Kodi naphtha ndi chiyani ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati?

Zamkatimu

Ligroin (yomwe nthawi zambiri imatchedwa naphtha) ndi chinthu chosakhazikika komanso choyaka moto chamafuta osakanizika. Imapeza ntchito m'mafakitale ambiri - monga zosungunulira komanso ngati mafuta. Naphtha ilipo m'mitundu itatu - phula lamakala, shale, kapena mafuta. Iliyonse mwa mawonekedwewa imapangidwa mosiyanasiyana ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito molingana ndi mankhwala ake.

Kapangidwe ndi mawonekedwe

Malinga ndi nthawi ya mapangidwe hydrocarbon zinthu, zikuchokera naphtha zosiyana. Mwachitsanzo, "wamkulu" ligroin, yomwe ili ndi mafuta, imakhala ndi malo okwera kwambiri, osasunthika komanso imakhala ndi mphamvu zambiri. "Wamng'ono" ligroin zimasiyana mosiyana, ndipo maziko ake ndi ma hydrocarbon onunkhira.

Waukulu thupi katundu wa mankhwala, Choncho, anatsimikiza ndi nthawi yake yaikulu mapangidwe. Zofunika kwambiri ndi izi:

  • Kutentha kowira: 90…140ºС - kwa mafuta naphthas, ndi 60…80ºС - kwa ma naphthas onunkhira (omaliza, mwa njira, amapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kuwazindikira, chifukwa zomwezo ndizofanana ndi ma ethers a petroleum). Chifukwa chochepa mfundo zowira Naphthas nthawi zambiri amatchedwa mizimu ya petroleum.
  • Kachulukidwe: 750…860 kg/m3.
  • Kukhuthala kwa Kinematic: 1,05…1,2 mm2/ s
  • Kutentha kwa chiyambi cha gelation sipamwamba: - 60ºС.

Kodi naphtha ndi chiyani ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati?

 

Nafita sasungunuka m’madzi ndipo sasanganikirana nawo. The structural zikuchokera naphthas zikuphatikizapo ma hydrocarbon a paraffinic ndi olefinic angapo, komanso zidulo naphthenic, ndi sulfure alipo mu pang'ono zinthu zosawerengeka.

Kodi imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti?

Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa naphtha ndizochitika pazifukwa zotsatirazi:

  1. Mafuta a injini za dizilo.
  2. Zosungunulira.
  3. Wapakati pamakampani a petrochemical.

Naphtha imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mafuta chifukwa mankhwalawa amatha kuyaka ndipo amadziwika ndi kutulutsa mphamvu zambiri zamatenthedwe akayaka. Mtengo wa calorific wa naphtha umafika 3,14 MJ / L. Chifukwa chakuti naphtha imawotcha pafupifupi mwaye, mankhwalawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri m'nyumba zotentha ndi alendo, zowunikira ndi zoyatsira. Nafita sagwiritsidwa ntchito kawirikawiri ngati mafuta, chifukwa cha kawopsedwe kake; nthawi zambiri pali ziwonetsero za kuthekera kwa ntchito yake ngati chowonjezera.

Kodi naphtha ndi chiyani ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati?

Makampani opanga mapulasitiki wamba monga polypropylene ndi polyethylene amagwiritsa ntchito naphtha ngati zopangira. Zotulutsa zake zimagwiritsidwanso ntchito kwambiri popanga butane ndi mafuta. Naphtha mu matekinolojewa amatenga nawo mbali pakupanga kwa nthunzi.

Naphtha ngati zosungunulira zimapezeka muzinthu zosiyanasiyana zoyeretsera, pomwe malo ake otsika amakhala othandiza ngati chochepetsera utoto, ma varnish ndi phula. Zinthu zodziwika bwino za mndandandawu ndi zosungunulira ndi naphthalene. Chifukwa cha kawopsedwe, naphtha imagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka osati panyumba, koma m'mabizinesi (mwachitsanzo, omwe amatsuka zovala).

Kodi naphtha ndi chiyani ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati?

Naphtha toxicity

Chitetezo pakugwiritsa ntchito kwakukulu kwa chinthu chomwe chimaganiziridwa kuti mafuta chimachepetsedwa ndi izi:

  • Mkwiyo waukulu ukawonekera pakhungu ndi diso la munthu. Mukakumana ndi naphtha, khungu limatupa mopweteka. Ndikoyenera kutsuka malo okhudzidwawo ndi madzi ofunda mwamsanga.
  • Mseru ndi kuwonongeka kwa mapapu mukameza ngakhale pang'ono mlingo wa mankhwala. Izi zimafuna kuchipatala mwachangu, apo ayi kupuma kulephera kumachitika, zomwe zingayambitse imfa.
  • Fungo lamphamvu lapadera (makamaka "achichepere" onunkhira a naphthas). Kupuma kwa nthunzi kwa nthawi yaitali kungayambitse mavuto a kupuma ndi maganizo. Palinso zambiri za carcinogenicity ya chinthucho.

Popeza mankhwalawa ndi owopsa, amaletsedwa kukhetsa zotsalira zake muzotengera zosalamulirika (ndipo, makamaka, kukhala zotseguka). Tiyeneranso kukumbukira kuti ligroin imatha kuyaka ndipo imatha kuyambitsa moto.

Momwe zinthu zozungulira ife zimapezedwa kuchokera kumafuta ndi gasi - zofikirika komanso zomveka
Waukulu » Zamadzimadzi kwa Auto » Kodi naphtha ndi chiyani ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati?

Kuwonjezera ndemanga