kwa galimoto yoyamba, ndipo mpaka lero, kuyimitsidwa kwapangidwe kumasinthidwa mosalekeza, chifukwa chake pali mitundu yambiri ya mitundu yonse ya kuyimitsidwa mu dziko la galimoto. Kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa mapangidwe onsewa ndi njira yokhazikitsira makina othandizira (mawilo) pa chitsulo chimodzi.

Kuyimitsidwa kodalira

Uwu ndi mtundu woyamba wa kuyimitsidwa kwagalimoto. Pankhaniyi, mawilo a ekisi imodzi amalumikizana mwamphamvu wina ndi mnzake. Ubwino wa kuyimitsidwa koteroko umaphatikizapo kumamatira kwakukulu kwa mawilo pamsewu wamtunda. Izi ndizofunikira makamaka pamene galimoto ikulowa mozungulira pamtunda wosalala. Chifukwa cha kukhazikika kolimba, gudumu lililonse limakhala lolunjika.

Kodi chisiki ndi chiyani, chimagwirira ntchito bwanji ndipo chimagwirira ntchito yanji

Ngati tilankhula za kuipa kwa mtundu uwu wa kuyimitsidwa, ndiye poyendetsa pa tokhala, mawilo olumikizidwa mwamphamvu samaonetsetsa kuti galimotoyo ikuyenda bwino (gudumu limodzi limadutsa pamphuno ndikusintha kutengera kwa chitsulo chonsecho). M'magalimoto amakono, kuyimitsidwa kodalira kodalira kwathunthu kwasiyidwa. M'malo mwake, kuyimitsidwa kwamtundu wa MacPherson kumayikidwa.

Kapangidwe kodalira kumayikidwa kokha pa ekisi yakumbuyo, mosasamala kanthu kuti ndi gwero loyendetsa kapena loyendetsedwa. Ngati ndi chitsulo choyendetsa galimoto, ndiye kuti imayimiridwa ndi nsonga yakumbuyo, yomwe imapereka mgwirizano wolimba pakati pa mawilo onse awiri. Axle yoyendetsedwa imagwiritsa ntchito crossbeam kapena torsion bar.

Kuyimitsidwa pawokha

Pankhaniyi, mawilo wokwera pa ma axles si rigidly ogwirizana wina ndi mzake, choncho udindo wawo wachibale yopingasa sizimakhudza wina ndi mzake. Kuonetsetsa kuti kuyenda kwakukulu ndi msewu, chokhazikika chodutsa chimayikidwa pa kuyimitsidwa uku.

Kodi chisiki ndi chiyani, chimagwirira ntchito bwanji ndipo chimagwirira ntchito yanji

Kuyimitsidwa kwamtunduwu, ngakhale kuti kumakhala kovuta kwambiri, kumapereka chitonthozo chochulukirapo komanso kulemera kwake poyerekeza ndi kuyimitsidwa kodalira. Chifukwa cha izi, magalimoto amakono akukhala amphamvu komanso omasuka momwe angathere. Zoyipa zimaphatikizapo kufunikira kosintha nthawi zonse kuwongolera magudumu.

Kulemba

Monga tafotokozera kale, galimotoyo ndiyofunikira pazinthu izi:

  1. Onetsetsani kuyenda kwa galimotoyo posamutsa makokedwe kuchokera pagawo lamagetsi kupita pamagetsi ndikutumiza mawilo;
  2. Chepetsani katundu yemwe amabwera posunthira makina pazotumphuka. Chifukwa cha izi, injini kapena zinthu zina zofunika kunyamula sizimavutikira;
  3. Fotokozerani za mayendedwe owongoka, kuyendetsa, kuthamangitsa kapena kuchepetsa, komanso kuyimitsa kwathunthu ndikuimitsa magalimoto onse pagalimoto.
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Kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto omwe amayendetsedwa pansi, mitundu iyi ya chisiki ndiyodziwika:

  • Magalimoto - amadalira magalimoto, magalimoto, ma trailer ndi ma semi trailer;
  • Thalakitala - monga momwe dzinalo likusonyezera, chassis iyi imagwiritsidwa ntchito pa mathirakitala. Itha kutsatidwa kapena kuyendetsedwa;
  • Njinga yamoto - yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira njinga zamoto, ma scooter, ma tricycle, ma quads;
  • Zida zapadera. Mapangidwe amatha kukhala odziyendetsa okha komanso osadzipangira okha. Mitundu yodzipangira imatha kugwiritsa ntchito mayendedwe kapena mawilo;
  • Sitimayi - pamaziko a chisiki chotere, zoyendera zimapangidwa kuti ziziyenda njanji. Izi zikuphatikiza masitima apamtunda, sitima zamagetsi, njanji zamagalimoto, matramu, ndi zina zotero;
  • Galimoto yonse yamtunda - ngakhale galimotoyo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira magalimoto, kapangidwe kake kamakhala ndimalo oyenda pamtunda komanso pamadzi, chifukwa chomwe "amphibian" imatha kuyenda mofananira, pamtunda komanso pamadzi. Gawoli siliphatikiza hovercraft. Uwu kale ndi mtundu wamayendedwe amadzi.
Kodi chisiki ndi chiyani, chimagwirira ntchito bwanji ndipo chimagwirira ntchito yanji

Mitundu yonseyi ya chassis imagawidwanso m'magulu otsatirawa:

  • Zomangamanga. Zikuwoneka ngati ma waya achitsulo otseguka pomwe makina onse agalimoto adakhazikika. Magalimoto ndi ma SUV ambiri athunthu amapangidwa ndi chassis cha mtundu uwu. M'mbuyomu, magalimoto apaulendo amakhalanso atayikidwa pa trolley yotere, koma chifukwa cha kulemera kwakukulu, kapangidwe kake kankafunika kuyika mphamvu yamagetsi.
  • Katundu wonyamula katundu. Kwenikweni, galimotoyo yamtunduwu imagwiritsidwa ntchito pamagalimoto opepuka. Subframe itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'galimoto yotere, koma palinso magalimoto opanda izi.
  • Mapangidwe odziyimira pawokha. Kusinthaku kumaphatikizapo zida zapadera zokha. Ngoloyo imakhala ndi mayunitsi omwe amalola kuti ziziyenda zokha. Zimapatsa mpando wogwiritsa ntchito. Gulu la chassis nthawi zambiri limagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi magulu ankhondo kusuntha zida zankhondo, komanso makampani akuluakulu omanga.
  • Chimango njinga yamoto yomanga. Mtundu wamtunduwu umagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga magalimoto amoto. Palinso mtundu wa galimoto yamasewera, "Buggy", yomwe imapangidwanso chimango chopangidwa ndi mapaipi otsekemera (kuti athandizire pomanga).

Ngolo yamalonda

Njira zingapo zamagalimoto apangidwira magalimoto. Ngolo yotere nthawi zonse imakhazikitsidwa ndi chimango. Kutengera mtunduwo, galimotoyo itha kuyimilidwa ndi njanji kapena mawilo. Zosankha kuphatikiza sizodziwika kwenikweni: gawo loyendetsa ndi magudumu, ndipo gawo lotsogolera ndi mbozi.

Kutengera cholinga cha galimotoyo, chassis chake chitha kukhazikitsidwa thupi, thandala, thanki, chowongolera, chosakanizira konkriti, mchikuta ndi zina zotero. Galimoto yamagalimoto imagawidwa malinga ndi:

  • Kuchuluka kwa nkhwangwa kuli osachepera awiri komanso osachepera anayi;
  • Kunyamula maluso - ang'ono, apakatikati kapena olemera matani;
  • Chilinganizo magudumu - chiwerengero cha mawilo amene anaikidwa pa trolley lapansi. Amatha kukhala osakwatiwa kapena awiri.

Ngakhale kuti magalimoto ambiri amachokera pachimake, palinso mitundu yokhala ndi thupi lokongola. Koma galimoto yamtunduwu siyothandiza kwenikweni kunyamula katundu wabwino.

Mwachitsanzo, nachiwonetsero mwachidule cha magalimoto anayi a axle a Kenworth W900, omwe amachokera pa chimango chassis:

Wokongola Kenworth W900 wa $ 230

Zinthu zomwe zimakhudza kusintha kwa kapangidwe ka galimotoyo yamagalimoto

Chiyambireni kuyambitsa kwa magalimoto oyambira pagalimoto, a bogie apitilizabe kusintha kwamakono. M'magalimoto oyambilira, choyambirira chidawunikira kuyatsa kapangidwe kake, kuti mphamvu yamagetsi yocheperako itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito, koma nthawi yomweyo mphamvu ya mayendedwe sinatayike.

Mawilo oyamba anali opangidwa ndi matabwa. Kuti ziwunikire, mabowo amapangidwa. Popeza kukhazikitsidwa kwa analogue yachitsulo, idangoyambitsidwa mgalimoto. Pamene liwiro lomwe magalimoto amatha kufikira limakulirakulira, amafunikira kuyimitsidwa bwino. Pachifukwa ichi, mainjiniya adayamba kupanga makina okhazikika komanso odalirika. Ndipo kuweruza kuti matekinoloje atsopano amawonekera (mwachitsanzo, ma absorbers amagetsi omwe afotokozedwa apa), ntchito yokonza chassis siyimilira.

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Kutengera mtundu wa bogie, itha kugwiritsa ntchito zinthu zopepuka, mwachitsanzo, thupi lophatikizika, koma pazifukwa zachitetezo, onse opanga magalimoto sanathamangire kusiya kugwiritsa ntchito zida zazitsulo. Kugwiritsa ntchito zinthu zina, monga zopanga kapena zopangira nano, kukakhala koyenera pankhani zachuma (masiku ano magalimoto oterewa ndiokwera mtengo kwambiri kwa wogula wamba), zikuwoneka kuti opanga ma automaker pang'onopang'ono amasintha mizere yopanga kuti apange chassis yamtunduwu.

Zovuta za chisisi

Ngati phokoso losazolowereka likupezeka mukasunthira kuchoka pa giya kupita ku linzake, ichi ndi chisonyezero cha kukanika kwa chisiki. Limodzi mwa mavuto omwe amapezeka kwambiri ndi liti galimotoyo imatsogolera mbali, kumanja kapena kumanzere.

Izi zimachitika pazifukwa zingapo:

  • masamu a mawilo akutsogolo asweka,
  • kuthamanga kwa tayala,
  • zopunduka zopunduka,
  • kusiyana kwakukulu mu kuvala matayala,
  • kuphwanya kufanana pakati pa ma axles kumbuyo ndi kutsogolo axles.

Mavutowa atha kubweretsa kuwonongeka kwa zida zamagetsi kudzera akasupe osweka kapena kuwonongeka kwina kuyimitsidwa. Ngati mukukayikira kuti chassis ikuwonongeka, dalaivala akuyeneranso kuyang'ana kutuluka kuchokera pagalimoto. Zotchinga zimatha kumasulidwa, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimabweretsa kuwonongeka kwa ma disc ndi kusalinganizika kwa magudumu akutsogolo. Kukwapula pamene mukuyimitsa ndi chizindikiro cha kusokonekera kwa chosakanizira, chokhazikika kapena zinthu zina zothandizira. Ngati chimodzi mwazizindikiro pamwambapa chikuwoneka, muyenera kuchitapo kanthu mwachangu ndikulumikizana ndi othandizira zamagalimoto.

Kodi chisiki ndi chiyani, chimagwirira ntchito bwanji ndipo chimagwirira ntchito yanji

Komanso mutha kudziwa kuti ndi chiyani NAMBALA YA CHASSIS: I KUMALI KOMWE NDIPO IZIZITHANDIZA CHIYANI?

Ubwino ndi zovuta zamagalimoto oyenda pansi

Poganizira kuti mainjiniya padziko lonse lapansi akhala akugwira ntchito yosintha galimotoyo kwa zaka zopitilira zana, zoyendera zamakono zikuwonetsa kukhazikika, kudalirika, chitetezo ndi chitonthozo. Chifukwa cha izi, mayunitsi onse ndi makina oikidwa mgalimoto kapena njinga yamoto samavutika ndi kugwedezeka kapena kunjenjemera kwachilengedwe. Moyo wogwira ntchito wa mayunitsi awa wawonjezeka, womwe umathandizira pakuwunika kwathunthu kwa zinthu zamakono za opanga makina.

Komanso, chassis, yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito malo ngati fulcrum, osati mpweya kapena madzi, imalola kunyamula katundu wambiri pamtunda woyenera, ndikugwiritsa ntchito mafuta ochepa (poyerekeza ndi mpweya kapena mayendedwe amadzi, omwe amatha kunyamula katundu wofanana).

Ngakhale kuti magalimoto amakono adakhazikitsidwa ndi zotchingira zomwe zimakwaniritsa chitetezo, chisisi cha magalimoto apansi chili ndi zovuta zake. Zachidziwikire, zolakwika zambiri zamagalimoto akale zimakonzedwa ndikuyika zida zatsopano, zolimba. Koma vuto lalikulu pazosintha zonse za chassis ndikuti magalimoto otere amangoyenda pamtunda.

Kupatula magalimoto amphibious, koma ukadaulo uwu umagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka mgalimoto zapadera, kenako pokhapokha m'malo opapatiza (mwachitsanzo, galimoto zamtunda sizothandiza kugwiritsa ntchito m'malo akumatauni). Zoyendetsa wamba sizingadzitamandire za kusinthasintha, chitonthozo ndi magwiridwe antchito omwewo, pamtunda komanso pamadzi, osatinso makina omwe amatha kuwuluka. Ngakhale, malinga ndi makampani opanga mafilimu, anthu athetsa vutoli posachedwa (sitima yapamadzi ija idawonekeranso ngati chipatso chopeka cha olemba zopeka zasayansi).

Kodi chisiki ndi chiyani, chimagwirira ntchito bwanji ndipo chimagwirira ntchito yanji

Kanema pa mutuwo

Pomaliza, timapereka nkhani yachidule ya kanema pazambiri zamagalimoto:

Kapangidwe kake kachassis

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi galimotoyo ndi chiyani? Pansi pa galimotoyo yamagalimoto, timatanthauza kapangidwe kamene kamakhala ndi chimango (m'malo mwake, magalimoto ambiri onyamula anthu amagwiritsa ntchito gawo lonyamula thupi), mayunitsi opatsirana, zinthu za chassis, kuyimitsidwa, komanso njira zowongolera ( chiwongolero). Chassis chimango chitha kuonedwa kuti ndi chokwanira, chifukwa chimatha kuyenda momasuka panjira kapena mawilo.

Zomwe zimaphatikizidwa mu chisiki cha galimoto. Kupanga kwa chassis kumakhala ndi chimango kapena gawo lothandizira la thupi, chiwongolero (ndodo, chikombole), ma wheel axles, matabwa okhala ndi levers, mawilo okha, shafts shaft, shaft shaft, gearbox, zinthu zoyimitsidwa.

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