Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Zamkatimu

Poyendetsa bwino galimoto iliyonse, aliyense wamagalimoto sayenera kungoyang'anira momwe zinthu zikuyendera, komanso kuwathandizira munthawi yake. Kuwongolera ntchito yodziwitsa nthawi ya njira iliyonse, wopanga makina amapanga dongosolo lokonza.

Pakukonzekera nthawi zonse, zida zonse ndi misonkhano imafufuzidwa ngati zolakwika. Njirayi idapangidwa kuti iteteze kuwonongeka kwamagalimoto panjira. Pankhani ya njira zina, izi zimatha kubweretsa ngozi. Ganizirani zomwe zimakhudzana ndikusamalira ma transmissions.

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Nthawi zambiri, kukonza magalimoto kumakhala m'magulu atatu:

  • Kusamalira koyamba. Pakadali pano, madzi ndi zosefera zambiri zimasinthidwa. Kumangika kwa zomangira kumayang'aniridwa pamayendedwe onse omwe mapangidwe amphamvu amapangidwa. Gululi mulinso ma gearbox. Mapazi oyenda (mahinji) afewetsedwa, ndipo mabowo olowetsa mpweya amatsukidwa. Mulingo wamafuta mu crankcase amawunika. Pachifukwa ichi, mitundu yambiri yamagalimoto imakhala ndi kafukufuku wapadera, wofanana ndi mawonekedwe a injini. Gawo la pansi limadziwika ndi osachepera komanso osachepera.
  • Kukonzanso kwachiwiri. Mafuta amasinthidwa m'bokosi, mabowo olowetsa mpweya amatsukidwa. Ngati galimoto ili ndi chikwama chonyamulira, ndiye kuti mafuta ake amasintha limodzi ndi mafuta amagetsi. Kusintha kumayenera kuchitika pambuyo paulendo waufupi. Izi zimapangitsa mafuta kukhala amadzimadzi kwambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti kukhale kosavuta kukoka pa crankcase.
  • Utumiki wanyengo. Ngakhale makamaka oyendetsa omwe amasintha mawilo masika / nthawi yophukira, muyenera kulabadira malingaliro osintha mafuta. M'madera ambiri, kufalitsaku kumadzaza mafuta amitundu yambiri. Komabe, kumadera akumpoto, mafuta amafunika nyengo. Poterepa, pakusintha kwa matayala achisanu, woyendetsa galimotoyo amayenera kudzaza mafuta ozizira, ndipo nthawi yachilimwe, m'malo mwake, chilimwe.

Kukonza magalimoto pafupipafupi kumachitika pafupipafupi. Makina opanga makinawo amaika mayendedwe omwe ntchitoyo iyenera kuchitidwa. Nthawi zambiri TO-1 imachitika pambuyo pa 15 zikwi, ndipo TO-2 - 30 - makilomita zikwi makumi atatu kuyambira poyambira (mwachitsanzo, kugula galimoto yatsopano, kukonza kwakukulu, ndi zina zambiri). Mosasamala kanthu za galimotoyo, muyeso wamafuta mu crankcase uyenera kuyang'aniridwa nthawi iliyonse. Ngati ndi kotheka (mulingo woyandikira mtengo wochepa kapena pansipa) mafuta amawonjezedwa.

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Mukasintha mafuta mumayunitsi ena, m'mimbamo muyenera kuthiridwa mafuta apadera. Poterepa, wopanga akuwonetsa momwe njirayi imagwirira ntchito ndi galimoto iliyonse. Kawirikawiri, mafuta akale amatayidwa, m'mimbamo mumadzaza zinthu zochepa, ndipo galimoto imayamba ndikuyenda mopanda kanthu. Pambuyo pa njirayi, madziwo amatuluka ndipo amathira mafuta atsopano.

Ngati panthawi yamagalimoto pali phokoso laphokoso kapena kunjenjemera kochokera pagalimoto, simuyenera kudikirira kuti galimoto iyende ma kilometre ofunikira kuti muwone chomwe chili vuto. Ndibwino kuti mutenge galimotoyo kuti mupeze matenda opatsirana kapena muzichita nokha ngati muli ndi chidziwitso pochita izi.

Kuphatikiza pakuwunika kwagalimoto, woyendetsa aliyense ayenera kukhala tcheru ndi bokosilo, mosasamala kanthu kuti ndi mtundu wamakina kapena zodziwikiratu (kuti mumve zambiri za mitundu yamagalimoto oyendetsera magalimoto, werengani apa). Posintha magiya, dalaivala sayenera kuyesetsa kwambiri. Pakusunthira lever wabokosi, palibe kudina, kugogoda ndi phokoso lina lakunja lomwe lisawoneke. Kupanda kutero, muyenera kulumikizana ndi makaniko kuti akuthandizeni.

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Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Mukamayendetsa, bokosilo siliyenera kutentha kwambiri. Kuti muwonetsetse kuti chipangizocho chikuyenda bwino, ndikwanira kuti muyime panjira ndikuyang'ana kutentha mwakutsamira dzanja lanu mthupi. Momwemonso, bokosi lamagetsi liyenera kukhala lotentha mokwanira kuti likutsamira dzanja lanu osakumana ndi zotengeka. Kutumiza kukatentha kwambiri, samverani mafuta.

Mavuto pakagwiritsidwe ka bokosi lamakina

Kwenikweni, kufalitsa pamanja ndi mtundu wodalirika wofalitsa pakati pazosintha zonse, chifukwa chake mosamala bwino zimatha nthawi yayitali. Choipa kwambiri pa bokosi lamagalimoto lotere ndikutulutsa mafuta kuchokera pa crankcase. Izi zitha kuchitika ngati dalaivala sanasamale madontho a mafuta, mwachitsanzo, pamalo opangira zisindikizo zamafuta, komanso m'malo olumikizirana thupi.

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Ngati, mutayimitsa mayendedwe, ngakhale banga laling'ono la mafuta lapangika pansi pake, muyenera kulabadira zomwe zatulukazo mwachangu ndikuchotseratu. Komanso, dalaivala ayenera kusamala ngati kagwiridwe kake ka makina kasintha: ngati pali phokoso lakunja kapena kuyesayesa kowonjezera kuti apange zida.

Mukangoyamba kugwedezeka kapena kugogoda, m'pofunika kuti mukonze bwino, mwachitsanzo, m'malo mwa dengu lonyamula kapena, ngati mwanyalanyaza kwambiri, zida zogwiritsa ntchito.

Ganizirani zinthu zofunika kwambiri pakufalitsa, komanso zomwe zimayambitsa.

Kusintha kwamagetsi kovuta

Kusunthira magalasi kumafunikira kuyesetsa kwambiri pazochitika izi:

  1. Dengu lonyamula mwina silingagwire bwino ntchito. Nthawi zambiri, ngati chipangizochi chimasokonekera, phokoso lamphamvu limamveka liwiro likatsegulidwa. Zimayambitsidwa ndi kukhudzana kwa mano a magiya omwe ali m'bokosilo chifukwa choti cholemetsa sichimadulidwa kuchokera pa flywheel. Zotsatira zake, ngakhale dalaivala akakanikiza chowombera chowongolera, shaft yoyendetsa siyima, koma imapitilizabe kuzungulira. Izi nthawi zambiri zimachitika ndikumangika kachingwe kofooka.
  2. Foloko yosinthayo idapunduka. Ngati sikungatheke kuthetsa kusinthaku, gawolo liyenera kusinthidwa.
  3. Ma Synchronizers atopa, chifukwa chake kuthamanga kwa kasinthasintha kwa zoyendetsa ndi zoyendetsa sikukugwirizana. Zotsatira zake ndikutuluka kwamagiya pomwe zida zofananira zikugwira ntchito. Kulephera koteroko kumatha kuthetsedwa ndikusintha ma synchronizers. Iwo amaikidwa pa shaft yotulutsa, kotero shaft yoyendetsedwa imachotsedwa kuti ikonzedwe ndikusungunuka.
  4. Cardan akusewera. Izi nthawi zambiri zimachitika ndikusintha kwamakani. Ngati sizingatheke kuthana ndi scuffs ndi sandpaper (gawolo liyenera kuchotsedwa pazomwezi), ndiye kuti chinthuchi chiyenera kusinthidwa ndi chatsopano.
  5. Zitsulo za mphanda zimayenda mwakhama kwambiri. Ngati sikutheka kuzindikira ndikuchotsa vutoli, tsatanetsatanewo amasinthidwa ndi ena atsopano.

Kutsekemera kwadzidzidzi kapena kutengeka kosavuta kwa magiya

Cholakwika china pamakaniko ndikuti pakuyendetsa, liwiro lomwe limaphatikizidwalo limangoyimitsidwa. Zimachitikanso pamene dalaivala amasunthira lever pamalo achitatu, ndikutsegulira koyamba (zomwezo zitha kuchitika chachisanu ndi chachitatu). Zinthu ngati izi ndizowopsa chifukwa poyambirira ndichizindikiro cha kuwonongeka kwa makina.

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Muzochitika zachiwiri, ngati palibe chomwe chidachitika, dalaivala amathyola bokosilo. Magiya akasintha kuchoka pachinayi kufika pachisanu, liwiro lagalimoto siligwirizananso ndi lachitatu. Ngati m'malo mwa 5, wachitatu akutembenukira, ndiye kuti galimotoyo imachedwetsa kwambiri. Poterepa, magetsi a mabuleki sagwira ntchito, chifukwa dalaivala samagwiritsa ntchito mabuleki. Mwachilengedwe, galimoto yotsatila kumbuyo "ingakumane" ndi galimotoyo. Koma ngakhale mumsewu wopanda kanthu, kusunthira kosayenera kwamagalimoto kumabweretsa kudzaza kufalitsa ndi kuwonongeka kwake koyambirira.

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Pazifukwa zina, kufalitsa kumatha kutsekedwa pakokha:

  • Kutseka mphete pama synchronizers kwatha. Poterepa, ziwalo ziyenera kusinthidwa.
  • Mano ophatikizira a synchronizer atopa. Kuti mukonzeke, muyenera kuchotsa shaft yotulutsa ndikuyiwononga.
  • Wosunga foloko yosinthayo watha kapena kasupe wake wasweka. Kulephera koteroko kumachitika, chosungira mpira masika kumasinthidwa.

Zida zimatha kusinthidwa molakwika chifukwa chakuwoneka kwachitukuko pa zingwe zolumikizira (kuti mumve zambiri chifukwa chake kulumikizana kukufunika pakufalitsa, werengani nkhani yapadera). Chifukwa chakubwerera m'mbuyo, dalaivala amayenera kusunthira cholembera chammbali chammbali ndi matalikidwe akulu. Nthawi zina, kuti atsegule giya yachisanu, ena amayenera kusunthira cholembacho pansi pa phazi la wokwera yemwe wakhala pambali pake (zomwe zimachitika mgalimoto zambiri zapakhomo).

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Kuti muchotse vuto lotere, muyenera kusintha cardan ndikusintha rocker. Nthawi zina, m'malo gawo wamba, mutha kuyika analogue pagalimoto ina. Mwachitsanzo, eni ena a VAZ 2108-99 amataya zingwe za fakitaleyo, ndikuyika analogue kuchokera ku "Kalina" m'malo mwake.

Kuchuluka kwa phokoso

Bokosi likamapanga phokoso kwambiri poyenda, izi zitha kuwonetsa limodzi mwamavuto otsatirawa:

  1. Mulingo wamafuta m'bokosiwo uli pansi pamlingo wochepa. Poterepa, pamafunika kubwezeretsanso kuchepa kwa kuchuluka kwa madzi amisili, koma zisanachitike, muyenera kudziwa chifukwa chake adasowa. Ngati makinawo alibe chipika chowunikira kuchuluka kwa madzimadzi m'bokosimo (mwachitsanzo, kufalitsa kwa 2108 kulibe gawo lotere), ndiye kuti ndiye kuti malowo ndi omwe adzadzaze, ndiye kuti m'munsi mwake.
  2. Zimbalangondo zatha. Ngati chifukwa cha phokoso chili mwa iwo, ndiye kuti chitetezo chiyenera kusinthidwa.
  3. Ma synchronizer ovala kapena zida zimakhala ndi zofanana. Ayeneranso kusinthidwa ndi othandizira.
  4. Zitsulo zomwe zili m'bokosizo zimayenda mozungulira. Izi ndichifukwa chakukula kwa mayendedwe kapena kuwonongeka kwa omwe amasunga. Kupatula kusintha ziwalo zosalongosoka, izi sizingathetsedwe mwanjira ina iliyonse.

Kutayikira mafuta

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Ngati ma dripu amafuta amapezeka pansi pa bokosilo, ndipo nthawi zina pamwamba pake, muyenera kumvera:

  • Kusindikiza ma gaskets. Ayenera kusinthidwa ndi atsopano.
  • Zisindikizo za Box. Pakukhazikitsa khafu yatsopano, mbuyeyo amatha kupukusa gawolo kapena kusagwiritsa ntchito mafuta mbali yomwe shaft imalumikizidwa, chifukwa chake m'mphepete mwake adakutidwa kapena sakukwanira bwino ndi kulumikizana kwa gawolo. Ngati kutayikira kwamafuta kumachitika chifukwa cha gawo lomwe silinayikidwe bwino, muyenera kulumikizana ndi katswiri wina.
  • Kuyika mphasa kapena magawo a bokosilo. Ngati ma gaskets asintha posachedwa ndipo kutuluka kwawonekera, yang'anani kulimba kwa ma bolts.
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta olakwika. Mwachitsanzo, galimoto imafunikira kuthira mchere, ndipo woyendetsa galimoto wadzaza zopangira, zomwe zimakhala ndimadzimadzi ambiri, zomwe zimatha kuyambitsa kutayika ngakhale pamakina omwe angokonzedwa kumene.
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Momwe mungasinthire mafuta pamakina

Mitundu ina yamagalimoto amakono sikuyenera kusintha kusintha kwamafuta. Awa makamaka ndi mabokosi okhaokha. Opanga amadzaza mafuta, omwe gwero lawo limafanana ndi nthawi yogwiritsira ntchito zodziwikiratu. Mu makina, mafuta amafunika kusinthidwa. M'mbuyomu, nthawi yosinthira inali mkati mwamakilomita awiri kapena atatu.

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Izi zidachitika chifukwa cha mafuta, komanso kupsinjika kwa makinawo. Lero, chifukwa cha zinthu zatsopano ndi mitundu yonse ya zowonjezera, nthawi iyi yawonjezeka kwambiri.

Makaniko ambiri amalangiza kusintha kwa mafuta pakatha pafupifupi makilomita 80. Kuti mumve zambiri za mafuta abwino opatsirana, onani ndemanga ina.

Kukonzekera kwa gearbox

Ngakhale ma gearbox oyenda akhoza kukhala ndi kusiyana pang'ono, mawonekedwe ake amakhalabe ofanana. Kusintha mafuta wamafuta kumakhalanso chimodzimodzi nthawi zonse. Nayi momwe ikuchitikira:

  • Timakonza zotengera zopanda kanthu (kuchuluka kwa bokosilo kumawonetsedwa muzolemba zamayendedwe) kuti mugwire ntchito;
  • Mafutawo amasintha pambuyo paulendo, kotero ngati galimotoyo idangoyima, muyenera kuyendetsa pang'ono musanachite izi kuti madzi omwe ali mgawo ayambe kutentha;
  • Timasula pulagi yakukhetsa;
  • Zinyalazi zimathiridwa muchidebe chopanda kanthu;
  • Mafuta amchere amadzazidwa (izi zimafunikira magalimoto akale apanyumba). Voliyumu - pafupifupi 0.7 malita;
  • Timayambitsa injini, iyende pafupifupi mphindi zisanu mwachangu komanso osalowerera ndale;
  • Timakhetsa mafuta (kutsuka uku kumakupatsani mwayi woti muchotse zotsalira zamafuta omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito kuchokera pa crankcase, ndimitundu yaying'ono yazitsulo);
  • Lembani mafuta atsopano malinga ndi milingo yomwe yawonetsedwa pa dipstick.

Pambuyo pa ntchitoyi, mulingo wamafuta uyenera kuwunikidwa ngati galimoto yayenda osapitilira makilomita zikwi khumi. Izi siziyenera kuchitika atangotha ​​ulendowu, chifukwa madzimadzi ena amasungidwa pamagiya ndi mbali zina za makinawo. Kulibwino kuyimitsa galimoto kwakanthawi. Izi zidzalola mafuta kuti asonkhanitse mu sump. Ngati voliyumu ikufunika kudzazidwanso, gwiritsani ntchito mafuta omwewo. Pachifukwa ichi, oyendetsa galimoto odziwa bwino amagula mafuta ndi mafuta.

Ngati galimoto yamagetsi imagulidwa pamsika wachiwiri, ndikofunikira kuti muwone ngati bokosilo lingagwire ntchito mgalimoto yotereyi. Nayi kanema wachidule wamomwe mungachitire:

Timadzifufuza patokha

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Ndi ma gearbox amtundu wanji? Pali mabokosi awiri osiyana: makina ndi automatic. Gulu lachiwiri limaphatikizapo: CVT (kutumiza kosalekeza), loboti ndi zodziwikiratu.

Kodi mkati mwa gearbox ndi chiyani? Shaft yolowetsa, shaft yotulutsa, shaft, makina osinthira (magiya), crankcase yokhala ndi pulagi ya drain. Loboti ili ndi ma clutch awiri, chodziwikiratu komanso chosinthira - chosinthira ma torque.

Ndi gearbox iti yomwe ili yodalirika kwambiri? Zachikale zodziwikiratu, chifukwa ndizodalirika, zokhazikika (ndalama zogulira zotsika mtengo komanso akatswiri odziwa zambiri). Idzapereka chitonthozo chochuluka kuposa zimango.

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