Mitundu ya nyali zamagalimoto

Zamkatimu

Zida zowunikira magalimoto ndi seti ya zida zomwe zimakonzedwa mkati ndi mozungulira pagalimoto, ndikuwunikira misewu mumdima, kuwonetsa kukula kwa galimotoyo, komanso kuchenjeza za mayendedwe a ena ogwiritsa ntchito misewu. Mababu oyatsa magalimoto oyamba anali oyaka palafini, kenako mababu osinthira a Edison adawonekera, ndipo magetsi amakono apita patali. Tidzakambilana za mitundu ya nyali zamagalimoto mtsogolo muno.

Magalimoto Oyang'anira Nyali

Nyali zamagalimoto zimasiyana osati mtundu wokha, komanso m'munsi. Malo odziwika bwino omwe adapangidwa ndi Edison adafunsidwa mu 1880, ndipo kuyambira pamenepo zosankha zambiri zawonekera. Pali miyezo itatu yayikulu yopezeka mu CIS:

  1. Zanyumba GOST 17100-79 / GOST 2023.1-88.
  2. European IEC-EN 60061-1.
  3. ANSI waku America.

Muyeso waku Europe ndiwofala kwambiri ndipo uli ndi zizindikilo zake zomwe zimatsimikizira mtundu wa nyali ndi maziko. Mwa iwo:

  • T - amatanthauza nyali yaying'ono (T4W).
  • W (kumayambiriro kwa dzina) - alibe maziko (W3W).
  • W (kumapeto pambuyo pa nambala) - akuwonetsa mphamvu mu watts (W5W).
  • H - kutchulidwa kwa nyali za halogen (H1, H6W, H4).
  • C - soffit.
  • Y - babu lalanje nyali (PY25W).
  • R - botolo 19 mm (R10W).
  • P - babu 26,5 mm (P18W).

Mulingo wanyumba uli ndi mayina awa:

  • A - nyali yamagalimoto.
  • MN - kakang'ono.
  • C - soffit.
  • KG - khwatsi halogen.

Pogwiritsa ntchito nyali zapakhomo, pali manambala omwe akuwonetsa magawo osiyanasiyana.

Mwachitsanzo, AKG 12-24 + 40. Nambala yoyamba makalatawa akuwonetsa voliyumu, pambuyo pa dash - mphamvu mu watts, ndipo "kuphatikiza" akuwonetsa matupi awiri a incandescent, ndiye kuti, mtengo wotsika komanso wapamwamba wokhala ndi mphamvu. Kudziwa mayina awa, mutha kudziwa mtundu wa chipangizocho ndi magawo ake.

Mitundu yazitsulo zamagalimoto

Mtundu wolumikizana ndi cartridge nthawi zambiri umawonetsedwa pathupi. Pali mitundu yotsatirayi ya ma plinths ogwiritsidwa ntchito pamagalimoto.

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Soffit (S)

Zowunikira makamaka zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwunikira mkati, ma layisensi, thunthu kapena bokosi lamagetsi. Amapezeka pakati pamasamba omwe amanyamula kasupe, zomwe zimawapangitsa kuwoneka ngati mafyuzi. Chindidwa ndi kalata S.

Flanged (P)

Zisoti zamtunduwu zimapangidwa ndi zilembo P ndipo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamatayala okwera ndi otsika, pomwe pamafunika malo omveka bwino ozungulira thupi. Komanso, nyali zotere zimatchedwa nyali zowunikira.

Zachabechabe (W)

Nyali zamtunduwu zimasankhidwa ndi kalata W. Waya malupu amapangidwa pamafunde a babu ndipo amalumikizidwa chifukwa cha kulimba kwa ma foni omwe amalunga malupu awa. Mababu awa amatha kuchotsedwa ndikukwera osatembenuka. Nthawi zambiri, uwu ndi muyezo wawung'ono (T). Iwo ankagwiritsa ntchito magalimoto ndi nkhata zamaluwa.

Chikhomo (B)

Nyali zoyambira pini ndizomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pagalimoto. Kulumikizana koteroko kumatchedwanso bayonet, pomwe maziko ake amakhazikika mu chuck kudzera potembenukira.

Pini yolumikizana yolumikizana ndi dzina la BA ndi kulumikizana kwa pini (BAZ, BAY) imagawidwanso. Kalata yaying'ono pakulemba imawonetsa kuchuluka kwa olumikizana nawo: p (5), q (4), t (3), d (2), s (1).

Gome lotsatirali likuwonetsa komwe kuli nyali zamagalimoto, mtundu wawo ndi kuyika chizindikiro pamunsi.

Koyikira nyale m'galimotoMtundu wa nyaliMtundu woyambira
Kuwala kwamutu (kokwera / kutsika) ndi magetsi a utsiR2Zamgululi
H1P14,5s
H3Ma PK22s
H4Zamgululi
H7Zamgululi
H8Zamgululi
H9Zamgululi
H11Zamgululi
H16Zamgululi
ZamgululiPG13
ZamgululiZamgululi
HB3Zamgululi
HB4Zamgululi
HB5Maofesi a Mawebusaiti
Magetsi ananyema, ma direction of direction (kumbuyo / kutsogolo / mbali), magetsi apambuyoZamgululiBAU15s / 19
P21 / 5WBAY15d
P21WBA15s
W5W (mbali)
WY5W (mbali)
R5W, R10W
Magetsi oyimitsira magalimoto ndi kuyatsa kwapakatiT4WBA9s / 14
H6WZamgululi
ZamgululiSV8,5 / 8
Kuunikira mkati ndi kuyatsa kwa thunthu10WSV8,5

T11x37

R5WBA15s / 19
Zamgululi

Mitundu yambiri yamagalimoto ndi kuyatsa

Kupatula kusiyanasiyana kwamtundu wamalumikizidwe, zopangira magetsi zamagalimoto zimasiyana pamtundu wakuunikira.

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Okhazikika incandescent mababu

Mababu oterewa amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamoyo watsiku ndi tsiku. Tungsten kapena ulusi wa kaboni umagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati ulusi. Pofuna kupewa tungsten ku oxidizing, mpweya umachotsedwa mu botolo. Mphamvu zikaperekedwa, filament imatentha mpaka 2000K ndipo imapatsa kuwala.

Tungsten yotentha imatha kukhazikika pakhoma la botolo, ndikuchepetsa kuwonekera poyera. Nthawi zambiri ulusiwo umatha. Kuchita bwino kwa zinthu ngati izi kuli pamlingo wa 6-8%. Komanso, chifukwa cha kutalika kwa ulusiwo, kuwalako kumwazikana ndipo sikupereka chidwi chomwe mukufuna. Chifukwa cha zovuta izi ndi zina, nyali zodziwika bwino za incandescent sizigwiritsidwanso ntchito ngati gwero lalikulu lowunikira magalimoto.

Halogen

Nyali ya halogen imagwiranso ntchito pamalingaliro amtundu wa incandescent, babu yekha ndiye amakhala ndi nthunzi za halogen (gawo lotetezera mpweya) - ayodini kapena bromine. Izi zimakweza kutentha kwa coil kupita ku 3000K komanso kumakulitsa moyo wautumiki kuyambira 2000 mpaka 4000 maola. Kutulutsa kowala kuli pakati pa 15 ndi 22 lm / W.

Maatomu a Tungsten omwe amatulutsidwa pantchito amagwiritsa ntchito mpweya wotsalira komanso mpweya wotsekemera, womwe umathetsa mawonekedwe a botolo. Mawonekedwe ozungulira a babu ndi kufupika kwakanthawi kochepa kumapereka chidwi kwambiri, chifukwa chake zinthu ngati izi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira magetsi m'galimoto.

Xenon (kutulutsa mpweya)

Ichi ndi mtundu wamakono wazowunikira. Gwero lowunikira ndi arc yamagetsi yopangidwa pakati pama electrode awiri a tungsten, omwe ali mu babu yodzaza ndi xenon. Kuti muwonjezere kuwala, xenon imakakamizidwa mpaka mumlengalenga 30. Kutentha kwamtundu wa radiation kumafikira 6200-8000K, chifukwa chake zofunikira zapadera zogwirira ntchito ndi kukonza zimafunikira nyali zotere. Mawotchiwa ali pafupi ndi masana, koma palinso magetsi a mercury-xenon omwe amapatsa mtundu wabuluu. Chowunikira sichikuwoneka. Pachifukwa ichi, ziwonetsero zapadera zimagwiritsidwa ntchito zomwe zimawunikira kuunika komwe mukufuna.

Zipangizo zoterezi zimawala kwambiri, koma palinso zosokoneza pakugwiritsa ntchito kwawo. Choyambirira, galimotoyo iyenera kukhala ndi makina osinthira oyenda modutsa komanso makina oyatsira magetsi kuti zisawonongeke magalimoto obwera. Malo oyatsira amafunikanso kupereka magetsi kuti arc ichitike.

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LED

Zinthu za LED zikutchuka kwambiri tsopano. Poyamba, nyali za LED zimagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka ngati magetsi a mabuleki, nyali zakumbuyo, ndi zina zambiri. M'tsogolomu, opanga makina amatha kusinthiratu kuyatsa kwa LED.

Kuwala kwa nyali zotere kumapangidwa chifukwa chotulutsa ma photon kuchokera kwa semiconductors magetsi akagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mawonekedwewa amatha kukhala osiyana kutengera kapangidwe ka mankhwala. Mphamvu ya nyali zamagalimoto a LED imatha kufikira 70-100 lm / W, yomwe imakwera kangapo kuposa nyali za halogen.

Ubwino waukadaulo wa LED ndi monga:

  • kugwedera ndi mantha kukana;
  • Kuchita bwino kwambiri;
  • kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa;
  • kutentha kwakukulu;
  • kusamalira zachilengedwe.

Kodi ndizotheka kuyika nyali za xenon ndi LED pamagetsi

Kukhazikitsa kwa xenon kapena nyali za LED kumatha kubweretsa mavuto ndi lamuloli, chifukwa mphamvu zawo ndizokwera kangapo kuposa ma halogen. Pali njira zitatu zazikulu zogwiritsa ntchito nyali zamagalimoto za LED:

  1. Kugwiritsa ntchito ma LED pamutu wotsika komanso wokwera kwambiri koyambirira kumalingaliridwa ndi automaker, ndiye kuti, galimotoyo idagulidwa pakukonzekera uku.
  2. Mutha kukhazikitsa ma LED kapena xenon panokha ngati mungakwanitse kuyikamo mitengo yotsika mtengo kwambiri. Pankhaniyi, muyenera kusintha kwathunthu nyali.
  3. Kukhazikitsa ma LED mu nyali zofananira za halogen zamagalimoto.

Njira yotsirizayi siyololedwa kwathunthu, chifukwa mawonekedwe ndi kuchuluka kwa kuunikira kumasintha.

Samalani zolemba. Ngati HR / HC yatchulidwa, izi zikugwirizana ndi kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa nyali za halogen. Kwa xenon, index yolingana ndi D ndi LED yama diode. Mphamvu ya gwero loyatsa siliyenera kusiyana ndi zomwe adalengeza opanga.

Palinso zofunikira zina za Customs Union technical Regulations pazida za xenon ndi zida za xenon. Payenera kukhala dongosolo lokonzekera lokha la nyali yoyang'ana pang'onopang'ono, komanso chida choyeretsera. Ngati kuphwanya malamulo kumapereka chindapusa cha ma ruble 500. Nthawi zina, mpaka kuwalanditsa ufulu kuyambira miyezi isanu ndi umodzi mpaka chaka chimodzi.

Mukamasankha ndi m'malo mwa nyali zamagalimoto, muyenera kumvera chodetsa kuti musankhe mtundu woyenera. Ndikofunika kusankha mababu omwe amalimbikitsidwa ndi wopanga.

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