Kutumiza Kwamanja

Zamkatimu

Kutumiza pamanja sikofala pagalimoto monga momwe zidaliri kale, koma izi sizimalepheretsa kukhala zofunikira komanso zofunikira. Kutumiza kwamtunduwu kumakondedwa ndi madalaivala omwe amakonda kuwongolera magudumu akusunthira kapena kutsika. Kwa oyendetsa galimoto ambiri, ulendowu siwosangalatsa kwenikweni ngati galimoto ili ndi zodziwikiratu kapena zozungulira.

Kutumiza pamanja ndikofanana ndikudalirika ndipo kukufunikabe chifukwa chakusungidwa kwake ndi kuphweka kwa chipangizocho. Komabe, ndi anthu ochepa okha omwe amadziwa mtundu wa chipangizocho, momwe chimagwirira ntchito. Tikukulimbikitsani kuti mudzidziwe bwino "makina "wo ndikumvetsetsa mfundo zakuyendera.
Chithunzi chotumiza pamanja

Momwe ntchito

Kutumiza kwamakina kumafunika kuti musinthe makokedwewo ndikusamutsa kuchokera ku injini yoyaka yamkati kupita mawilo. Makokedwe akubwera kuchokera ku injini amaperekedwa ku shaft yolowetsera bokosi lamagiya pogwiritsa ntchito ngo. Chifukwa cha ichi, chimasinthidwa ndimagulumagulu olumikizirana (masitepe) ndikufalitsa mwachindunji kuma mawilo amgalimoto.

Magulu onse azida ali ndi chiŵerengero chawo cha magiya, chomwe chimayang'anira kuchuluka kwa kusinthaku komanso kuperekera kwa torque kuchokera pa crankshaft ya injini mpaka mawilo. Kuwonjezeka kwa makokedwe ndi kufalitsa kumapangitsa kuchepa kwa liwiro la crankshaft. Pakuchepa, zosiyana ndizowona.
Musanasinthe magiya mu bokosi lamagetsi lamagetsi, kufinya chopangira kumafunika kuti musokoneze kutuluka kwa mphamvu kuchokera ku injini yoyaka yamkati. Kuyamba kwa kayendedwe ka galimoto nthawi zonse kumachitika kuyambira gawo loyamba (kupatula magalimoto), ndikuwonjezeka kwamagalimoto kumachitika pang'onopang'ono, ndikusintha kwamayendedwe a gearbox kuchokera pansi mpaka pamwamba. Nthawi yosinthira imadziwika ndi kuthamanga kwa galimoto ndi zisonyezo za zida: tachometer ndi liwiro.

Zinthu zazikuluzikulu za chipindacho

Zinthu zazikuluzikulu m'bokosi ndi izi:

  • Zowalamulira. Makinawa amakulolani kuti musalumikize bwino shaft yolowera m'bokosilo crankshaft... Iyo yakwera pa flywheel ya injini ndipo imakhala ndi ma disc awiri omwe amakhala mu block imodzi (clutch basket). Mukasindikiza chojambulira, zimbalezi sizimalumikizidwa, ndipo kasinthasintha ka shaft yamagiya imasiya. Izi zimathandizira kuti kufalitsa kuzisunthira ku zida zomwe mukufuna. Chotulutsa chikatulutsidwa, makokedwe kuchokera pa crankshaft kupita ku flywheel amapita pachikuto, kenako kukanikiza ndikupita ku disc yoyendetsedwa. Chombo choyendetsa cha bokosicho chimayikidwa mu chipinda cha diski yoyendetsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito kulumikizana. Kenako, kasinthasintha imafalikira ku magiya, omwe amasankhidwa ndi dalaivala wogwiritsa ntchito cholembera chamagiya.
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1 Sceplenie (1)
  • Zitsulo ndi magiya. Zinthu izi zimapezeka pakufalitsa kulikonse. Cholinga chawo ndikutumiza makokedwe kuchokera ku mota kupita ku kusiyanitsa, nkhani yotumiza kapena gimbalkomanso kusintha liwiro la kasinthasintha wa mawilo oyendetsa. Gulu la magiya limapereka kulumikizana kodalirika kwa shafts, komwe mphamvu zamagalimoto zimafalikira kumayendedwe oyendetsa. Mtundu umodzi wamagiya umakhazikika pamisasa mwamphamvu (mwachitsanzo, magiya apakatikati, omwe amapangidwa ngati chidutswa chimodzi ndi shaft yapakatikati), inayo imasunthika (mwachitsanzo, kutsetsereka, komwe kumayikidwa pa shaft yotulutsa). Kuti muchepetse phokoso mukamatumiza, magiya amapangidwa ndi mano owonera.
2 Shesterenki (1)
  • Othandizira. Kapangidwe kazigawozi kumatsimikizira kuti liwiro la kasinthasintha wa masipeti awiri odziyimira palokha ndilofanana. Pambuyo potembenuza kwa matayala olowetsera ndi kutulutsa atalumikizidwa, cholowacho chimalumikizidwa ndi zida zotumizira pogwiritsa ntchito kulumikizana kwa spline. Njira imeneyi siyikuphatikizira zadzidzidzi mukamayendetsa liwiro, komanso kuvala msanga kwa zida zolumikizidwa.
3 Zofananira (1)

Chithunzicho chikuwonetsa chimodzi mwanjira zomwe bokosi lamakina limasankhira:

Kudula (1)

Mitundu yamagwiritsidwe pamanja

Buku lothandizira ndi lamitundu ingapo. Kutengera kuchuluka kwa ma shafp omwe amangidwa, pali kusiyana pakati pa:

  • awiri-kutsinde (anaika pa galimoto zonyamula ndi kutsogolo-gudumu pagalimoto);
  • ma shaft atatu (omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito poyendetsa kumbuyo komanso kunyamula katundu).

Malinga ndi kuchuluka kwa masitepe (magiya), gearbox ndi 4, 5 ndi 6 liwiro.

Mawotchi opatsirana

Kapangidwe ka kagwiritsidwe kogwiritsa ntchito pamakhala zinthu izi:

  1. Bokosi lanyumba lokhala ndi magawo ofunikira.
  2. Zoyeserera: zoyambira, zachiwiri, zapakatikati ndi zowonjezera (zosinthira).
  3. Kulunzanitsa. Amayambitsa kusowa kwa ma jerks komanso kuthamanga kwamagiya a gearbox posintha magiya.
  4. Makina osunthira zida, kuphatikiza zokhoma ndi zotseka.
  5. Shift lever (yomwe ili m'chipinda chonyamula).

Chithunzichi pansipa chikuthandizani kumvetsetsa mwatsatanetsatane kapangidwe ka kapangidwe kake: Mawotchi opatsirana Nambala 1 ikuwonetsa komwe kuli shaft yoyamba, nambala 2 ikuwonetsa lever yosinthira zida pamalo osakira. Nambala 3 ikuwonetsa kusinthaku komweko. 4, 5 ndi 6 - kutsinde lachiwiri, kukhetsa pulagi ndi shaft yapakatikati, motsatana. Ndipo nambala 7 imayimira crankcase.
Ndikoyenera kudziwa kuti kufalikira kwa mitundu itatu ya shaft ndi mitundu iwiri ya shaft ndiyosiyana kwambiri wina ndi mnzake momwe amagwirira ntchito komanso momwe amagwirira ntchito.

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Bokosi lamagetsi lamapasa: kapangidwe ndi kayendedwe kake

Pogwiritsira ntchito motere, makokedwewo amaperekedwa kuchokera ku injini yoyaka moto mpaka kutsinde lolowera chifukwa cha cholowacho. Magiya a shaft, omwe ali pamalo amodzi ndi ma synchronizers, amasinthasintha mozungulira olamulirawo. Makokedwe ochokera kutsinde lachiwiri amafalikira kudzera pagiya yayikulu ndikusiyanitsa (komwe kumayendetsa kutembenuka kwa magudumu mosiyanasiyana mosiyanasiyana) molunjika kumagudumu amgalimoto. Ma gearbox awiri-shaft Shaft yoyendetsedwa ili ndi zida zazikulu zotetezedwa. Makina osinthira magiya amapezeka mthupi la bokosilo ndipo amaphatikizira mafoloko ndi ndodo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito posinthira cholumikizira cha synchronizer. Pogwiritsa ntchito zida zosinthira, shaft yowonjezera yokhala ndi zida zapakatikati zimagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Bokosi lamagalimoto atatu: chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Kutumiza kwamakina atatu kosiyanasiyana kumasiyana ndi koyambako pakupezeka kwa ma shafts atatu ogwira ntchito. Kuphatikiza pa kuyendetsa ndi kuyendetsa shafts, palinso shaft yapakatikati. Ntchito zoyambilira zimayenderana ndi zowalamulira ndipo ndizoyenera kupatsira makokedwe kutsinde lapakatikati pazida zofananira. Chifukwa cha kapangidwe kameneka, ma shafts onse atatu amachita zinthu mosalekeza. Udindo wa shaft wapakati poyerekeza ndi choyambirira ndi wofanana (ndikofunikira kukonza magiya pamalo amodzi). Mawotchi opatsirana Kudziwika kwa kapangidwe ka bokosi lamakina kumatanthauza kupezeka kwa mashefti awiri pa 1 axis: yachiwiri ndi yoyamba. Zida za shaft yoyendetsedwa zimatha kuzungulira momasuka, chifukwa zilibe zovuta zolimba. Makina osunthira ali pano pathupi la gearbox. Imakhala ndi cholembera chowongolera, tsinde ndi mafoloko.

Zovuta ndiziti?

Nthawi zambiri, kufalitsa kwamanja kumawonongeka pomwe dalaivala amasuntha magiya. Posamutsa zida kuchokera wina ndi mnzake ndi kayendedwe lakuthwa, sikungatheke kupewa kuphwanya. Mchitidwe wogwiritsa ntchito gearbox uzitsogolera kuwonongeka kwa makina osinthira ndi ma synchronizers.

Ubwino ndi zovuta za cheke

Pomwe zingatheke kugwiritsa ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana, oyendetsa magalimoto amayerekezera zabwino ndi zoyipa zawo. Bokosi lamakina lilinso ndi maubwino ndi zovuta zake.

Makanika (1)

Ubwino wake ndi monga:

  • Zochepa thupi komanso zotchipa poyerekeza ndimakina otengera;
  • amalola dalaivala kuyendetsa nthawi pakati pa kusintha kwa magiya, kukulitsa mphamvu pakufulumira;
  • kugwiritsa ntchito mwaluso, woyendetsa akhoza kuchepetsa mafuta;
  • Kuchita bwino kwambiri;
  • kapangidwe kake ndi kophweka, chifukwa chake makinawo ndi odalirika kwambiri;
  • kosavuta kukonza ndikusamalira kuposa anzanu;
  • Mukamayendetsa pamsewu, zimakhala zosavuta kusankha njira yoyenera yomwe ikufatsa injini;
  • luso loyendetsa galimoto ndikutumiza pamanja limalimbikitsidwa kwambiri pophunzitsa oyendetsa atsopano. M'mayiko ena, ufulu wa anthu obwera kumene umadziwika kuti "alibe ufulu woyendetsa galimoto yopititsa patsogolo" ngati atadutsa mukuyendetsa galimoto yodziwikiratu. Pankhani yophunzitsidwa pa "makina" amaloledwa kuyendetsa magalimoto osiyanasiyana amtundu womwewo;
  • mutha kukoka galimoto. Galimoto imathanso kukoka zokha, pokhapokha ngati pali zoletsa zina.
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Makina 1 (1)

Zoyipa za makina:

  • kwa okonda chitonthozo ndi iwo omwe atopa ndi kuwunika kosalekeza kwamagalimoto apano, njira yabwino ndikutumiza kwadzidzidzi;
  • Pamafunika m'malo m'malo zowalamulira;
  • maluso ena amafunikira pakusunthira kosalala (analogi yokhayo imathandizira kuthamangitsa popanda ma jerks ndi ma dips).

Kuyendetsa galimoto ndi mwayi komanso mwayi. Chosavuta cha kukoka mfulu kwamagalimoto ndikuti ndikosavuta kuba. Koma ngati galimoto siyiyamba chifukwa cha batire lakufa (tidamvera nyimbo papikisheni kwa nthawi yayitali), titha kuyambitsa ndikuthamangitsa pa liwiro losalowerera ndikupanga zida. Poterepa, makokedwewo amapita mbali ina - kuchokera pa mawilo kupita pagalimoto, mofananira ndi zoyambira. Izi ndizophatikiza pamakina.

Bukir (1)

Ndi "makina otsogola" ambiri izi sizigwira ntchito, chifukwa ma disc a clutch akupanikizana wina ndi mnzake chifukwa cha kukakamizidwa kwa mpope wamafuta wogwira ntchito pomwe injini ikuyenda. Pakazungulira kwamagudumu mumitundu yambiri, gearbox yonse imagwira ntchito, motero kukankha galimoto kumakhala kovuta kwambiri kuposa galimoto ya "makina". Chifukwa chakusowa kwa magiya othira magiya, zimango zamagalimoto sizikulimbikitsa kukoka magalimoto okhala ndi zotumiza zokhazokha pamtunda wautali.

Monga mukuwonera, kufalitsa pamanja ndichinthu chofunikira, popanda chomwe galimoto silingapite, ngakhale mphamvu ya injini iti. "Makina" amakupatsani mwayi wosankha liwiro lagalimoto, kufinya mphamvu yayitali kwambiri pagalimoto. Ndiwotsika mtengo komanso wosavuta kuposa kufala kwadzidzidzi, ngakhale kuli kotsika kwambiri poyerekeza ndi "zodziwikiratu" mukamayendetsa.

Mafunso wamba:

Kodi kufalitsa pamanja ndi chiyani? Kutumiza pamanja ndi gearbox momwe kusankha kwa liwiro kumachitika kwathunthu ndi driver. Nthawi yomweyo, zomwe woyendetsa galimotoyo adachita komanso kumvetsetsa kwake kwa magwiridwe antchito a gearshift kumathandiza kwambiri.

Bokosi lamagiya limapangidwa ndi chiyani? Kutumiza kwamanja kumakhala ndi dengu lokulumikiza, lomwe limalumikizidwa ndi flywheel ndi shaft yolowetsera; shaft yapakatikati ndi yachiwiri yokhala ndi magiya; sinthani makina osinthira. Kuphatikiza apo, shaft yokhala ndi zida zosinthira imayikidwa.

Kodi bokosi lamagalimoto lili kuti mgalimoto? M'galimoto, kufalitsa kwamanja nthawi zonse kumakhala pafupi ndi injini. Galimoto yokhala ndi magudumu oyenda kumbuyo ili ndi dongosolo lakutali kwa bokosilo, ndipo loyendetsa kutsogolo limadutsa.

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