What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed


Car chassis

The novelty was built on the chassis of the previous model and received many technical and visual changes. Thus begins the reviews of many cars of the next generation. What is the chassis on which the next models are produced? We will deal with this issue in more detail.

What is a chassis

All motor vehicles consist of three main components:

  • power point;
  • body;
  • chassis.

The chassis is not a specific part in a vehicle. Sometimes this term is called the supporting structure of the machine.


In fact, a chassis is a set of mechanisms that interact with the wheels and bearings of a car. This is the unit that combines the steering of a car, its transmission, damping system and chassis. All of these systems are connected on a common basis, and their work is synchronized so that the entire car can move. The chassis also includes a frame plus powertrains - engine, transmission and suspension. It has a body that gives the car a finished look. 

What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed

The chassis of the car also means a set of parts and assemblies on which the movement and maneuvers of the vehicle depend. In the technical documentation of the car, it has a marking, which in this case corresponds to the body number (what is chassis number).

The main components of the car chassis are two suspensions - front and rear, as well as wheels. Suspensions are necessary to soften or eliminate vibrations when driving, thanks to which the car smoothly overcomes all the bumps in the road.


The principle of operation and why it is needed

All units necessary for movement are mounted on the base of the car so that rotational energy is transmitted from the engine to the drive wheels. Here's how the operation of all nodes is synchronized:

  • Installed on a subframe motor. From it, the torque is transmitted to the front or rear axle (in the case of all-wheel or rear-wheel drive). Thanks to this, the wheels begin to rotate, and the car moves forward or backward.
What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed
  • So that the car can change its direction, the steering is connected to it. Driving wheels set the car in motion, and steering wheels give it direction. This unit has many details that provide smooth maneuvers while riding.
What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed
  • To change the speed of the car, a gearbox is installed between the power unit and the drive wheels. She may be mechanical or automatic. In this unit, using a set of gears, the torque increases, which allows you to remove excessive load from the engine.
What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed
  • When driving on roads of different quality, fluctuations occur. Due to shaking and vibration, the components of the transmission and steering will quickly fail. To compensate for this load, levers and shock absorbers are attached to the subframe.
What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed

As you can see, the chassis of the car allows you to set in motion the entire structure, change its direction and compensate for the vibration loads that occur during riding. Thanks to this development, the energy generated by the internal combustion engine can be used for comfortable and safe transportation of people and large loads.

The device and design of the car chassis

The chassis of a car and a truck are created according to a single principle: it consists of a bearing part, to which the necessary components are connected.

The base of the machine takes on all the load during acceleration, braking and swinging, so the material from which it is made is particularly durable. There are two types of vehicle chassis.

1. Frame. Previously, this type of carrier was used in all cars. The frame is strong channels and beams welded together, to which all elements of the machine are attached, including the body. This foundation allows laden vehicles to withstand large torsion loads while driving on the road. In modern automotive industry, this type of chassis is used in trucks and full-fledged SUVs.

What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed

2. Bearing body. This type of chassis is used in the development of new generation cars. In this case, the main body part performs the function of the frame. Among these designs, there are two more varieties: the bearing base and the bearing body. The idea to create such a design is due to the desire of engineers to lighten the car to increase the performance of the power unit. Due to the fact that in such a chassis there are no overall and heavy elements, the vehicle can be more dynamic with a small engine power.

What is the chassis, the principle of operation and why it is needed

Compared to the frame structure, the chassis with a supporting body does not allow the transport of large loads. Most often these are sports and executive cars.

In an effort to create the most practical car, manufacturers are constantly improving the aerodynamics of the body, engine power, but much attention is paid to its chassis. Gradually, lightweight materials from alloys of strong but light metals appear in this assembly.

This video illustrates the benefits of these changes using Mazda cars as an example:

Mazda Body and chassis.

Chassis malfunctions

If unusual noises are detected when shifting from one gear to another, this is a signal of a chassis malfunction. One of the most common problems is when the car leads to the side, right or left.

This happens for several reasons:

  • the geometry of the front wheels is broken,
  • increased tire pressure,
  • deformed levers,
  • big differences in amounts of tires,
  • violation of parallelism between the axles of the rear and front axles.

These problems can lead to damage to the shock absorbers through broken springs or other damage to the suspension. If damage to the chassis is suspected, the driver should also look for leaks from the chassis. The silent blocks may be loosened, which often leads to damage to the discs and imbalance of the front wheels. A squeak during braking is a signal of a malfunction of the shock absorber, stabilizer or parts of the supporting elements. If at least one of the above symptoms appears, you should immediately take action and contact a car service.




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