Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Zamkatimu

Makina oyaka amkati amkati amakhala ndi nkhawa yamagetsi pakugwira ntchito. Kotero kuti kutentha kwa chipangizocho sikuyambitsa kulephera kwake komwe kumayandikira, kumafunika kuzirala. Njira yozizira kwambiri imaphatikizapo pampu yomwe imapopera madzi ozizira pamzerewu.

Ganizirani za makinawo, mpope wamadzi ndi chiyani, ndi mfundo iti yomwe ingagwire ntchito, zovuta zake ndi momwe mungadzikonzere nokha.

Kodi pampu yamadzi ndi chiyani?

Pampu imayikidwa pafupi kwambiri ndi injini. Gawo limodzi la makinawo limayenera kukhala lokhalokha, chifukwa chosunthira chake, chikamazungulira, chimabweretsa madzi amadzimadzi. Pambuyo pake, tiona zosintha zosiyanasiyana pazida izi. Ngati mutenga pampu yamadzi yamagalimoto, imatha kupezeka pansi pa injini.

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Kuti igwire ntchito, kapangidwe ka makinawo kumatanthauza kupezeka kwa pulley, yolumikizidwa ndi gawo lamagetsi kudzera pagalimoto yoyendetsa lamba. M'mawu amenewa, mpope wama hayidiroliki ugwira ntchito pomwe magetsi akuyenda. Ngati pampu yalephera, izi zingakhudze momwe magalimoto amayendera (chifukwa cha kutentha kwambiri, zitha).

Kusankhidwa

Chifukwa chake, pampu m'galimoto ndi gawo limodzi la kuziziritsa kwa magetsi. Zambiri za momwe dongosololi limakonzera, komanso momwe ntchito yake ilili, yafotokozedwa kubwereza kwina... Koma mwachidule, pali mitundu iwiri ya iwo. Yoyamba imapereka kuziziritsa kwa chipangizocho mothandizidwa ndi kutuluka kwa mpweya, chifukwa chake chidzatchedwa mpweya.

Mtundu wachiwiri wamadzi ndi wamadzi. Lili ndi madzi apadera - zoletsa kuwuma kapena zoletsa kuwuma (za momwe chinthuchi chimasiyanirana ndi madzi, werengani apa). Koma kuti galimoto iziziziritsa panthawi yogwira ntchito, m'pofunika kuonetsetsa kuti madziwa akuyenda. Kupanda kutero, chipika cha injini chikhala chotentha, ndipo zinthu zomwe zimakhala mu rediyeta zizizizira.

Monga momwe dzina la makinawo limatanthauzira, cholinga chake ndikupopera madzi ogwirira ntchito (antifreeze kapena antifreeze) pamzere wolumikizidwa ndi mota. Kuyenda kwachangu kumathandizira kuthamanga kwa madzi ozizira kuchokera pa rediyeta kupita ku injini (kotero kuti kuziziritsa kumachitika bwino kwambiri, injiniyo ili ndi jekete lamadzi - njira zapadera zopangira nyumba yamphamvu). Ma antifreeze omwewo adakhazikika chifukwa cha chilengedwe (galimoto ikamayenda) kapena kutulutsa mpweya mokakamizidwa (ntchitoyi imagwiridwa ndi fani, yomwe amawerenga mwatsatanetsatane payokhaRedieta.

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Kuwonjezera pa kuziziritsa injini, chifukwa cha mpope, kutentha kwa kanyumba kumagwiranso ntchito. Dongosololi limagwiranso ntchito chimodzimodzi pakusinthitsa kutentha pakati pa zipsepse za radiator ndi mpweya wozungulira, pakadali pano kutentha sikuchotsedwa m'galimoto, koma kumagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira kutentha kwabwino mkatikati mwagalimoto. Mpweya ukamadutsa chotenthetsera, uziziziritsanso dera lina (ngati mpweya watengedwa kuchokera kunja kwa galimoto), nthawi zina eni magalimoto akale amalimbikitsa kutenthetsera mkatimo pomwe galimoto ili pamsewu wamagalimoto kuti injini siiwira. Kuti mumve zambiri za momwe kutentha kumagwirira ntchito mgalimoto, werengani apa.

Chipangizo cha centrifugal pump

Pampu yamadzi yamagalimoto yamagetsi imakhala ndi chida chosavuta. Kusinthaku kudzakhala ndi magawo ochepa, chifukwa makinawo amakhala ndi moyo wautali. Kapangidwe kake kumaphatikizapo:

  • Thupi (lomwe limapangidwa limayenera kupirira katundu wambiri komanso kugwedezeka kosalekeza - makamaka chitsulo kapena aluminiyamu);
  • Shaft pomwe ma actuator onse amaikidwa;
  • Chonyamulira chomwe chimalepheretsa kutsinde kuti chisasunthike pathupi la chipangizocho ndikuwonetsetsa kuzungulira kwa yunifolomu;
  • Impeller (yopangidwa ndi pulasitiki kapena chitsulo), kupopera njira zogwirira ntchito m'madongosolo;
  • Chisindikizo cha mafuta chomwe chimapereka chisindikizo pamalo opangira mayendedwe ndi shaft;
  • Kusindikiza mapaipi (mphira wosagwira kutentha);
  • Kusunga mphete;
  • Kasupe wamagetsi (omwe amapezeka mumitundu yomwe imayikidwa pama motors akale).

Chithunzichi pansipa chikuwonetsa gawo limodzi mwazomwe zasinthidwa kwambiri pamapampu amadzi yamagalimoto:

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Pamtengo wokwera pamtengo (m'mitundu yambiri umakhala ndi toothed). Izi zimakupatsani mwayi wolumikizira pampu pagalimoto yamagalimoto, yomwe imagwiranso ntchito potembenuza crankshaft. Njira zonsezi zimagwirizanitsidwa ndikupanga makina amodzi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito drive imodzi. Makokedwewo amafalitsidwa ndi lamba wa nthawi (werengani mwatsatanetsatane za izi apa), kapena unyolo wolingana, womwe wafotokozedwa m'nkhani ina.

Chifukwa chakuti pampu imakhala yolumikizana nthawi zonse ndi crankshaft, imapereka mphamvu pamzere chifukwa cha liwiro la crankshaft. Ndikukula kwa liwiro la injini, pampu imayamba kugwira ntchito molimbika.

Poletsa kuti ma hydraulic pump asamavutike ndi ma injini oyaka mkati, gasket imayikidwa pakati pa injini ndi nyumba yopopera pamalo oyikiramo, omwe amachepetsa kugwedezeka. Pamalo pomwe pali masamba, thupi limakulitsidwa pang'ono, ndipo mumakhala nthambi zitatu. Yoyamba imalumikizidwa ndi chitoliro cha nthambi kuchokera pa rediyeta, mpaka chachiwiri - chitoliro cha nthambi ya jekete yozizira, ndipo chachitatu - chotenthetsera.

Momwe pampu imagwirira ntchito

Ntchito yampope wamadzi ili motere. Woyendetsa akayamba injini, makokedwe amasamutsidwa kuchoka pa crankshaft pulley kudzera lamba kapena tcheni kupita pampampu. Chifukwa cha ichi, shaft imazungulira, pomwe impeller imayikidwa mbali ina moyang'anizana ndi pulley.

Pampu ili ndi mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito centrifugal. Makina oyendetsera makinawa amatha kupangitsa kuti pakhale mpweya umodzi, womwe umatsimikizira kuti madzi amapopera m'mabwalo onse, kutengera kuti ndi chiyani chomwe chimatsegulidwa ndi valavu ya thermostat. Kuti mumve zambiri za chifukwa chake thermostat imafunikira m'malo ozizira, werengani payokha... Komanso, kukakamiza kozizira kumafunika kuti kuonjezeretsere kutentha komwe kumawira (chizindikirochi chimafanana molingana ndi kukakamiza pamzere - ndipamwamba, kutentha kwa injini yoyaka mkati kuwira).

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Mpope uliwonse umapendekeka. Zotsatira zake, impeller imapereka mayendedwe mwachangu a malo ogwirira ntchito mnyumbamo. Kuchokera mkati, kachulukidwe ka mpope kamakhala ndi chida chotere, chifukwa cha mphamvu ya centrifugal, antifreeze imayendetsedwa kumalo ogulitsira ma circuits ofanana. Chifukwa chosiyana pakukakamira pakupezeka ndi kubwerera, antifreeze imayamba kusunthira mkati mwa mzere.

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Kuchita kwa mpope kumatsimikizira kuyenda kwa ozizira pamzere molingana ndi ziwembu izi:

  • Kuchokera kumtunda, chifukwa cha kusinthasintha kwamphamvu (mphamvu ya centrifugal) ya masamba, ma antifreeze amaponyedwa kunja kukhoma la nyumbayo, yomwe imadutsa molondola. Umu ndi momwe jakisoni woyendera amayambira.
  • Kuchokera pamalo awa, madziwo amalowa mu jekete la injini yoyaka yamkati. Zapangidwa m'njira yoti wozizira bwino ayambe kudutsa malo otentha kwambiri a chipindacho (mavavu, zonenepa).
  • Kenako antifreeze imadutsa mu thermostat. Ngati galimotoyo ili mgawo lotentha, bwalolo limatsekedwa ndipo madzi ogwirira ntchito amalowa m'malo olowera pampu (omwe amatchedwa bwalo laling'ono loyenda). Mu injini yotentha, imodzi ndiyotseguka, motero antifreeze amapita ku radiator. Mwa kuwombera chowotcha chowotcha, kutentha kozizira kumachepa.
  • Pakulowetsa pampu, kukakamizidwa kwa sing'anga kumagwira ntchito kumakhala kotsika poyerekeza ndi kotulukirako, ndichifukwa chake chopuma chimapangidwa mgawo ili la mzere, ndipo madzimadzi amayamwa kuchokera pagawo lochulukirapo la OS. Chifukwa cha izi, antifreeze amadutsa m'machubu za radiator ndikulowa polowera.

Makina okhala ndi mpope wowonjezera

Magalimoto ena amakono amagwiritsa ntchito makina ozizira omwe amakhala ndi chowonjezera chamadzi chowonjezera. Pochita izi, mpope umodzi udakali waukulu. Chachiwiri, kutengera kapangidwe kake ndi injini, imatha kuchita izi:

  • Perekani kuzirala kowonjezera ku gawo lamagetsi. Izi ndizofunikira kwambiri ngati makinawo amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo otentha.
  • Wonjezerani mphamvu ya centrifugal yoyendetsera heater wothandizira (imatha kulumikizidwa ndi kuzirala kwa galimotoyo).
  • Ngati galimoto ili ndi pulogalamu yotulutsa utsi wamafuta (ndi chiyani, imafotokozedwa payokha), ndiye kuti mpope wowonjezera udapangidwa kuti uziziritsa mpweya wabwino.
  • Ngati injini ya turbocharged imayikidwa pansi pa galimotoyo, ndiye kuti chowonjezera chothandizira chimapereka kuziziritsa kwa kompresa, popeza kumatenthedwa ndi mphamvu ya mpweya wotulutsa mpweya woyendetsa chipangizocho.
  • M'makina ena, atayimitsa injini, yozizira imapitilizabe kupyola pamzere chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito chowonjezerapo china, kuti injini ikapitilira kutentha kwambiri. Izi zimachitika chifukwa mpope waukulu wama hydraulic umasiya kugwira ntchito pambuyo poti magetsi atayimitsidwa.
Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Kwenikweni, owombera amadzimadzi othandizirawa amayendetsedwa ndi magetsi. Pampu yamagetsi iyi imayang'aniridwa ndi ECU.

Pampu yotseka

Mtundu wina wa makina ozizira amakhala ndi pampu yosinthika. Ntchito yaikulu ya kusinthidwa kumeneku ndikufulumizitsa njira yothetsera magetsi. Pampu yotere imagwira ntchito molingana ndi analogue yakale. Kusiyana kokha ndikuti kapangidwe kake kali ndi valavu yapadera yomwe imatchinga kutulutsa kwa mpweya kuchokera pampu kupita ku jekete lozizira la mota.

Oyendetsa magalimoto ambiri amadziwa kuti injini zamoto zonse zotentha zamadzi zimazizira mpaka kuzizira patadutsa nthawi yayitali. Kuti unit igwire bwino ntchito, ikayamba iyenera kufikira kutentha kwa ntchito (za kufunika kwake, werengani apa). Koma, monga tawonera kale, makina ozizira amayamba kugwira ntchito ICE ikangoyamba. Kuti mayiyu atenthe msanga, mainjiniya amakhala ndi ma circuits awiri ozizira (ang'ono ndi akulu). Koma zochitika zamakono zimathandiza kuti apititse patsogolo njira yotenthetsera injini.

Kuti kuyaka kwa mafuta osakanikirana ndi mpweya kuchitike bwino kwambiri, kuyenera kutenthedwa pamlingo winawake. Poterepa, mafuta amapita (injini ya dizilo imagwira ntchito mosiyana, koma imafunikiranso kutentha kotero kuti mpweya wothinikizika ugwirizane ndi kutentha kwa dizilo), chifukwa chimayaka bwino.

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

M'makina ogwiritsira ntchito omwe ali ndi mpope wosinthasintha, chowonjezeracho chimapitilizabe kugwira ntchito, kungotenthetsera mota, malo ogulitsirawo amatsekedwa ndi damper. Chifukwa cha izi, zoletsa kuwuma sizimayenda mu jekete lozizira, ndipo chipikacho chimatentha kwambiri. Makina oterewa nawonso amalamulidwa ndi ECU. Microprocessor ikazindikira kutentha kozizira m'dera lomwe lili ndi madigiri a 30, zamagetsi zimatsegula damper pogwiritsa ntchito zingwe zopumira ndi ma levers ofanana, ndipo kufalikira kumayambira m'dongosolo. Machitidwe ena onse amagwira ntchito mofananira ndi akalewo. Chipangizo chotere chotere chimapereka kuchepa kwa katundu pamakina oyaka mkati mukamatha kutentha. Machitidwe oterewa adziwonetsera okha m'madera okhala ndi kutentha kochepa, ngakhale chilimwe.

Mitundu ndi kapangidwe ka mapampu amadzi

Ngakhale mapampu amgalimoto amadzi alibe kusiyana kwakukulu pakapangidwe, amagawika m'magulu awiri:

  • Mawotchi mpope. Uku ndikusintha kwakale komwe kumagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mitundu yambiri yamagalimoto. Kapangidwe ka mpope wotere wafotokozedwa pamwambapa. Zimagwira potumiza makokedwe kudzera pa lamba wolumikizidwa ndi crankshaft pulley. Pampu yamakina imagwira ntchito mofananira ndi injini yoyaka yamkati.
  • Pampu yamagetsi. Kusinthaku amatipatsanso zonse coolant makope, okha pagalimoto ndi osiyana. Galimoto yamagetsi imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuzungulira mozungulira shaft. Imayang'aniridwa ndi microprocessor ya ECU molingana ndi ma algorithms omwe amawunikira pa fakitaleyo. Pampu yamagetsi ili ndi maubwino ake. Zina mwa izo ndizomwe zimatha kuzimitsa kufalikira kwa kutentha kwapakati kwa injini yoyaka yamkati.
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Komanso, mapampu amagawidwa malinga ndi izi:

  • Main pump. Cholinga cha makinawa ndichimodzi - kupopera kozizira pazida.
  • Zowonjezerapo zina zambiri. Njira zoterezi zimayikidwa pamagalimoto ena okha. Kutengera mtundu wamakina oyaka mkati komanso makina ozizira, zida izi zimagwiritsidwira ntchito kuziziritsa kowonjezera kwa injini, chopangira mphamvu, kutulutsa mpweya ndikuwononga ma antifreeze atayimitsa injini. Gawo lachiwiri limasiyana ndi pampu yayikulu pagalimoto yake - shaft yake imayendetsedwa ndi magetsi.
Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Njira ina yosankhira mapampu amadzi ndi mtundu wamapangidwe:

  • Zosasweka. M'mawu awa, mpope umawerengedwa kuti ndi wogula womwe uyenera kusinthidwa pakukonza mwachizolowezi (ngakhale sikusinthidwa nthawi zambiri ngati mafuta) agalimoto. Zosinthazi zimakhala ndi kapangidwe kosavuta, kupangitsa kuti makinawo akhale otsika mtengo poyerekeza ndi ena okwera mtengo omwe amatha kukonzedwa. Njirayi iyenera kutsatiridwa nthawi zonse ndikukhazikitsa lamba watsopano wa nthawi, womwe magalimoto ena amadzaza ndikuwonongeka kwamagetsi.
  • Pampu yokhomedwa. Zosinthazi zidagwiritsidwa ntchito pamakina akale. Kusintha uku kumakupatsani mwayi wokonza makinawo, komanso kukonza (kutsuka, mafuta kapena kusintha ziwalo zinalephera).

Zovuta kuziziritsa pampu zoziziritsa kukhosi

Ngati pampu yalephera, kuzirala kwa injini kumasiya kugwira ntchito. Kulephera koteroko kumabweretsa kutentha kwa injini yoyaka yamkati, koma izi ndi zotsatira zabwino. Choyipa chachikulu ndichakuti kuwonongeka kwa chowombankhira kumabweretsa nthawi yolamba. Nayi zowonongedwa zofala kwambiri zama hydraulic pump:

  1. Gland yataya katundu wake. Ntchito yake ndikuletsa kulowa kwa antifreeze mu mpikisano wothamanga. Zikatero, mafuta odzola amatulutsidwa ndi ozizira. Ngakhale mankhwala ozizilitsa amakhala ndi mafuta ambiri komanso ofewa kuposa madzi wamba, chinthuchi chimakhudzabe magwiridwe antchito. Gawoli likataya mafuta ake, popita nthawi limadzetsa mphero.
  2. Magudumu asweka. Poterepa, kutengera kukula kwa masambawo, dongosololi lidzagwira ntchito kwakanthawi, koma tsamba logwa lingalepheretse malo ogwirira ntchito, chifukwa kuwonongeka kumeneku sikunganyalanyazidwe mwina.
  3. Shaft play yawonekera. Popeza makinawo amasinthasintha pafupipafupi, malo obwerera m'mbuyo pang'onopang'ono amatha. Pambuyo pake, dongosololi liyamba kugwira ntchito mosakhazikika, kapena kuwonongeka palimodzi.
  4. Dzimbiri pamapope amkati. Izi zimachitika pamene woyendetsa galimoto amathira ozizira osayenera m'dongosolo. Kutulutsa kumachitika mu OS, chinthu choyamba chomwe oyendetsa magalimoto ambiri amachita ndikudzaza madzi wamba (osungunulidwa bwino). Popeza kuti madzi amadzimadzi alibe mafuta, magawo azitsulo amumpope amatha nthawi. Vutoli limabweretsanso kopanda makina oyendetsa.
  5. Kukonda. Izi ndizomwe zimachitika ma thovu ampweya ataphulika ndi mphamvu kotero kuti zimabweretsa kuwonongeka kwa zinthu za chipangizocho. Chifukwa chaichi, zida zosafooka komanso zomwe zakhudzidwa kwambiri zimawonongeka panthawi yogwiritsira ntchito chipangizocho.
  6. Zinthu zakunja zawonekera m'dongosolo. Kuwonekera kwa dothi kumachitika chifukwa chosamalira mosakhalitsa dongosolo. Komanso, ngati woyendetsa galimoto anyalanyaza malingaliro ogwiritsira ntchito antifreeze, osati madzi. Kuphatikiza pa dzimbiri chifukwa cha kutentha kwambiri pamzere, sikelo idzawonekera. Chabwino, zimangolepheretsa kuyendetsa kwaulere kozizira, ndipo poyipitsitsa, madipozowa amatha kuwononga ndikuwononga magwiridwe antchito, mwachitsanzo, kuteteza valavu ya thermostat kuti isasunthe.
  7. Kunyamula kulephera. Izi ndichifukwa cha kuvala kwachilengedwe kapena chifukwa cha kutayikira kwa zoletsa kuwuma kuchokera ku makina kudzera pachisindikizo cha mafuta. Kulephera koteroko kumatha kuthetsedwa pokhapokha pakulowetsa pampu.
  8. Nthawi yamba idasweka. Kulephera kumeneku kumangotchulidwa ndi mpope pokhapokha ngati makinawo akuyendetsa. Mulimonsemo, kusowa kwa makokedwe pagalimoto sikuloleza kuti magalimoto azigwira ntchito (nthawi yamagetsi ndi poyatsira sizigwira ntchito molingana ndi zikwapu zamphamvu).
Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Kuti motowo utenthe, ndikwanira kuyimitsa pampu kwa mphindi zochepa chabe. Kutentha kovuta kuphatikiza ndi katundu wambiri wamakina kumatha kubweretsa kusinthasintha kwa mutu wamphamvu, komanso kuwonongeka kwa mbali zina za KShM. Pofuna kuti musagwiritse ntchito ndalama zoyenera kukonza pamakina, ndizotsika mtengo kwambiri kukonza njira yozizira ndikusinthira pampu.

Zizindikiro

Chizindikiro choyamba cha zovuta za CO ndikukula mwachangu komanso kovuta pamatenthedwe amgalimoto. Poterepa, zoletsa kuwuma mu thanki lokulitsa zitha kukhala zoziziritsa. Choyamba, muyenera kuyang'ana pa thermostat - itha kungokhala potseka chifukwa cholephera. Kotero kuti dalaivala amatha kudziyimira pawokha povutirapo mu dongosolo lozizira, makina oyatsa amkati oyaka moto amaikidwa pa dashboard.

Chizindikiro chotsatira chosonyeza kufunikira kokonzanso ndikutulutsa kwa zoletsa kuwuma m'mpope. Poterepa, mulingo wozizira wa thanki lokulitsa udzagwa (kuchuluka kwa izi kumadalira kuchuluka kwa kuwonongeka). Mutha kuwonjezera antifreeze m'dongosolo injini ikaziziritsa pang'ono (chifukwa cha kutentha kwakukulu, chipikacho chimatha). Ngakhale mutha kupitiliza kuyendetsa ndikuchepetsa pang'ono kwa antifreeze, ndibwino kuti mupite kumalo operekera chithandizo mwachangu kuti mupewe kuwonongeka kwakukulu. Pankhaniyi, m'pofunika kuchepetsa katundu pa injini kuyaka mkati.

Nazi zina mwazizindikiro zomwe mungazindikire kuwonongeka kwa mpope wama hydraulic:

  • Poyambitsa injini yosafutumuka, phokoso limamveka pansi pa nyumbayo, koma musanasinthe pampu, m'pofunika kuti muwone momwe jenereta alili (imagwiranso ntchito kuchokera ku lamba wa nthawi, ndipo pakuwonongeka kwina kumatulutsa mawu ofanana). Momwe mungayang'anire jenereta, pali ndemanga ina.
  • Kutulutsa kwa ma antifreeze kunayambira mbali yoyendetsa pampu. Itha kuyambitsidwa ndikusewera kwa shaft, kuvala chisindikizo, kapena kutayikira kwa bokosi lokulunga.
  • Kuyang'ana kowoneka bwino kwa makinawo kunawonetsa kupezeka kwa shaft play, koma kulibe kozizira kozizira. Pakakhala zovuta izi, mpope umasinthira wina, koma ngati mtunduwo utasokonezedwa, ndiye kuti chonyamulira ndi chidindo cha mafuta ziyenera kusinthidwa.
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Zomwe zimayambitsa vuto la mpope wamadzi

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Zoyipa za mpope wama makina ozizira amayamba chifukwa cha zinthu zitatu:

  • Choyamba, monga makina onse agalimoto, chida ichi chimatha. Pachifukwa ichi, opanga magalimoto amakhazikitsa malamulo oti asinthe mitundu yazida zosiyanasiyana. Zonyamula kapena impeller akhoza kuswa.
  • Kachiwiri, ziziyenda yekha akhoza imathandizira kuwonongeka kwa limagwirira. Mwachitsanzo, imaphwanya mwachangu ngati sichiwatsanulira mu antifreeze, koma madzi, ngakhale atasungunulidwa. Malo ovuta atha kubweretsa kukula. Madipoziti amatha kuzimiririka ndikuletsa kutuluka kwa madzi. Kuphatikiza apo, kuyika kosayenera kwa makinawo kumatha kuyipangitsa kukhala yosagwiritsidwa ntchito, mwachitsanzo, kukakamira kwambiri pa lamba kumatha kubweretsa kulephera.
  • Chachitatu, kutayikira kwa zoletsa kuwuma kudzera pachisindikizo cha mafuta kumadzetsa vuto lina.

Kukonza pampu ya DIY

Ngati pampu yokhomedwa itayikidwa pamayendedwe, ikawonongeka, ikhoza kukonzedwa. Ngakhale ntchitoyo imatha kuchitika pawokha, ndibwino kuyiyika kwa akatswiri. Chifukwa cha izi ndizowonekera pakati pa thupi la chipangizocho ndi shaft. Katswiriyu atha kudziwa ngati chipangizocho chikhoza kukonzedwa kapena ayi.

Nayi njira yomwe mpope wotere ukukonzedwa:

  1. Lamba woyendetsa amamasulidwa (ndikofunikira kupanga zilembo pamapulley oyimilira nthawi ndi crankshaft kuti nthawi ya valavu isasunthire);
  2. Zomangira zolimba sizimasulidwa;
  3. Pampu yonseyo imachotsedwa mu injini;
  4. Disassembly ikuchitika ndikutsitsa mphetezo;
  5. Shaft yoyendetsa imakanikizidwa;
  6. Mukachotsa shaft, nthawi zambiri zimakhalabe mnyumbamo, motero zimakanikizidwanso;
  7. Pakadali pano, zinthu zotha ntchito zimatayidwa ndipo zatsopano zimayikidwa m'malo mwake;
  8. Makinawa amasonkhanitsidwa ndikuyika makina oyaka mkati.

Zovuta za njirayi zimadalira mtundu wamagalimoto ndi kapangidwe ka mpope womwe. Pachifukwa ichi, kukonza kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi katswiri yemwe amamvetsetsa zanzeru ngati izi.

m'malo

Mayunitsi amakono ambiri amakhala ndi pampu yosagawanika. Ikasweka, makinawo amasintha kukhala yatsopano. Kwa magalimoto ambiri, njirayi ndi yofanana. Chokhachokha sichiyenera kutayidwa, chifukwa ndi gawo limodzi lama hydraulic pump.

Zonse za mpope wamadzi (mpope) wamakina ozizira

Njira zosinthira zimachitika motere:

  1. Lamba woyendetsa amachotsedwa, koma zisanachitike zilembedwe nthawi ndi crankshaft;
  2. Zomangira zolimbitsa sizimasulidwa ndipo pampu imadulidwa;
  3. Ikani mpope watsopano wama hydraulic motsatizana.

Mosasamala kanthu kuti pampu ikukonzedwa kapena m'malo mwake, musanayambe ntchito, ndikofunikira kukhetsa zoletsa kuwuma m'dongosolo. Nachi chinsinsi china. Mapampu ambiri atsopano amagulitsidwa popanda chingamu, chifukwa chake muyenera kugula mosiyana. Ndiyeneranso kudziwa kuti kufikira pampu sikufulu kwa mitundu yonse yamagalimoto, ndipo kumafuna kudziwa bwino momwe chipinda chama injini chimakonzekereratu.

Ngati pampu singasinthidwe munthawi yake, ndiye kuti, antifreeze imachoka pang'onopang'ono pamadongosolo (imadutsamo chidindo cha mafuta). Kulephera koteroko sikutanthauza kuwononga ndalama zambiri, chifukwa kutayikira pang'ono kwa oyendetsa magalimoto ambiri "kumachotsedwa" powonjezera antifreeze.

Ngati kutayikira kwa zoletsa kuwuma ndikowopsa, koma dalaivala sanazindikire munthawi yake, ndiye kuti injiniyo idzatenthedwa kwambiri (kufalikira koyipa kapena kupezeka kwake chifukwa chotsika pang'ono). Kuyendetsa ndi vuto lotere posachedwa kumabweretsa kuwonongeka kwa magetsi. Mlingo wawo umadalira momwe magawo amagetsi alili. Choyipa chachikulu ndikusintha geometry yamutu wamphamvu.

Chifukwa chakutentha kwambiri kwamagalimoto, ma microcracks adzawonekera pamalowo, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti injini yoyaka mkati isinthe. Kusintha kwa mutu kumatha kubweretsa kuti mayendedwe amachitidwe ozizira ndi mafuta azitha kusintha, ndipo zoletsa kuwuma zizilowa mgalimoto, yomwe imakumananso ndi chipangizocho.

Kupewa zovuta

Chifukwa chake, chifukwa cha zovuta zakulephera kwa pampu yamagalimoto yamagalimoto, aliyense wamagalimoto akuyenera kugwira ntchito yanthawi yodzitchinjiriza. Mndandanda uwu ndi wawung'ono. Chofunikira kwambiri ndikutsatira malingaliro a automaker pakusintha komwe akukonzekera:

  • Kuletsa kutentha. Komanso, mtundu wa chinthuchi umafunika kusamalidwa kwambiri;
  • Mpope wamadzi;
  • Lamba wanyengo (wathunthu wokhala ndi odzigudubuza osagwira, omwe kuchuluka kwake kumadalira mtundu wamagalimoto).

Chofunikira ndikulingalira koyenera kwa mosungira. Izi ndizosavuta kuwongolera chifukwa chazolemba zomwe zili pa thankiyo. Ngati ndi kotheka, ndibwino kupatula kulowererapo kwa zinthu zakunja mu mzere wa OS (mwachitsanzo, kutulutsa kutulutsa mu rediyeta, oyendetsa galimoto ena amatsanulira zinthu zapadera mu thanki zomwe zimapanga gawo lolimba mkati mwa dera). Makina ozizira a injini yoyera samangopewetsa kuwonongeka kwa pampu, komanso amapereka kuzirala kwa injini zapamwamba.

Kumapeto kwa kuwunikaku, tikupangira kuti tiwonere kanema wamfupi wonena za pump engine:

Kodi pampu ndi chiyani? Zizindikiro za kulephera kwa mpope. Kuchotsa pampu ndi lamba wanyengo.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi kudziwa vuto la pampu? Phokoso lochokera ku mota ikugwira ntchito. Sewero la pompopompo, kutayikira koziziritsa. Mofulumira galimoto kutentha kukwera ndi kutenthedwa pafupipafupi.

Kodi mapampu ndi chiyani? Ichi ndi chinthu cha dongosolo yozizira. Pampu, kapena pampu yamadzi, imapereka kusinthasintha kosalekeza kwa antifreeze kudzera m'dongosolo, kufulumizitsa kusamutsa kutentha pakati pa mota ndi chilengedwe.

Kodi mpope wamadzi umagwira ntchito bwanji mgalimoto? Mu mtundu wakale, umalumikizidwa ndi crankshaft kudzera pa lamba. Pamene crankshaft imazungulira, chopopera chopopera chimazunguliranso. Pali zitsanzo zokhala ndi galimoto yamagetsi yapayekha.

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