Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Zamkatimu

Zipangizo zamagetsi zamafuta dizilo amakono zimatha kusiyanasiyana kutengera mtundu wamafuta omwe wopanga amagwiritsa ntchito pagalimoto yake. Chimodzi mwazinthu zopita patsogolo kwambiri m'dongosolo lino ndi njanji yamafuta ya Common Rail.

Mwachidule, mfundo yogwirira ntchito yake ndi iyi: mpope wamafuta othamanga (werengani za chida chake apa) amapereka mafuta a dizilo kunjanji. M'chigawo ichi, mlingowu umagawidwa pakati pa mphutsi. Zambiri za dongosololi zafotokozedwa kale. mu ndemanga yapadera, koma njirayi imayendetsedwa ndi ECU komanso oyang'anira zamagetsi.

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Lero tikambirana mwatsatanetsatane za gawo ili, komanso matenda ake ndi mfundo ya ntchito.

Ntchito zamagetsi zamagetsi

Ntchito ya RTD ndikuwonetsetsa kuti mafuta ali ndi makina opangira injini. Izi, mosasamala kanthu za kukula kwa katundu wake, zimapitirizabe kupanikizika.

Injini ikathamanga kapena ikucheperachepera, kuchuluka kwa mafuta omwe angadye kumatha kukulirakulira kapena kutsika. Pofuna kupewa mapangidwe osakanikirana othamanga kwambiri, komanso olemera kwambiri pothamanga kwambiri, dongosololi limakhala ndi chopukusira.

Ubwino wina wowongolera ndi kulipidwa chifukwa chapanikizika kwambiri munjanji. Ngati galimotoyo sinali ndi gawo ili, zotsatirazi zikanachitika. Mpweya wocheperako ukamayenda modutsa mochulukira, koma kukakamira kumangokhala komweko, olamulirawo amangosintha nthawi yopangira mafuta (kapena VTS yomalizidwa kale).

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Komabe, pakadali pano, sizingatheke kubwezera mokwanira mutuwo. Mafuta ochulukirapo amayenera kupita kwina. Mu injini yamafuta, mafuta owonjezera amadzaza makandulo. Nthawi zina, chisakanizocho sichidzawotcha kwathunthu, chomwe chimapangitsa kuti tinthu tating'onoting'ono ta mafuta osayatsidwa tichotsedwe mu utsi. Izi zimawonjezera "kususuka" kwa chipangizocho ndikuchepetsa chilengedwe cha utsi wamagalimoto. Zotsatira za izi zitha kukhala zosiyana kwambiri - kuchokera ku mwaye wamphamvu mukamayendetsa pagalimoto kapena chidebe chosweka.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito kayendedwe ka mafuta

Woyang'anira kuthamanga kwamafuta amagwira ntchito molingana ndi mfundo zotsatirazi. Pampu yothamanga kwambiri imapangitsa kupanikizika, mafuta amayenda kudutsa pamzere wopita kukakhazikika, momwe woyang'anira amakhala (kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto).

Mafuta akapanikizika akapitilira momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito, kupsinjika kwadongosolo kumakwera. Ngati satayidwa, posakhalitsa dera ladzayamba kulumikizana kofooka. Pofuna kupewa kuwonongeka koteroko, woyang'anira amaikidwa munjanji (pali malo osungira mafuta), omwe amakumana ndi kukakamizidwa kwambiri ndikutsegulira nthambi ku dera lobwerera.

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Mafuta amalowa mu payipi yamafuta amafuta ndikubwerera mmbuyo mu thankiyo. Kuphatikiza pakuchepetsa kupsyinjika, RTD imayankha kutsuka komwe kumapangidwa munthawi zambiri. Chizindikirochi chikakwera, kuchepa kwa omwe amakulamulirani sikuyenera kupirira.

Ntchitoyi ndiyofunikira kuti injini igwiritse ntchito mafuta ochepa poyenda pang'ono. Koma valavu ya fulumizitsa ikangotseguka, chotsulocho chimachepa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti kasupe azikhala wolimba komanso kukakamizidwa kumakulanso.

chipangizo

Kapangidwe ka oyang'anira achikale amakhala ndi izi:

  • Thupi lolimba lachitsulo (liyenera kukhala lolimba bwino, chifukwa likukumana ndi kusintha kwa mafuta);
  • Mbali yamkati ya thupi imagawika patsekeko tiwiri ndi diaphragm;
  • Kuti mafuta aziponyedwa munjanji, valavu yoyika imayikidwa mthupi;
  • Pansi pa diaphragm imayikidwa kasupe wolimba (gawo lomwe mulibe mafuta). Izi zimasankhidwa ndi wopanga malinga ndi kusinthidwa kwa mafuta;
  • Pali zovekera zitatu pathupi: ziwiri zolumikizira zoperekazo (polowetsa kwa owongolera ndi kubwerekera kumibulu), ndi inayo yobwezera;
  • Kusindikiza zinthu posindikiza kuthamanga kwamafuta.
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Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Mfundo yayikulu yantchito ya RTD idafotokozedwa pamwambapa. Mwachidule, imagwira ntchito ngati iyi:

  • Mpope wamafuta othamanga amapopa mafuta munjanji;
  • Ma jakisoni amatseguka molingana ndi chizindikiritso kuchokera ku gawo lolamulira;
  • Pothamanga kwambiri, zonenepa sizifunikira mafuta ambiri, chifukwa chake ECU siyambitsa kutseguka kwamphamvu kwa ma nozzles;
  • Pampu yamafuta sasintha mawonekedwe ake, chifukwa chake, kupanikizika kwakukulu kumapangidwa m'dongosolo;
  • Kupanikizika kumayendetsa chifundiro chodzaza masika;
  • Dera limatseguka potaya mafuta mmbuyo mu thanki;
  • Woyendetsa amayendetsa petulo;
  • Khosilo limatseguka mwamphamvu;
  • Zingalowe muzakudya zambiri zimachepa;
  • Zowonjezera zina zimapangidwa mpaka kasupe;
  • Zimakhala zovuta kwambiri kuti chotupacho chikhalebe cholimbikira, chifukwa chake mkombero umapitilira pamlingo wina (kutengera momwe chimakhalira).

Muzosintha zina zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamafuta zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi pazitsulo za m'madzi Chitsanzo cha machitidwewa ndi njanji yamagetsi ya Common Rail.

Nayi kanema wamfupi momwe izi zimagwirira ntchito:

Timasokoneza owongolera pamagetsi a BOSCH. Mfundo yogwirira ntchito.

Malo pagalimoto

Galimoto yamakono momwe zida zotere zidzagwiritsidwira ntchito itha kugwiritsa ntchito imodzi mwanjira ziwiri zowongolera:

  • Chingwe cha mafuta chimakhala ndi mzere wobwerera. Poterepa, woyang'anira, kapena valavu, adzaikidwa panjanji yamafuta. Pipi yamagetsi idzakonzedwa pamalo olowera ma valavu (kumapeto kwake kuli cholowera kuchokera pampu, ndipo mbali inayo - malo otsegulira ma nozzles), ndipo potulutsa, payipi yolumikizira yolumikizidwa;Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi
  • Mzere wopanda recirculation. Pachifukwa ichi, woyang'anira amaikidwa pafupi ndi pampu yamafuta mu thanki yamafuta (nthawi zambiri amaphatikizidwa ndi kapangidwe kake). Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake kumayendetsedwa ndi ECU kapena makina ampopompo. Mafuta amatulutsidwa mthanki momwemo.Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Chiwembu choyamba chili ndi zovuta zingapo. Choyamba, unit ikadzakhumudwa, mafuta kapena dizilo amatsanulira mchipinda cha injini. Kachiwiri, mafuta osagwiritsidwa ntchito amatenthedwa mosafunikira ndikubwezeretsedwera mu thanki yamafuta.

Pa mtundu uliwonse wa injini umapangidwa kuti ukhale wosintha wowongolera. Mu magalimoto ena, mutha kugwiritsa ntchito RTD yapadziko lonse. Zitsanzo zoterezi zimatha kusinthidwa pamanja ndikukhala ndi vuto loyeserera. Zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati njira ina yoyang'anira yokhazikika, yomwe imayikidwa pa ramp.

Kuzindikira ndi zovuta za woyang'anira mafuta

Zosintha zonse zowongolera sizingathe kugawanika, chifukwa chake sizingakonzedwe. Nthawi zina, gawolo limatha kutsukidwa, koma gwero lake silikukula kuchokera apa. Gawo likawonongeka, limangosinthidwa ndi lina.

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Nazi zifukwa zazikulu zolephera:

  • Kasupe waswa;
  • Kupanga fistula mthupi (nthawi zambiri chifukwa chopitilira kuthamanga kapena kuwonongeka kwa makina);
  • Kuvala kwachilengedwe kwa zinthu zosuntha;
  • Dzimbiri mapangidwe;
  • Misewu yotseka.

Mukazindikira za chipangizocho, tiyenera kukumbukira kuti zina mwazizindikirozi ndizofanana ndi kuwonongeka kwa mpope wa jakisoni. Sizachilendo kuti mafuta asawonongeke, zomwe zimafanana kwambiri ndi kuwonongeka kwa woyang'anira. Chitsanzo cha izi ndi zosefera zothinana.

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Kuti chinthu ichi chigwiritse ntchito zomwe zapatsidwa, ndikofunikira kuti muzisamala ndi mafuta omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito.

Momwe mungayang'anire owongolera zamagetsi?

Pali njira zingapo zosavuta zowunikira oyang'anira mafuta. Koma tisanazilingalire, tiyeni tiwone zizindikiritso zomwe zitha kuwonetsa kulephera kwa RTD.

Kodi mungayang'ane liti yang'anira kuthamanga?

Kuvuta kuyambitsa injini kumatha kuwonetsa cholamulira cholakwika. Kuphatikiza apo, pamitundu ina yamagalimoto izi zimachitika injini ikangokhala (kuyamba kozizira), pomwe kwa ena, m'malo mwa yotentha.

Nthawi zina pamakhala zochitika zina, ngati gawo lina limawonongeka, uthenga wonena za modzidzimutsa wa injini ukuwonetsedwa pagulu lazida. Komabe, izi sizowonongeka zokha zomwe zimapangitsa kuti izi zitheke.

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Pa magalimoto ena, chizindikiro chokhala ndi koyilo chotenthetsera nthawi zimawonekera pa bolodi lapaulendo paulendo. Koma pakadali pano, musanalowe m'malo gawo, pakufunika kuti muzindikire.

Zizindikiro zosadziwika ndizo:

  1. Ntchito yosagwirizana ya unit;
  2. Galimoto imakhazikika osagwira;
  3. Liwiro la crankshaft limakula kapena limachepa kwambiri;
  4. Kutsika kwakukulu kwamphamvu zamagalimoto;
  5. Palibe yankho pachitetezo cha gasi kapena chatsika kwambiri;
  6. Mukasunthira pamagetsi apamwamba, galimoto imasowa zochita zambiri;
  7. Nthawi zina ntchito ya injini yoyaka yamkati imatsagana ndi ma jerks;
  8. "Kususuka" m'galimoto kwakula kwambiri.

Kuyang'ana woyang'anira pamagetsi pa benchi

Njira yosavuta yozindikira ndikutengera galimotoyo kuntchito yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito poyimilira. Kuti muwone muyenera:

  • Chotsani njanji yamafuta pamodzi ndi RTD;
  • Onse olumikizana nawo ndi ma payipi amalumikizidwa ndi gawo loyimilira;
  • Chipangizocho chimayimira momwe mota imagwirira ntchito m'njira zosiyanasiyana, poyesa magawo onse.
Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Ma algorithms osiyanasiyana amaikidwa mu pulogalamu yoyimilira, kutengera momwe kugwirira ntchito kwa owongolera kumatsimikizidwira. Mapulogalamuwa amangogwiritsidwa ntchito ndi malo othandizira, chifukwa chake, ndizosatheka kuchita izi popanda kupita kumalo opangira mautumiki.

Kuyang'ana woyang'anira popanda kuchotsa m'galimoto

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti sizotheka nthawi zonse. Koma ngati chipangizocho chimakulolani kuti mufike kwa woyang'anira popanda ntchito yayikulu, ndiye kuti njirayi itha kuchitidwa motere:

  • Choyamba, kuwunika kowoneka kumachitika. Zikhala zovuta kuti musazindikire kukhumudwa kwamilandu. Njira yomweyi ithandizanso kuzindikira kuwonongeka kwamakina, komanso kupanga dzimbiri;
  • Chotsani payipi yopangira zingalowe, ndikukhazikitsa choyezera pakati pa cholumikizira ndi payipi wamafuta. Timayambitsa injini. Ngati chipangizocho chikuwonetsa kuthamanga kolimba, ndiye kuti owongolera ndi olakwika. Chizindikiro cha muvi chimayenera kusiyanasiyana kuchokera pa 0,3 mpaka 0,7 atm.;Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi
  • Njira ina ndikutsina payipi yobwerera. Kupanikizika kumayikidwa molingana ndi chiwembu choyambirira. Chizindikiro cha chipangizocho chiyenera kudumpha nthawi yomweyo. Njira zomwezo zitha kuchitika popanda kuyeza. Timangoyambitsa injini, finyani mzere wobwerera ndikumvera momwe unit imagwirira ntchito. Ngati ntchito yake yakhazikika, ndiye kuti woyang'anira akuyenera kusinthidwa.

Kuyang'ana woyang'anira mwa njira yolowera m'malo

Iyi ndiye njira yotsimikizika kwambiri yowonetsetsa kuti gawo limakhala lolakwika. Pachifukwa ichi, timachotsa zomwe zapezeka, ndipo m'malo mwake timayika analogue odziwika bwino.

Kulephera kupereka ma diagnostics munthawi yake kumatha kuwononga mota kwambiri. Ngati sichinthu chimodzi, ndiye kuti chinthu china chofunikira pamafuta amafuta sichitha. Ndipo izi ndi zopanda pake.

Zomwe zingayambitse kulephera

Zomwe zingayambitse kuwonongeka kwa mafuta ndi awa:

  • Galimotoyo idakhala ulesi kwanthawi yayitali, komanso mawonekedwe amafuta sanagwiritsidwe;
  • Madzi alowa mu mafuta (condensation ndi achilengedwe m'malo ena ogwirira ntchito);
  • Kasupe ndi womasuka;
  • Nembanemba wawonongeka;
  • Fufuzani valavu itakomoka kapena ikutha;
  • Mwini galimoto sasintha zosefera mafuta nthawi;
  • Dalaivala amadzaza ndi mafuta otsika kwambiri (valavu yatsekedwa).
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Ngati pali kukayikira kulikonse kwa owongolera mafuta akuyenera kufufuzidwa. Monga tanena kale, kuti mugwiritse ntchito izi mutha kugwiritsa ntchito njira yosavuta (ngakhale imodzi yomwe imayeza kuthamanga kwa matayala oyenera ndi koyenera).

Momwe mungasinthire woyang'anira?

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndi chida chowongolera wamagetsi

Njira yothetsera oyang'anira pamagetsi ndiyosavuta. Chinthu chachikulu ndikutsatira chiwembu chotsatira:

  • Pamapeto pake, pulagi ya mgwirizano siyimasulidwa. O-mphete imayikidwa mmenemo. Mu yang'anira ntchito, amafotokozera ndi zotanuka ndipo popanda kuwonongeka. Ngati zosagwirizana zimawululidwa pakuwunika, gawolo limasintha kapena kork wonse;
  • Ambulera imatulutsidwa koyenera. Kuti muchite izi, muyenera chipewa kuchokera kumatayala (pazitsulo pali tatifupi lomwe lingakuthandizeni);
  • Chotsatira, owongolera amayang'aniridwa akugwira ntchito. Payipi ndi vavu kuthamanga pa mapeto ena chikugwirizana ndi yang'anira ya. Amakonzekera ndi clamp. Injini yoyaka mkati imayambitsidwa ndipo kupsinjika kwa mawonekedwe kumayang'aniridwa. Pakadali pano, chizindikirocho chikuyenera kukhala pakati pa 284 mpaka 325 kPa. Chotsatira, payipiyo idachotsedwa pa chipangizocho, ndipo zowerengedwa pazowunikira zimayang'aniridwa. Poterepa, mutu uyenera kukulira pafupifupi 20-70 kPa. Ngati pulogalamuyi sinasinthe, ndiye kuti woyang'anira ndi wolakwika, kenako amasinthidwa;
  • Kuti mulowetse woyang'anira, muyenera choyamba kuchepetsa kuthamanga kwa mafuta m'dongosolo. Izi zimachitika potsegula mtedza womwe umateteza chitoliro cha mafuta. Ndikofunikanso kumasula mabatani awiri omwe amakonza zowongolera payokha;
  • Kuwongolera koyang'anira kumachotsedwa mosamala mu njanji yamafuta;
  • Chitoliro cha mafuta sichimadulidwa (ngati makinawa sanathetse mavutowo, muyenera kukonza chidebe chopanda kanthu, chomwe chimayikidwa kumapeto kwa chitoliro mwachangu);
  • Woyang'anira akhoza tsopano kuchotsedwa.

Pakakhazikitsa makina oyang'anira zamagetsi atsopano, zolowetsa mapaipi ndi zinthu zosindikiza ziyenera kukhala zisanathiridwe mafuta ndi mafuta kuti mbali zotanuka zisalandidwe.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Momwe mungayang'anire woyang'anira wamafuta. Njira yoyamba ndikumasula njanji yamafuta. Zimakupatsani mwayi wongowonetsetsa kuti owongolera akugwira bwino ntchito, komanso muzinthu zina zamafuta. Kuti muchite cheke ichi, pamafunika zida zapadera. Makina oyang'anira akale amayang'aniridwa ndikutseka kwakanthawi kochepa pamzere wobwerera mafuta. Njirayi imapezeka pamakina a petulo. Ndi bwino kugwira ntchito pa injini yozizira. Ngati mzere wobwerera, wofinyidwa kwa masekondi angapo, udathandizira kuthana ndi katatu wamagalimoto ndikuwongolera magwiridwe ake, ndiye kuti woyang'anira amafunika kusintha. Sikoyenera kusunga mzere kwa nthawi yayitali, chifukwa izi zimakhudza kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka mpope wamafuta. Njirayi sikupezeka pamitundu yamagalimoto yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito chitsulo. Njira ina yogwiritsira ntchito mafuta oyendetsa mafuta pamagetsi ndi ma multimeter okhazikika pama voltmeter mode. Chip yoyang'anira sichimalumikizidwa. Timayala kafukufuku wakuda, ndikulumikiza chofiira ndi mwendo wachiphuphu. Ndi woyang'anira wogwira ntchito, magetsi amayenera kukhala mozungulira 5 volts. Chotsatira, kafukufuku wofiira wa multimeter amalumikizidwa ndi batire labwino, ndipo lakuda limalumikizidwa ndi mwendo woyipa wa chip. Pabwino, chizindikirocho chikuyenera kukhala mkati mwa 12V. Njira ina ndiyowunikira. Pachifukwa ichi, payipi yolumikizira idadulidwa, ndipo chipangizocho chimalumikizana pakati pa choyenera ndi payipi yamafuta. Pogwiritsa ntchito mafuta, kupanikizika kwa ma 2.5-3 mumlengalenga kumawerengedwa kuti ndichizolowezi, koma gawo ili liyenera kufotokozedwera m'mabuku aluso agalimoto.

Momwe munganyengere mphamvu yamagetsi yamafuta. Kuti muchite izi, muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito malo omwe amagwirira ntchito omwe amakonza magalimoto. Angakupatseni kugula bokosi lokonzekera lomwe limalumikizana ndi gawo loyang'anira galimoto. Koma pakadali pano, ndikofunikira kufotokoza ngati "snag" idzazindikiridwa ndi oyang'anira ngati ntchito yolakwika yamafuta kapena ayi. Ngati ECU sichivomereza chipangizocho chosakhala chokhazikika, ndiye kuti ma algorithms adzaikidwamo, omwe adzapangitse njira zodutsira bokosilo.

Zomwe zimachitika mukazimitsa chojambulira chamagetsi. Mukachita izi ndi injini ikuyenda, sizingakhudze magwiridwe ake. Koma ngati mphamvu yamafuta yamagetsi yazima, injini siyiyambitsa.

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