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Zamkatimu

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Kuyendetsa pamagetsi kumatanthauza kuti muyenera kusamalira kuyendetsa galimoto. Panjira, kuntchito, koma, ndithudi, kunyumba. Kodi muyenera kuyang'ana chiyani pogula poyikira?

Iyi ikhoza kukhala nthawi yanu yoyamba kuyendetsa galimoto yamagetsi kapena plug-in hybrid galimoto. Ngati ndi choncho, ndiye kuti simunayambe mwakhalapo ndi chodabwitsa cha siteshoni. Mwina munazolowera galimoto yomwe imayendera petulo, dizilo, kapena gasi. Zomwe zimatchedwa "mafuta amafuta" omwe mudapita nawo kumalo opangira mafuta pamene thanki ili pafupi kutha. Tsopano mulowa m'malo modzaza malowa n'kuikapo chotchatsira. Posachedwapa idzakhala malo anu opangira mafuta kunyumba.

Ganizilani izi: Ndi liti pamene munasangalala ndi refueling? Izi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zoyipa zofunika. Imani pafupi ndi galimoto kwa mphindi zisanu nyengo iliyonse ndikudikirira kuti thanki idzaze. Nthawi zina mumayenera kupatuka. Nthawi zonse zikomo potuluka chifukwa chotengera mwayi wapa sabata ino. Kuwonjezera mafuta si chinthu chomwe anthu ambiri amasangalala nacho.

Koma tsopano mwatsala pang'ono kuyendetsa hybrid yamagetsi kapena pulagi. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ngati muli ndi mwayi, simudzayeneranso kupita kumalo okwerera mafuta. Chokhacho chomwe chimabwerera ndikuti muyenera kuyatsa galimoto mwachangu mukafika kunyumba. Izi zili ngati kupachika foni yanu pa charger madzulo: tsiku lotsatira mumayambanso ndi batire yodzaza kwathunthu.

Kulipiritsa galimoto yanu yamagetsi

Chinthu chokha chimene mukufunikira kuti "mupangitse" galimoto yamagetsi ndi chojambulira. Monga foni yanu yam'manja, plug-in hybrid kapena EV nthawi zambiri imabwera ndi charger. Chaja yomwe mumalandira ndi galimoto yanu nthawi zambiri imakhala yagawo limodzi. Ma charger awa ndi oyenera kulipiritsa galimoto yanu kuchokera pa socket yokhazikika.

Zikumveka zosavuta, chifukwa aliyense ali ndi socket kunyumba. Komabe, kuthamanga kwa ma charger awa ndi ochepa. Kwa galimoto yosakanizidwa kapena yamagetsi yokhala ndi batri yaing'ono (ndipo chifukwa chake imakhala yochepa), izi zikhoza kukhala zokwanira. Ndipo ngakhale anthu amene amayenda mtunda waufupi adzakhala ndi zokwanira charger wamba. Kupatula apo, ngati mumayendetsa makilomita makumi atatu patsiku (omwe ali pafupifupi achi Dutch), simuyenera kulipiritsa batire lanu lonse usiku wonse. Muyenera kungowonjezera mphamvu zomwe mumayenda nazo ma kilomita makumi atatu awa.

Zonse, komabe, mudzafunika yankho lomwe limakupatsani mwayi wotsitsa mwachangu. Apa ndipamene pochajila amabwera. Nthawi zambiri, kulipira kuchokera pakhoma sikuthamanga mokwanira.

Njira yabwino kwambiri: poyikira

Mutha kugwiritsa ntchito charger wamba, koma pali mwayi wabwino kuti iyi ndi njira yosokoneza. Mwinamwake mukugwiritsa ntchito potulukira magetsi m’chipinda cholandirira alendo pafupi ndi khomo lakumaso kwanu ndikupachika chingwe pabokosi la zilembo. Chingwecho chimadutsa mumsewu kapena msewu wopita ku galimoto. Ndi siteshoni yolipirira kapena bokosi la khoma, mumapanga kulumikizana ndi façade ya nyumba yanu kapena ofesi. Kapena mutha kuyika poyikira patali panjira yanu. Mulimonsemo, mutha kukhazikitsa kulumikizana pafupi ndi makina anu. Izi zimapangitsa kuti ikhale yaukhondo komanso kuti isakhale yovutirapo pa chingwe chanu chochapira.

Koma mwayi wokulirapo komanso wofunikira kwambiri: kulipiritsa ndi poyatsira kuli nthawi zambiri kumakhala mwachangu kuposa chojambulira wamba. Kuti tifotokoze momwe izi zimagwirira ntchito, choyamba tiyenera kukuuzani za mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya magetsi, mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mapulagi, ndi ma multiphase charger.

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KUSINTHA TSOPANO

Ayi, sitikulankhula za gulu la ovina akale. AC ndi DC ndi mitundu iwiri yosiyana yapano. Kapena kwenikweni: njira ziwiri zosiyana zamagetsi zimagwirira ntchito. Muyenera kuti munamva za Bambo Edison, amene anayambitsa babu. Ndipo Nikola Tesla, nayenso, sadzawoneka osadziwika kwa inu. Ngati chifukwa chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu kwambiri zamagalimoto zamagetsi zimatchedwa Bambo Tesla. Amuna awiriwa anali otanganidwa ndi magetsi, Bambo Edison ndi magetsi olunjika, ndi a Tesla omwe ali ndi magetsi.

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Tiyeni tiyambe ndi Direct current kapena Direct current. Timachitchanso "constant current" mu Chidatchi, chifukwa nthawi zonse chimachokera ku point A kupita ku B. Monga momwe mungaganizire, zimachokera ku zabwino kupita ku zoipa. Direct current ndiyo njira yabwino kwambiri ya mphamvu. Malinga ndi Bambo Edison, iyi ndi njira yabwino kwambiri yogwiritsira ntchito babu lanu. Chifukwa chake, idakhala muyezo wogwiritsa ntchito zida zamagetsi. Choncho, zipangizo zamagetsi zambiri, monga laputopu ndi foni yanu, zimagwiritsa ntchito panopa.

Kugawa kumalo ochapira: osati DC, koma AC

Koma mtundu wina wa magetsi unali woyenerera kugawira: magetsi osinthasintha. Izi ndizomwe zimachokera ku malo athu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti "alternating current", yomwe imatchedwanso "alternating current" mu Dutch. Mphamvu yamtunduwu idawonedwa ndi Tesla ngati njira yabwino kwambiri chifukwa zinali zosavuta kugawa mphamvu pamtunda wautali. Pafupifupi magetsi onse a anthu pawokha tsopano akuperekedwa kudzera pamagetsi osinthasintha. Chifukwa chake n’chakuti ndikosavuta kunyamula mtunda wautali. Gawo lapanoli likusintha mosalekeza kuchoka ku kuphatikiza mpaka kuchotsera. Ku Europe, ma frequency awa ndi ma hertz 50, ndiye kuti, kusintha 50 pamphindikati. Komabe, izi zimabweretsa kutaya mphamvu. Kuphatikiza apo, zida zambiri zimayendetsedwa ndi gwero lamagetsi la DC chifukwa ndilabwino komanso lili ndi maubwino ena angapo.

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Kulumikizana kwa CCS ku Renault ZOE 2019

Inverter

Inverter ikufunika kuti musinthe ma AC apano kuchokera pa network yogawa kukhala DC kuti mugwiritse ntchito pazida zanu zapanyumba. Converter iyi imatchedwanso adaputala. Kuti zipangizozi zigwire ntchito, inverter kapena adapter imatembenuza alternating current (AC) kuti ikhale yolunjika panopa (DC). Mwanjira imeneyi, mutha kumangitsa chipangizo chanu choyendetsedwa ndi DC mu mphamvu ya AC ndikuchilola kuti chiziyendetsa kapena kulipira.

N'chimodzimodzinso ndi magalimoto amagetsi: kutengera kusankha kwa wopanga, galimoto yamagetsi imagwira ntchito mwachindunji (DC) kapena alternating (AC) panopa. Nthawi zambiri, inverter imafunika kusintha mphamvu ya AC kukhala mains. Magalimoto ambiri amakono amagetsi ali ndi ma DC motors. Magalimoto awa ali ndi inverter yomangidwa pakati pa malo opangira (pamene pulagi imalumikizana) ndi batri.

Chifukwa chake, ngati mumalipiritsa galimoto yanu pamalo ochapira kunyumba, komanso pamalo opangira anthu ambiri, mudzakhala mukugwiritsa ntchito chosinthirachi. Ubwino wake ndikuti njira yolipirira iyi imatha kuchitika pafupifupi kulikonse, choyipa chake ndikuti liwiro silili bwino. The inverter m'galimoto ali ndi zolephera luso, kutanthauza kuti kulipiritsa liwiro sangakhale mofulumira kwambiri. Komabe, pali njira ina yolipirira galimotoyo.

Potengera mwachangu

Malo ena ochapira ali ndi inverter yomangidwa. Nthawi zambiri zimakhala zazikulu komanso zamphamvu kuposa inverter yomwe ili yoyenera galimoto yamagetsi. Potembenuza alternating current (AC) kuti ayendetse panopa (DC) kunja kwa galimoto, kulipiritsa kumatha kuchitika mofulumira kwambiri. Zoonadi, izi zimagwira ntchito ngati galimotoyo ili ndi mphamvu yowonjezeramo kuti idumphe chosinthira galimotoyo.

Potumiza mwachindunji (DC) mwachindunji ku batri, mukhoza kulipiritsa mofulumira kwambiri kuposa alternating current (AC), yomwe imayenera kusinthidwa kuti ikhale yolunjika (DC) m'galimoto. Komabe, malo ochapirawa ndi akulu, okwera mtengo ndipo chifukwa chake ndi ochepa kwambiri. Malo othamangitsira mwachangu pakadali pano sakusangalatsa kwenikweni kuti agwiritse ntchito kunyumba. Komabe, izi zitha kukhala zofunikira pazogwiritsa ntchito bizinesi. Koma pakadali pano, tiyang'ana pa mtundu wodziwika bwino wamasiteshoni othamangitsira: malo othamangitsira kunyumba.

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Malo opangira kunyumba: ndiyenera kudziwa chiyani?

Ngati mukusankha malo ochapira nyumba yanu, pali zinthu zingapo zomwe muyenera kudziwa poyilumikiza:

  • Kodi siteshoni yanga yochapira imatha bwanji kupereka magetsi?
  • Kodi galimoto yanga yamagetsi imathamanga bwanji?
  • Ndikufuna kulumikizana / pulagi yanji?
  • Kodi ndikufuna kutsatira mtengo wanga wolipiritsa? Izi ndizofunikira makamaka ngati abwana anu akulipira ndalama zomwe mumalipira.
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Kodi potengera angandipatse mphamvu zingati?

Ngati muyang'ana mu chipinda chanu cha mita, nthawi zambiri mumawona magulu angapo. Gulu lapadera nthawi zambiri limawonjezedwa pa malo opangira ndalama. Izi zimalimbikitsidwa mulimonse, makamaka ngati mukugwiritsa ntchito makina ochita bizinesi. Pankhaniyi, ndizothandizanso kukhazikitsa mita yosiyana ya kilowatt-ola mu gulu ili kuti muwone momwe mphamvu ikugwiritsidwira ntchito kulipira magalimoto amagetsi m'nyumba mwanu. Mwanjira imeneyi, abwana angadziwitsidwe za ntchito yeniyeni. Kapena konzani bizinesi ngati inu, monga bizinesi, mumalipira galimoto yanu kunyumba. Kwenikweni, akuluakulu amisonkho amafunikira mita yosiyana pakulipiritsa galimoto yamagetsi kunyumba. Palinso masiteshoni othamangitsira anzeru omwe amatsata momwe amagwiritsira ntchito, mwachitsanzo, kugwiritsa ntchito khadi yolipiritsa kapena pulogalamu, koma akuluakulu amisonkho samavomereza mwalamulo ngati chida cholembera.

Volt, ampere mu watts

Nyumba zambiri zamakono ku Netherlands zili ndi bokosi lamagulu lomwe lili ndi magawo atatu, kapena bokosi lamagulu limakonzekera izi. Kawirikawiri gulu lirilonse limavotera ma amps 25, omwe 16 amps angagwiritsidwe ntchito. Nyumba zina zimakhala ndi ma amps 35 atatu, omwe 25 amps angagwiritsidwe ntchito.

Ku Netherlands, tili ndi gridi yamagetsi ya 230 volt. Kuti tiwerengere kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zopangira poyatsira kunyumba, timachulukitsa ma volts 230 ndi kuchuluka kwa mafunde othandiza komanso kuchuluka kwa magawo. Ku Netherlands, gawo limodzi kapena atatu nthawi zambiri limayenera kuthana nalo, magawo awiri ndi osowa. Kotero, kuwerengera kumawoneka motere:

Volt x ampere x chiwerengero cha magawo = mphamvu

230 x 16 x 1 = 3680 = kuzungulira 3,7 kWh

230 x 16 x 3 = 11040 = kuzungulira 11 kWh

Kotero ndi gawo limodzi lophatikizana ndi 25 amp kugwirizana, mlingo wokwanira wothamanga pa ola limodzi ndi 3,7 kW.

Ngati magawo atatu a 16 amps alipo (monga momwe zilili m'nyumba zambiri zamakono ku Netherlands), katundu yemweyo amagawidwa kudutsa njira zitatu. Ndi kugwirizana uku, galimoto akhoza mlandu ndi mphamvu pazipita 11 kW (magawo 3 kuchulukitsa ndi 3,7 kW), malinga ngati galimoto ndi siteshoni nawuza ndi oyeneranso.

Bokosi lamagulu lingafunike kuti likhale lolemera kuti likhale ndi potengera kapena chojambulira pakhoma (bokosi la khoma). Zimatengera mphamvu ya malo opangira.

Kodi galimoto yanga yamagetsi imathamanga bwanji?

Iyi ndi nthawi yomwe kumakhala kosavuta kulakwitsa. Ndizovuta kusankha njira yabwino kwambiri, yolemera kwambiri chifukwa imatha kulipiritsa galimoto yanu mwachangu kwambiri, sichoncho? Chabwino, osati nthawi zonse. Magalimoto ambiri amagetsi sangathe kulipira kuchokera kumagawo angapo konse.

Magalimoto omwe amatha kuchita izi nthawi zambiri amakhala magalimoto okhala ndi mabatire akuluakulu. Koma sangachitenso zimenezo, mwachitsanzo, Jaguar i-Pace ikhoza kulipidwa kuchokera ku gawo limodzi. Chifukwa chake, liwiro lotsitsa limadalira izi:

  • liwiro la station station
  • liwiro limene galimoto ikhoza kulipiritsa
  • kukula kwa batri

kuwerengera

Kuti tiwerengere nthawi mpaka batire yodzaza kwathunthu, tiyeni tiwerenge. Tiyerekeze kuti tili ndi galimoto yamagetsi yokhala ndi batire ya 50 kWh. Galimoto yamagetsi iyi imatha kulipiritsa magawo atatu, koma poyikira ndi gawo limodzi. Kotero, kuwerengera kumawoneka motere:

50 kWh / 3,7 = maola 13,5 kuti muwononge batire.

Malo opangira magawo atatu amatha kukhala 11 kW. Popeza galimoto imathandizanso izi, kuwerengera kuli motere:

50 kWh / 11 = maola 4,5 kuti muwononge batire.

Koma tsopano tiyeni titembenuzire: galimoto ikhoza kulipira gawo limodzi. Malo othamangitsira amatha kupereka magawo atatu, koma popeza galimoto silingathe kuchita izi, kuwerengera koyamba kumagwiranso ntchito:

50 kWh / 3,7 = maola 13,5 kuti muwononge batire.

Kulipiritsa magawo atatu kukuchulukirachulukira

Magalimoto amagetsi ochulukirachulukira akulowa pamsika (onani mwachidule Magalimoto Amagetsi Akubwera mu 2020). Mabatire akamakulirakulira, kulipiritsa kwa magawo atatu kumakhala kofala. Chifukwa chake, kuti muthe kulipiritsa ndi magawo atatu, muyenera magawo atatu mbali zonse ziwiri: galimoto iyenera kuthandizira izi, komanso poyimitsa!

Ngati EV ikhoza kulipira kuchokera pagawo limodzi, zingakhale zosangalatsa kukhala ndi gawo la 35 amp m'nyumba. Izi zimaphatikizapo ndalama zowonjezera, koma zimatha kutheka. Ndi kulumikizidwa kwa gawo limodzi la 35 amp, mutha kulipira mwachangu. Komabe, izi sizowoneka wamba, muyezo ku Netherlands ndi magawo atatu a 25 amperes. Vuto ndi kulumikizana kwa gawo limodzi ndikuti ndikosavuta kudzaza. Mwachitsanzo, ngati muyatsa makina ochapira, chowumitsira ndi chotsuka mbale pamene galimoto ikunyamula, ikhoza kubweretsa kudzaza ndipo, chifukwa chake, kuzima kwa magetsi.

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Kwenikweni, galimoto yanu ikhoza kukhala ndi socket imodzi kapena zingapo. Izi ndizophatikiza zodziwika kwambiri:

Ndi mapulagi / malumikizidwe ati omwe alipo?

  • Tiyeni tiyambe ndi socket (Schuko): iyi ndi socket ya pulagi yokhazikika. Zoonadi ndizoyenera kulumikiza chojambulira chomwe chimabwera ndi galimoto. Monga tanena kale, iyi ndiye njira yosavuta yolipirira. Komanso pang'onopang'ono. Kuthamanga kothamanga ndi 3,7 kW (230 V, 16 A).

Zolumikizira zakale zamagalimoto amagetsi

  • CEE: Foloko yolemera kwambiri ikupezeka m'mitundu ingapo. Ndi mtundu wa pulagi ya 230V, koma yolemetsa pang'ono. Mutha kudziwa zamitundu itatu yabuluu ndi msasa. Palinso mtundu wa ma pole asanu, nthawi zambiri ofiira. Imatha kuthana ndi ma voltages apamwamba, koma chifukwa chake ndi oyenera malo omwe mphamvu ya magawo atatu ilipo, monga makampani. Ma stubs awa si ambiri.
  • Type 1: pulagi ya XNUMX-pin, yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamagalimoto aku Asia. Mwachitsanzo, mibadwo yoyamba ya Leaf ndi ma hybrids angapo a pulagi-in monga Outlander PHEV ndi Prius plug-in hybrid amagawana ulalowu. Mapulagi awa sagwiritsidwanso ntchito, akutha pang'onopang'ono pamsika.
  • CHAdeMo: Muyezo waku Japan wothamangitsa mwachangu. Kugwirizana uku, mwachitsanzo, pa Nissan Leaf. Komabe, magalimoto okhala ndi cholumikizira cha CHAdeMo nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi cholumikizira cha Type 1 kapena Type 2.

Zolumikizana zofunika kwambiri mpaka pano

  • Type 2 (Mennekes): Uwu ndiye muyezo ku Europe. Pafupifupi magalimoto onse amakono amagetsi ndi osakanizidwa ochokera kwa opanga ku Europe ali ndi kulumikizana uku. Mitengo yolipiritsa imachokera ku 3,7 kW pagawo kufika 44 kW pa magawo atatu kudzera pa alternating current (AC). Tesla wapanganso pulagi iyi kukhala yoyenera kulipira mwachindunji (DC). Izi zimapangitsa kuthamanga kwapamwamba kwambiri kotheka.Pakali pano, ndi Tesla wodzipatulira wothamanga (Supercharger), ndizotheka kulipira mpaka 250 kW ndi pulagi yamtunduwu.
  • CCS: Combined Charging System. Iyi ndi pulagi ya Type 1 kapena Type 2 AC yophatikizidwa ndi mitengo iwiri yokhuthala kuti muthamangitse mwachangu DC. Chifukwa chake pulagi iyi imathandizira njira zonse zolipirira. Izi zikukhala muyeso watsopano wamakampani akuluakulu aku Europe.
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Kulumikizana kwa Mennekes Type 2 pa Opel Grandland X Plug-in Hybrid

Chifukwa chake, musanagule poyikira, muyenera kudziwa mtundu wa pulagi yomwe mukufuna. Izi, ndithudi, zimadalira galimoto yamagetsi yomwe mumasankha. Ngati mukugula galimoto yatsopano yamagetsi, mwayi ndi wabwino kuti ili ndi cholumikizira cha Type 2 / CCS. Komabe, pali zolumikizira zina zomwe zimagulitsidwanso, kotero fufuzani mosamala kuti galimoto yanu ili ndi cholumikizira chotani.

Mtengo wolipirira kunyumba

Mitengo ya malo ochapira kunyumba imasiyana kwambiri. Mtengo umatsimikiziridwa ndi wogulitsa, mtundu wa kugwirizana ndi mphamvu ya malo opangira ndalama. Malo opangira magawo atatu ndiokwera mtengo kwambiri kuposa malo otsika. Zimatengeranso ngati muli ndi siteshoni yanzeru yoyika. Malo ogulitsira anzeru amagwiritsa ntchito khadi yolipirira ndipo amalipira okha mabilu amagetsi a abwana anu.

Mtengo wa siteshoni yolipirira kunyumba umasiyana kwambiri. Mutha kugula malo opangira osavuta osadzipangira nokha ma euro 200. Malo opangira magawo atatu anzeru omwe ali ndi kulumikizana kwapawiri, kukulolani kulipiritsa magalimoto awiri, amatha kuwononga € 2500 kapena kupitilira apo. Kuphatikiza apo, opanga magalimoto ambiri amagetsi tsopano akupereka ma charger. Ma charger awa ndiwoyenera galimoto yanu.

Ndalama zowonjezera kukhazikitsa malo opangira ndalama ndikukhazikitsa kunyumba

Malo opangira ndalama ndi kuyika kwawo amapezeka mumitundu yonse ndi kukula kwake. Kupatula pamitengo yomwe tatchulayi, palinso ndalama zoyikira. Koma, monga tafotokozera poyamba paja, zimatengera mmene zinthu zilili kunyumba. Kuyika poyatsira kutha kukhala kosavuta monga kungolumikiza pakhoma mu netiweki yanu yanyumba ya 230 V.

Koma izi zingatanthauzenso kuti mtengowo uyenera kukhazikitsidwa mamita 15 kuchokera panyumba panu, kuti muzitha kutambasula chingwe kuchokera pa mita yanu kupita kumeneko. Magulu owonjezera, mita yogwiritsira ntchito kapena magawo owonjezera angafunike. Mwachidule: ndalama zimatha kusiyana kwambiri. Dziwani bwino ndikuvomerezana bwino ndi omwe amapereka komanso / kapena oyikapo za ntchito yomwe ikuyenera kuchitika. Mwanjira iyi simudzakumana ndi zodabwitsa zilizonse zosasangalatsa pambuyo pake.

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