Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Zamkatimu

Makina oyaka amkati sanawoneke ngati magetsi opatukana osiyana kwambiri. M'malo mwake, mota wapamwamba udabwera chifukwa chakuwongoletsa ndikusintha kwama injini. Werengani za momwe chipangizocho, chomwe timakonda kuwona pansi pagalimoto, chidawonekera pang'onopang'ono. m'nkhani yapadera.

Komabe, pomwe galimoto yoyamba yokhala ndi injini yoyaka yamkati idawoneka, anthu adalandira galimoto yodziyendetsa yomwe sinkafuna kudyetsedwa nthawi zonse, ngati kavalo. Zinthu zambiri zasintha mu ma mota kuyambira 1885, koma chododometsa chimodzi sichinasinthe. Pakati pa kuyaka kwa mafuta osakaniza (kapena mafuta ena) ndi mpweya, zinthu zambiri zovulaza zimatulutsidwa zomwe zimawononga chilengedwe.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Ngati asanafike magalimoto odziyendetsa okha, omwe amapanga mapulani a mayiko aku Europe amawopa kuti mizinda ikuluikulu imira ndi ndowe za akavalo, lero anthu okhala m'mizinda yayikulu amapuma mpweya wakuda.

Kulimbitsa zikhalidwe zamayendedwe akukakamiza opanga magalimoto kuti apange njira zoyera zotsukira. Chifukwa chake, makampani ambiri adachita chidwi ndi ukadaulo wopangidwa kale wa Anjos Jedlik - ngolo yodziyendetsa yokha yamagetsi yamagetsi, yomwe idabweranso ku 1828. Ndipo lero lusoli lakhazikika kwambiri mdziko lamagalimoto kotero kuti simudzadabwitsa aliyense amene ali ndi galimoto yamagetsi kapena yophatikiza.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Koma chomwe chilimbikitsadi ndi malo opangira magetsi, omwe amangotulutsa madzi akumwa. Ndi injini ya haidrojeni.

Kodi injini ya hydrogen ndi chiyani?

Iyi ndi mtundu wa injini yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito hydrogen ngati mafuta. Kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa kumachepetsa kuchepa kwa zinthu zama hydrocarbon. Chifukwa chachiwiri chokhudzidwa ndi makonzedwe amenewa ndikuchepetsa kuwonongeka kwa chilengedwe.

Kutengera mtundu wanji wamagalimoto omwe agwiritsidwe ntchito poyendera, magwiridwe ake azisiyana ndi mainjini oyaka amkati kapena kukhala ofanana.

Mbiri yachidule

Makina oyaka amkati a hydrogen adawoneka munthawi yomweyo pomwe mfundo za ICE zimapangidwa ndikukula. Katswiri wina waku France komanso wopanga zinthu adapanga mtundu wake wamtundu woyaka wamkati. Mafuta omwe adagwiritsa ntchito pakukula kwake ndi hydrogen, yomwe imawonekera chifukwa cha electrolysis ya H2A. Mu 1807, galimoto yoyamba ya hydrogen inayamba.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta
Isaac De Rivaz mu 1807 adasainira patent yachitukuko cha thirakitala ya zida zankhondo. monga imodzi mwazigawo zamagetsi, adalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito hydrogen.

Unit mphamvu pisitoni, ndi poyatsira mu izo zinali chifukwa mapangidwe yamphamvu mu yamphamvu ndi. Zowona, kulengedwa koyamba kwa wopangayo kunkafunika kupanga magetsi. Pambuyo pa zaka ziwiri zokha, adamaliza ntchito yake, ndipo galimoto yoyamba yodziyendetsa yokha idabadwa.

Komabe, panthawiyo, chitukuko sichinaperekedwe kufunika, chifukwa mpweya siwophweka kupeza ndi kusunga monga mafuta. Magalimoto a hydrogen adagwiritsidwa ntchito ku Leningrad panthawi yotsekedwa kuyambira theka lachiwiri la 1941. Ngakhale, tiyenera kuvomereza kuti awa sanali ma hydrogen mayunitsi okha. Awa anali injini wamba zoyaka zamkati za GAZ, kokha kunalibe mafuta kwa iwo, koma panali mpweya wambiri panthawiyo, chifukwa anali kuyatsidwa ndi mabaluni.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Mu theka loyambirira la ma 80, mayiko ambiri, osati aku Europe okha, komanso America, Russia ndi Japan, adayesa kuyesa kukhazikitsa izi. Chifukwa chake, mu 1982, ndikugwirira ntchito limodzi kwa kampani ya Kvant ndi kampani yamagalimoto ya RAF, magalimoto ophatikizana adawoneka, omwe amayenda mosakanikirana ndi haidrojeni ndi mpweya, ndipo batire la 5 kW / h limagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati gwero lamagetsi.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Magalimoto 10 apamwamba kuchokera mu kanema Fast and the Furious

Kuyambira pamenepo, maiko osiyanasiyana ayesapo kuyambitsa magalimoto "obiriwira" m'mizere yawo, koma nthawi zambiri magalimoto oterewa amakhalabe m'gulu lazoyimira kapena anali ndi mtundu wocheperako.

Momwe ikugwirira ntchito

Popeza lero pali magalimoto ambiri ogwiritsa ntchito m'gululi, paliponse chomera cha hydrogen chidzagwira ntchito motsatira mfundo zake. Ganizirani momwe kusinthira kumodzi kumagwirira ntchito komwe kumatha kulowa m'malo mwa injini zoyaka zamkati.

Mumotokota yotere, maselo amafuta adzagwiritsidwadi ntchito. Ndi mtundu wa magudumu omwe amachititsa kuti magetsi azigwira ntchito bwino. Mkati mwa chipangizocho, haidrojeni ali ndi oxidized, ndipo zotsatira zake ndizomwe zimatulutsa magetsi, nthunzi yamadzi ndi nayitrogeni. Mpweya woipa satulutsidwa mu kukhazikitsa koteroko.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Galimoto yofananira ndi chimodzimodzi yamagetsi yamagalimoto, batire yokha yomwe ili mmenemo ndi yaying'ono kwambiri. Selo yamafuta imapanga mphamvu zokwanira kuyendetsa magalimoto onse. Chenjezo lokhalo ndiloti kuyambira koyambirira kwa ntchitoyi mpaka pakupanga mphamvu, zimatha kutenga mphindi ziwiri. Koma kutulutsa kwakukulu kwakukhazikitsa kumayambira dongosolo likayamba kutentha, lomwe limatenga kotala la ola mpaka mphindi 2.

Kotero kuti chomera chamagetsi sichikugwira ntchito pachabe, ndipo sikofunikira kukonzekera zoyendera ulendowu pasadakhale, batire wamba limayikidwamo. Mukamayendetsa, imachokeranso chifukwa chakuchira, ndipo imafunikira pokhapokha kuyambitsa galimoto.

Galimoto ili ndi silinda yama voliyumu osiyanasiyana, momwe amapopera hydrogen. Kutengera mawonekedwe oyendetsa, kukula kwa galimotoyo ndi mphamvu yamagetsi, kilogalamu imodzi yamafuta itha kukhala yokwanira kuyenda makilomita 100.

Mitundu yamajini a hydrogen

Ngakhale pali mitundu ingapo yama injini a hydrogen, onse amagwera m'mitundu iwiri:

  • Mtundu wagawo ndi mafuta;
  • Injini yoyaka yamkati yosinthidwa, yosinthidwa kuti igwire ntchito ya hydrogen.

Tiyeni tiganizire mtundu uliwonse padera: kodi mawonekedwe awo ndi ati.

Mitengo yamagetsi yochokera pamafuta amafuta a hydrogen

Selo yamafuta imakhazikika pamalingaliro a batri, momwe zimachitika zamagetsi. Kusiyana kokha pakati analogue wa hydrogen ndi dzuwa lake (zina, oposa 45 peresenti).

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Selo yamafuta ndi chipinda chimodzi momwe zinthu ziwiri zimayikidwa: cathode ndi anode. Ma electrode onse ndi platinamu (kapena palladium) yokutidwa. Kakhungu kamakhala pakati pawo. Imagawa mphindikati m'zipinda ziwiri. Oxygen amaperekedwa kumalo ndi cathode, ndipo hydrogen imaperekedwa kwa yachiwiri.

Zotsatira zake, kusintha kwamankhwala kumachitika, zotsatira zake ndikuphatikizana kwa mamolekyulu a oxygen ndi haidrojeni ndimagetsi. Zotsatira zoyipa zake ndi madzi ndi nayitrogeni omwe amatulutsidwa. Maelekitirodi ama cell amafuta amalumikizidwa ndi magetsi amgalimoto, kuphatikiza magetsi.

Majini a hydrogen oyaka mkati

Pankhaniyi, ngakhale injini amatchedwa wa hydrogen, ali ndi dongosolo lofanana ndi ICE ochiritsira. Kusiyana kokha ndikuti si mafuta kapena propane omwe amayaka, koma hydrogen. Ngati mudzaza silinda ndi haidrojeni, ndiye kuti pali vuto limodzi - mpweyawu umachepetsa magwiridwe antchito achizolowezi pafupifupi 60%.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Nawa mavuto ena ochepa pakusintha kwa hydrogen osakweza injini:

  • HTS ikapanikizika, mpweyawo umayamba kugwiranso ntchito ndi chitsulo chomwe chipinda choyaka moto ndi pisitoni amapangidwa, ndipo nthawi zambiri izi zimatha kuchitika ndi mafuta a injini. Chifukwa cha ichi, chipinda china chimapangidwa m'chipinda choyaka moto, chomwe sichimasiyana pamphamvu yapadera yoyaka bwino;
  • Mipata mu chipinda choyaka moto iyenera kukhala yangwiro. Ngati pena pake mafuta akungotayikira pang'ono, mpweyawo umayaka mosavuta akakumana ndi zinthu zotentha.
Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta
Injini ya Honda Kumveka

Pazifukwa izi, ndizotheka kugwiritsa ntchito hydrogen ngati mafuta mu ma motors ozungulira (mawonekedwe awo ndi ati, werengani apa). Kudyetsa ndi kutulutsa kuchuluka kwa mayunitsi oterewa kumasiyana wina ndi mnzake, chifukwa chake mpweya womwe ulowa sutentha. Khalani momwe zingathere, pomwe injini zikukonzedwa kukhala zotsogola kuti muchepetse mavuto ogwiritsira ntchito mafuta otsika mtengo komanso osasamalira zachilengedwe.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Momwe mungayang'anire malo ozizira

Kodi nthawi yayitali bwanji yamafuta amafuta?

Padziko lonse lapansi lerolino, magalimoto oterewa ndi osowa kwambiri, ndipo sanayambebe kukhala munthawi yovuta, ndizovuta kunena kuti gwero la mphamvu zopatsidwa lili ndi chiyani. Amisiri alibe luso pankhaniyi.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Chokhacho chomwe chinganenedwe ndikuti malinga ndi oyimira Toyota, khungu lamafuta a galimoto yawo yopanga Mirai imatha kupanga mosadodometsa mphamvu mpaka makilomita 250. Zitatha izi, muyenera kuwunika momwe chipangizocho chilili. Ngati magwiridwe ake achepetsedwa, khungu lamafuta limasinthidwa kumalo opezera chithandizo. Zowona, wina ayenera kuyembekeza kuti kampaniyo itenga ndalama zokwanira pochita izi.

Ndi makampani ati omwe akupanga kale kapena apanga magalimoto a hydrogen?

Makampani ambiri akuchita nawo ntchito yopanga zida zamagetsi zachilengedwe. Nayi mitundu yamagalimoto, muofesi yopanga yomwe pali njira zina zomwe zikugwira kale ntchito, zokonzeka kuchita mndandanda:

  • Mercedes-Benz ndi crossover ya GLC F-Cell, kuyamba kwa malonda komwe kudalengezedwa mu 2018, koma pakadali pano yapezeka ndi mabungwe ochepa ndi mautumiki ochepa aku Germany. Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovutaChipangizo choyendera cha hydrogen mafuta yamagalimoto, GenH2, chidawululidwa posachedwa;Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta
  • Mtundu wa Hyundai - Nexo udayambitsidwa zaka ziwiri zapitazo;Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta
  • BMW ndi prototype ya hydrogen Hydrogen 7, yomwe idatulutsidwa pamzere wamsonkhano. Gulu la makope 100 lidatsalira pakuyesa, koma izi ndi zina kale.Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Zina mwamagalimoto omwe angagulidwe ku America ndi Europe pali mitundu ya Mirai ndi Clarity yochokera ku Toyota ndi Honda, motsatana. Kwa makampani ena onse, chitukuko ichi chikadali pamitundu yojambula, kapena ngati mtundu wosagwira ntchito.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta
Toyota Mirai
Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta
Honda Kumveka

Kodi galimoto yamagetsi yama hydrogen imawononga ndalama zingati?

Mtengo wa galimoto ya haidrojeni ndiwabwino. Chifukwa cha ichi ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali yomwe ili gawo lama elekitirodi amafuta amafuta (palladium kapena platinamu). Komanso, galimoto yamakono ili ndi zida zambiri zachitetezo komanso kukhazikika kwa zinthu zamagetsi, zomwe zimafunikanso chuma.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Ngakhale kukonza kwa galimoto yotere (mpaka pomwe mafuta amasinthidwa) sikotsika mtengo kwambiri kuposa galimoto wamba yamibadwo yatsopano. Pali mayiko omwe amathandizira kupanga hydrogen, koma ngakhale ndi izi, mudzayenera kulipira avareji ya madola 11 ndi theka pa kilogalamu ya gasi. Kutengera mtundu wa injini, izi zitha kukhala zokwanira mtunda wamakilomita pafupifupi zana.

Chifukwa chiyani ma hydrogen magalimoto ali bwino kuposa magalimoto amagetsi?

Mukatenga chomera cha haidrojeni chokhala ndi mafuta, ndiye kuti galimoto yotere imafanana ndi galimoto yamagetsi yomwe tazolowera kuwona m'misewu. Kusiyana kokha ndikuti galimoto yamagetsi imalipitsidwa kuchokera pa netiweki kapena kuchokera ku malo osungira mafuta. Kutumiza kwa hydrogen kumadzipangira magetsi.

Ponena za mtengo wamagalimoto otere, ndiokwera mtengo kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, mitundu yoyambira ya Tesla idzagula $ 45. Mafananidwe a hydrogen ochokera ku Japan angagulidwe kwa mayunitsi 57. Kumbali ina, anthu aku Bavaria amagulitsa magalimoto awo pamafuta "obiriwira" pamtengo wa $ 50.

Poganizira zothandiza, ndikosavuta kudzaza galimoto ndi mpweya (zimatenga pafupifupi mphindi zisanu) kuposa kudikirira theka la ola (ndikulipira mwachangu, komwe sikuloledwa pamabatire amitundu yonse) pamalo oimikapo magalimoto. Uku ndiye kuphatikiza kwa hydrogen zomera.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Kuphatikizanso kwina ndikuti maselo amafuta samasowa kwenikweni kukonza, ndipo moyo wawo wogwira ntchito ndi wokulirapo. Ponena zamagalimoto amagetsi, batire yawo yayikulu imafunikira m'malo mwake pafupifupi zaka zisanu chifukwa choti ili ndi mayendedwe ambiri otulutsa. Mu chisanu, batire yamagalimoto amagetsi imatulutsidwa mwachangu kwambiri kuposa nthawi yachilimwe. Koma zomwe zimapangitsa kuti hydrogen oxidation isavutike ndi izi ndikupanga magetsi.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kodi mungatsitse bwanji mtengo wagalimoto yakale?

Kodi pali chiyembekezo chotani cha magalimoto a haidrojeni ndipo adzawoneka liti panjira?

Ku Europe ndi United States, galimoto ya hydrogen imapezeka kale. Komabe, adakali m'gulu lachidwi. Ndipo lero pali ziyembekezo zochepa.

Chifukwa chachikulu chomwe mayendedwe amtunduwu sadzadza posachedwa m'misewu yamayiko onse ndikusowa kwamphamvu zopangira. Choyamba, m'pofunika kukhazikitsa kupanga haidrojeni. Kuphatikiza apo, ndikofunikira kufikira pamlingo woti, kuwonjezera paubwenzi wazachilengedwe, umakhalanso mafuta kwa oyendetsa magalimoto ambiri. Kuphatikiza pakupanga gasi, ndikofunikira kukonza mayendedwe ake (ngakhale mutatha kuchita izi mutha kugwiritsa ntchito misewu yayikulu yomwe methane imanyamula), komanso kupangiranso malo okhaliramo ndi malo oyenera.

Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Kachiwiri, wopanga makina aliwonse amayenera kukonza mizere yopanga, zomwe zimafunikira ndalama zambiri. Mu chuma chosakhazikika chifukwa cha kufalikira kwa mliri wapadziko lonse, ochepa adzachita ngozi ngati izi.

Ngati mukuyang'ana momwe mayendedwe amagetsi akuyendera, njira yodziwitsa anthu zambiri idachitika mwachangu kwambiri. Komabe, chifukwa chakudziwika kwa magalimoto amagetsi ndikutha kusunga mafuta. Ndipo ichi nthawi zambiri chimakhala chifukwa choyamba chomwe amagulidwa, osati chifukwa chosunga chilengedwe. Pankhani ya hydrogen, sizingatheke kupulumutsa ndalama (osachepera pano), chifukwa zida zambiri zamagetsi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kutulutsa.

Ubwino ndi zovuta zazikulu za injini za hydrogen

Chifukwa chake, tiyeni mwachidule. Ubwino wa injini zamafuta a hydrogen ndi izi:

  • Umuna wochezeka;
  • Kutulutsa mwakachetechete kwa magetsi (kutulutsa kwamagetsi);
  • Pankhani yogwiritsira ntchito mafuta, samasamalira pafupipafupi;
  • Kuthira mafuta mwachangu;
  • Poyerekeza ndi magalimoto amagetsi, makina oyendetsa magetsi ndi magetsi amagwiritsa ntchito bwino ngakhale kutentha kwazizira.
Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Ngakhale chitukuko sichingatchedwe chachilendo, komabe, chimakhalabe ndi zolakwika zingapo zomwe zimapangitsa oyendetsa galimoto kuti aziyang'anitsitsa. Nawa ena mwa iwo:

  • Kuti hydrogen ipsere, iyenera kukhala mu gaseous. Izi zimabweretsa zovuta zina. Mwachitsanzo, ma compressor apadera okwera mtengo amafunika kupondereza magetsi owala. Palinso vuto ndi kusungidwa koyenera komanso mayendedwe amafuta, popeza ndiyotheka kwambiri;
  • Cylinder, yomwe idzaikidwe mgalimoto, iyenera kuyang'aniridwa nthawi ndi nthawi. Pachifukwa ichi, woyendetsa galimotoyo ayenera kuyendera malo apadera, ndipo iyi ndi ndalama zowonjezera;
  • M'galimoto ya haidrojeni, batire yayikulu siyikugwiritsidwa ntchito, komabe, kuyikirako kumalemera moyenera, zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri magwiridwe antchito amgalimoto;
  • Hydrogen - imayatsa ngakhale pang'ono, choncho ngozi yokhudza galimoto yotereyi imatsagana ndi kuphulika kwakukulu. Potengera kusasamala kwa madalaivala ena pachitetezo chawo komanso miyoyo ya ogwiritsa ntchito misewu, magalimoto oterewa sangathe kutulutsidwa m'misewu.

Poganizira chidwi cha anthu m'malo oyera, titha kuyembekezera kuti chipambano chidzachitika pankhani yomaliza mayendedwe "obiriwira". Koma izi zikachitika, ndi nthawi yokha yomwe ingadziwe.

Pakadali pano, yang'anani kuwonera kanema wa Toyota Mirai:

Tsogolo la haidrojeni? 2019 Toyota Mirai - KUWERENGA KWAMBIRI & Ma Specs

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Chifukwa chiyani injini ya haidrojeni ili yowopsa? Pa kuyaka kwa osakaniza wa haidrojeni, injini imatenthetsa kwambiri kuposa pakuyaka mafuta. Zotsatira zake, pali kuthekera kwakukulu kwa kutentha kwa pistoni, ma valve ndi kudzaza kwa unit.

Momwe mungawonjezere mafuta pagalimoto ya hydrogen? Galimoto yotereyi imatenthedwa ndi haidrojeni mu mpweya (gasi wamadzimadzi kapena woponderezedwa). Kusunga mafuta, ndi wothinikizidwa kwa 350-700 atmospheres, ndi kutentha kufika -259 madigiri.

Kodi injini ya hydrogen yoyaka mkati imagwira ntchito bwanji? Galimotoyo ili ndi mtundu wa batri. Oxygen ndi haidrojeni amadutsa m'mbale zapadera. Chotsatira chake ndikuchita kwa mankhwala ndi kutuluka kwa nthunzi ya madzi ndi magetsi.

NKHANI ZOFANANA
Waukulu » nkhani » Injini ya haidrojeni. Momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zovuta

Ndemanga za 3

  1. "Batire yawo yayikulu iyenera kusinthidwa m'malo mwa zaka zisanu chifukwa choti ili ndi mayendedwe ambiri otulutsa."

    Kodi muyenera kusintha magalimoto amagetsi ati patadutsa zaka 5?

  2. Mu 2020, madzi omwe amatha kuyamwa ndikutulutsa hydrogen anali ovomerezeka.

  3. Sungunulani hydrogen kuti isakhale yoyaka moto ndikuthana ndi vuto lakuphulika. PS: Mabatire amafika zaka 10… kuchokera pomwe nkhaniyi inalembedwa mabatire ena apezeka 🙂

Kuwonjezera ndemanga