Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

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Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Makina otchuka a 4X4 Quattro ... Ndani sadziwa dzina ili, wotchuka kwambiri pakati pa okonda magalimoto okongola? Komabe, ngati dzinali latsala pang'ono kukhala nthano, muyenera kuyang'anitsitsa zomwe zikuphatikiza, chifukwa nthawi zina pamakhala kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa Quattro ndi Quattro!

Kotero tiwona machitidwe osiyanasiyana a Quattro omwe alipo pa magalimoto a Volkswagen Group, chifukwa inde, ena a Volkswagen amapindula nawo. Choncho, pali machitidwe atatu akuluakulu: imodzi ya injini ya kutsogolo kotenga nthawi, ina ya injini zakutali (kawirikawiri, R8, Gallardo, Huracan ...) ndi yotsiriza ya magalimoto ambiri (injini yopingasa).

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Momwe mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya Quattro imagwirira ntchito

Tsopano tiyeni tiwone bwino kapangidwe kake ndi kagwiritsidwe kake ka mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya Quattro.

Quattro TORSEN ya injini yotalika (1987-2010)

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

A6 yokhala ndi mota yayitali

Torsen amaletsa kusiyanasiyana kwakanthawi pakati pama axles awiri (ngati ali ochepa 70% ndiye kuti titha kugawa makokedwe a 30% / 70% kapena 70% / 30%).

malonda: kungokhala / osatha

Kufalitsa angapo avant / kumbuyo : 50% - 50%

(ndi kuterera kofanana pakati pa chitsulo chakutsogolo ndi kumbuyo)

Kusinthasintha mawu : kuchokera 33% / 67% (kapena 67% / 33%) mpaka 20% / 80% (kapena 80% / 20%) kutengera mtundu wa Torsen (malingana ndi mawonekedwe a mano ndi magiya Torsen adaphunzira)

Chovuta: Chepetsani kutsetsereka pakati pa kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo kuti mutha kutuluka m'malo oterera.

Nayi pang'ono mkatikati mwa Torsen, makina ake amalepheretsa mbali imodzi kuti isatembenuke osasuntha inayo, mosiyana ndi kusiyanasiyana kwanthawi zonse. Apa, njirayo imazungulira nyumba yonse yosiyanitsira (yosonyezedwa ndi imvi), yomwe imakhala ndi migodi iwiri (yakutsogolo ndi mawilo akumbuyo) yolumikizidwa ndi magiya kuti ichepetse kusiyana kwa liwiro pakati pawo (chotchinga chodziwika bwino).

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Uku ndikusamutsa zonse chifukwa chake amatumiza torque pa ma axles

khola lakutsogolo ndi lakumbuyo

.

Makokedwe amayamba kuchokera ku injini, amatumizidwa ku bokosi, ndiyeno zonse zimapita ku kusiyana koyamba kwa Torsen limited (TRSep chifukwa TRkuti Senkuyimba). Kuchokera pakusiyanaku, timapita ndikubwerera mgawo la 50/50. Sizingatheke kusagwirizana kwathunthu kumbuyo kapena kutsogolo kuno, mawilo anayi nthawi zonse amalandira torque, ngakhale yaying'ono. Kusiyana kwa Torsen kudzakhala (sindingathe kutsimikizira pakadali pano) kusiyana pang'ono ndi mzere wama SUV apamwamba (oyenera pang'ono kuwoloka): Touareg, Q7, Cayenne.

Ma axles akutsogolo ndi akumbuyo ali ndi kusiyana kosiyana (palibe malire otsetsereka) omwe amagawa torque pakati pa mawilo akumanzere ndi kumanja. Koma pali mitundu yowonjezereka ya Quattro yopangidwira mitundu yamasewera.

Pomaliza, ma torque vectoring atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pano ndi ESP kusewera pa mabuleki, kotero simatukuka kwambiri kuposa ma torque amtundu wakumbuyo wa Quattro Sport.

Quattro CROWN GEAR (pinion / flat gear) ya mota yayitali (2010 -…)

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Q7 yokhala ndi mota yayitali

Mtundu uwu (kuyambira 2010) umagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wosiyana wa kusamutsa. Izi zimathandiza kuti luso la magalimoto lisinthidwe. asymmetric pakati pa ma axles osiyanasiyana chifukwa chotseka pang'ono kapena pang'ono kophatikizira kwa viscous clutch.

Mulimonsemo, uku ndi kufalikira kosatha komwe kumatumiza makokedwe kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo (ngakhale kuti kusinthasintha kwa torque kumatha kusinthidwa pakati pa ma axles kutengera zowawa, koma nthawi zonse padzakhala awiri omwe adzachitika pamtundu uliwonse. iwo)...

malonda: kungokhala / osatha

Kufalitsa angapo avant / kumbuyo : 60% - 40%

(ndi kuterera kofanana pakati pa chitsulo chakutsogolo ndi kumbuyo)

Kusinthasintha mawu : kuyambira 15% / 85% mpaka 70% / 30% kutengera kusiyana kwamagwiridwe pakati pama axel am'mbuyo ndi kumbuyo. Izi ndi za asymmetrical, monga momwe mukuonera kuchokera pamlingo wa magawo omwe angatheke pakati pa kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo.

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Cholinga: Kukopana ndi ogula a BMW pofotokozera kuti mungathe

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85% mphamvu kumbuyo (ku BMW nthawi zonse tinali 100%)

Belu (nyumba) ya masiyanidwe (matanthwe akuda omwe akuzungulira chilichonse) amalumikizidwa ndi chitsulo chogwira matayala chapakati chokhala ndi magiya apulaneti ("timitengo tating'onoting'ono tating'onoting'ono" tomwe timalumikiza mizere yakutsogolo ndi kumbuyo, potero imapangitsa kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo ma axles).

Mtsinje wobiriwira wopita ku chitsulo chakumbuyo ukhoza kuphatikizidwa ndi belu kudzera m'magulu amitundu yambiri omwe amawonekera kudera lalalanje. Ichi ndi viscometer (imakupatsani mwayi wochepaApo ayi, kusiyana koyambira, komwe sikulepheretsa kutsetsereka): kugwirizana pakati pa zobiriwira zobiriwira ndi imvi kumachitika ngati pali kusiyana kwa liwiro (iyi ndi mfundo ya viscous clutch, mafuta mu kanyumba amakula akatenthedwa, zomwe zimathandiza zingwe kuti zigwirizane palimodzi chifukwa silikoni imakulitsa kutentha, ndipo kusiyana kwa liwiro pakati pa zolumikizira kumayambitsa chipwirikiti, chomwe chimatenthetsa mafuta a silicone). Izi zimapangitsa kuti belu losiyanitsa lilumikizidwe ndi tsinde lakumbuyo ngati pali kusiyana kwa liwiro pakati pa ziwirizi.

Kugawa koyambirira ndi 60 (kumbuyo) / 40 (kutsogolo) chifukwa magiya apakati axle (wofiirira) samakhudza zingwe (buluu ndi zobiriwira) pamalo amodzi (zambiri mkati mwa buluu = 40). % kapena kupitirira kunja kwa zobiriwira = 60%). Torque ndi yosiyana ndi maziko chifukwa pali mphamvu yosiyana.

Mphamvu zonse zimadutsa mumtengo wakuda womwe umadutsa pamtambo wabuluu (wotsogolera kutsogolo). Izi zimazungulira chitsulo cholumikizidwa ndi nyumba yosiyana, motero magiya adzuwa. Magiya adzuwawa amalumikizidwa ndi magiya athyathyathya (ma "flywheels abuluu ndi obiriwira").

Ngati liwiro pakati pa tsinde lakumbuyo ndi nyumba yosiyana ikukula, silikoni: zolumikizira zimamangiriridwa wina ndi mnzake, ndipo chifukwa chake, shaft yamoto imalumikizidwa mwachindunji ndi chitsulo chakumbuyo (kudzera pa belu lomwe limalumikizidwa ndi injini. koma idzatanthauzanso chitsulo chakumbuyo ngati cholumikizira cha viscous chikuchita Pankhaniyi, tili ndi 85% yazitsulo zakutsogolo ndi 15% zoyambira kutsogolo (vuto = kutayika kwa chingwe chakutsogolo).

Chiphunzitso pamwamba ndi kuchita pansipa.

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Kusiyanasiyana kwa Zida za Crown - Audi Emotion Club AUDIClopedia

Quattro Ultra (2016 - ...)

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

malonda: yogwira / osakhazikika

Kufalitsa angapo avant / kumbuyo : 100% - 0%

(ndi kuterera kofanana pakati pa chitsulo chakutsogolo ndi kumbuyo)

Kusinthasintha mawu : kuchokera 100% / 0% mpaka 50% / 50%

Chandamale; Perekani ma gudumu onse omwe amalepheretsa kugwiritsa ntchito kwambiri, ngakhale zitanthauza kuti musakhale ndi luso la zida zakale.

Mayendedwe amtundu, nthawi zambiri (monga Haldex), cholinga chachikulu ndikuchepetsa kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta ndipo, koposa zonse, kukhala opanda cholakwika m'malo aliwonse.

Mtunduwu ndiwaposachedwa kwambiri panthawi yomwe timalemba izi, ndi zakusintha gudumu la Crow ndi chida chosalumikizidwa. Omalizawa atha kutsitsa shaft yakumbuyo kuti azitha kusunthira kuyeserera, chifukwa chake sikutumizirana kwamuyaya ... Chifukwa chake dongosololi lili ngati Haldex, koma Audi ikuchita zonse kutipangitsa ife kuziganizira ngati pang'ono momwe ndingathere. momwe zingathere (mtundu womwe umadziwa bwino mbiri yotsika kwambiri ya Haldex poyerekeza ndi Torsen ndi Crown Gear). Palinso zingwe ziwiri kumbali zonse za chitsulo chakumbuyo kuti muchotse tsinde lapakati, chifukwa kulizungulira (ngakhale mu vacuum) kumafuna mphamvu. Kusiyanitsa kwakukulu ndikuti Torsen / Crown Gear imadzisamalira komanso yolimba, pomwe makinawa amayenera kuwongoleredwa ndi kompyuta yolumikizidwa ndi masensa osiyanasiyana. Chifukwa chake, ndizosadalirika, komanso zolimba chifukwa ma disks amatha kutentha (ndizochepera 500 Nm za torque, mosiyana ndi Quattro yapamwamba yokhala ndi Torsen).

Chipangizochi ndi chodabwitsa kwambiri chomwe chili pafupi ndi dongosolo la Porsche lomwe likupezeka pa Macan, ngakhale kuti malondawo achita zonse kuti awononge madzi ndi kunyezimira kuti alibe chilichonse chofanana (kwenikweni, izi sizowona, zinthu za zinthu zambiri ndizofanana; ndipo nthawi zambiri ngakhale ZF. yomwe imapanga chilichonse) ... Kuphatikiza apo, ndichimodzimodzi, kupatula kuti kusiyanasiyana kwa Porsche kumalola kugwiritsira ntchito samatha (kukoka kokha kapena 4X4 pa Quattro Ultra yokhala ndi masinthidwe osinthika angapo) .

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M'njira yake yogwirira ntchito, tikhoza kunena kuti izi ndizosiyana kwambiri ndi XDrive, monga chipangizo cha BMW chimagwirizanitsa injini kumbuyo ndipo, ngati n'koyenera, imamangiriza kutsogolo kwa chitsulo. Apa chitsulo chogwirizira chakumaso chimalumikizidwa nthawi zonse ndipo, ngati kuli koyenera, chitsulo chogwirizira chakumbuyo chimalumikizidwa ndi unyolo wamagetsi ndikutenga 50% ya makokedwewo.

Kutayika kwazitsulo kumapezeka kumbuyo kwazitsulo, kumbuyo kwa axle shaft kumalumikizidwa ndi unyolo wofatsira.

Nawu otchuka disengageable "masiyanidwe" (red - clutches)? Tsoka ilo, limangokhala ndi torque ya 500 Nm, yomwe imatsimikizira kuti ili ndi kukoka pang'ono poyerekeza ndi Quattro yakale yakale ndi Torsen.

Audi Q2018 quattro Ultra zaka 5 MMENE CHIKHALIDWE CHATSOPANO CHITSIMBIRA - ZOCHITIKA ZOCHITIKA ZA AWD Audi [Old Torsen]

Quattro kwa mota yodutsa

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Q3 transverse motor

malonda: yogwira / osakhazikika

Kufalitsa angapo avant / kumbuyo : 100% - 0%(ndi kuterera kofanana pakati pa chitsulo chakutsogolo ndi kumbuyo)

Kusinthasintha mawu : kuchokera 100% / 0% mpaka 50% / 50%

Cholinga: Kutha kupereka magudumu anayi pamagalimoto ang'onoang'ono a gulu chifukwa cha wopanga zida Haldex / Borgwarner.

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Apa pali Audi TT, koma ndi chimodzimodzi kwa aliyense.

Haldex 5. Generation - Momwe imagwirira ntchito

Chilichonse ndi chosiyana kwambiri pano, popeza tikuchita ndi zomangamanga zosiyana. Makonzedwe odutsa amawongolera malo omwe akupezeka mgalimoto kuti awononge kuchuluka kwagalimoto (kukumbukira kuti apa tikuyiwala za midadada yayikulu ndi kutumiza kwakukulu, kolimba kwambiri!).

Mwachidule, monga nthawi zonse, zimayamba ndi injini kuyaka mkati / gearbox. Pazotulutsa, timakhala ndi kusiyana komwe kumazungulira kwathunthu ndikuyendetsa shaft yapakati yopatsira kudzera pamagetsi omwe akuwonetsedwa pazithunzi zofiirira. Choncho, mkati mwa kusiyana kutsogolo kumagawanika kukhala magawo awiri a mawilo akumanzere ndi kumanja.

Kumapeto kwa shaft yotumizira yomwe imalumikiza kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo ndi Haldex yotchuka, yomwe imatsutsana kwambiri ndi odziwa bwino. Zowonadi, aliyense (kapena kani, anthu omwe amakonda kwambiri magalimoto) amadziwa bwino wankhondo wa Haldex / Torsen ...

M'malo mwake, Torsen ndi Haldex sasamala kuti imodzi ndiyoperewera pang'ono ndipo inayo ndi njira yolumikizira zamagetsi (yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi), yomwe imayesa kusiyanitsa.

Kukonzekera uku, galimotoyo sichitha kupitirira 50% ya torque kumbuyo, ndipo izi ndizosavuta kumvetsetsa poyang'ana chithunzi pamwambapa.

Kuphatikiza apo, ntchitoyi imachitika makamaka pamachitidwe okokera, ndipo kumbuyo kumatha kutsekedwa kwathunthu osalandiranso torque: Haldex imachotsedwa ndipo palibenso kulumikizana pakati pa shaft yapakati ndi kusiyanitsa kumbuyo.

Kusiyana kwa Haldex / Torsen?

Kusiyana pakati pa ziwirizi ndikofunikira. Torsen ndimasiyanidwe amphwayi omwe amagwira ntchito ndimakina komanso modzilamulira. Imakhala ndi makokedwe okhazikika pama axles onse (makokedwe amasiyanasiyana, koma mphamvu imafalikira kuma wheel onse). Haldex amafunikira kompyuta ndi ma actuators kuti agwire ntchito, ndipo ntchito yake yayikulu ndikuyankha.

Ngakhale kuti Torsen ikugwira ntchito nthawi zonse, Haldex imadikirira kutayika kwa kukoka musanayambe kuchitapo kanthu, kuchititsa kuchepa kwapang'ono komwe kumachepetsa mphamvu yake.

Kuphatikiza apo, mosiyana ndi Torsen, dongosololi limatenthetsa mwachangu chifukwa cha kukangana kwa ma disks: chifukwa chake, mwachidziwitso, sichikhalitsa.

Zithunzi za Quattro Sport / Vector / Torque vekitala

Chovuta: Kupititsa patsogolo kayendetsedwe ka galimoto ndikuchepetsa kutsika kwachilengedwe komwe kumachitika ndi Audi (yemwe injini yake ili patsogolo kwambiri).

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Pali mwina kusiyana kwa Torsen kapena Crown Gear apa.

Quattro Sport imakhala ndimasewera osiyana kwambiri kumbuyo. Zowonadi, chomalizachi chimatilola kuti tifotokozere ma vector awiri otchuka (omwe timawadziwa m'Chingerezi: Torque Vectoring. Dinani apa kuti mudziwe zambiri za ntchitoyi).

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Otsatirawa amakhala ndi zotchinga zingapo zamagetsi ndi magiya apulaneti omwe amakonzedwa mozungulira.

Dinani apa kuti mudziwe zambiri

Chisinthiko cha Quattro: kaphatikizidwe

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Longitudinal Quattro evolution: en bref

Kupatula magalimoto odutsa kapena kumbuyo, dongosolo la Quattro tsopano lili m'badwo wake wachisanu ndi chimodzi. Chifukwa chake, imaphatikizapo kukweza matayala onse agalimoto mothandizidwa ndi ma shafts ofalitsa komanso kusiyanasiyana.

Mbadwo woyamba udawonekera kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 80 (ndendende zaka 81), unali ndi zosiyana 3: imodzi kutsogolo kwachikale, ziwiri pakati ndi kumbuyo, zomwe zingathe kutsekedwa (popanda kutsetsereka kapena kusinthasintha, zimatsekedwa).

Uwu unali m'badwo wachiwiri, pomwe kusiyana kwapakati kudapangidwa ndi Torsen, kusiyanasiyana kocheperako ndipo sikunalinso loko kokhako. Izi zimalola mphamvu yakutsogolo / yakumbuyo kusinthidwa pakati pa 25% / 75% kapena mosemphanitsa (75% / 25%) m'malo motsekereza 50/50 monga m'badwo woyamba.

Ndiye Torsen nayenso anaitanidwa ku chitsulo cham'mbuyo kuchokera m'badwo wachitatu, podziwa kuti chomalizacho chinangogwiritsidwa ntchito pa 8 Audi V1988 (ichi ndi tsogolo la A8, koma sichinalandirebe dzina).

Mbadwo wachinayi umakhala wachuma pang'ono (osangopereka ma limousine apamwamba ngati Audi V8) okhala ndi kusiyanasiyana kwapambuyo (komwe kumatha kutsekedwa pakompyuta, motero mabuleki kudzera pa ESP).

Dongosololi lidasinthika, ndikusungabe nzeru zomwezo mpaka lero pakuwongolera kuthekera kwapakati kwa Torsen kusinthasintha nthawi zonse ma torque opatsirana pakati pa ma axles akutsogolo ndi kumbuyo (tsopano mpaka 85% pamakina pa chitsulo chachitsulo komanso ngakhale 100% chifukwa cha ESP akuchita. kupangitsa kuti ikhale yosangalatsa kugwiritsa ntchito makinawo momwe zingakhalire ndi chopangira magetsi choyera).

Kenako panabwera kusiyanitsa kwamasewera (kokwezedwa pa eksele, sikusiyanitsidwa kutsogolo / kumbuyo, koma kumanzere / kumanja) pamakina akumbuyo kapena pamagalimoto ena amasewera (S5, ndi zina). Uwu ndi ukadaulo wodziwika bwino wa torque vectoring womwe umadziwika kwambiri pakati pa opanga ma premium, sikuti umangokhudzana ndi Quattro.

Kenako kunabwera Quattro Ultra (nthawi zonse timalankhula za magalimoto opangidwa nthawi yayitali), opangidwa kuti achepetse kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta. Kupatsirana kosatha, kumatha kupatulidwa kwathunthu (chitsulo chakumbuyo mwachidziwikire) kuti chisunge mphamvu.

Chifukwa chake, ngati tingafotokozere mwachidule (podziwa kuti kuwerengera masiku sikudziwikiratu, chifukwa nthawi imatha kuphatikiza magalimoto okhala ndi mibadwo ingapo ya Quattro. Chitsanzo: mu 1995, Audi idagulitsidwa ndi Quattro 2, 3 kapena 4 ...) :

  • M'badwo wa Quattro 1: 1981 - 1987
  • M'badwo wa Quattro 2nd Torsen: 1987 - 1997
  • Quattro generation 3 Torsen: 1988 - 1994 (pokhapo A8 kholo: Audi V8)
  • M'badwo wa Quattro 4nd Torsen: 1994 - 2005
  • M'badwo wa Quattro 5nd Torsen: 2005 - 2010
  • Quattro 6th Crown Gear: kuyambira 2011
  • Mbadwo wa Quattro 7 Ultra (wofanana ndi m'badwo 6): kuyambira 2016

Evolution of the Quattro Transversal: mwachidule

Gulu la Audi / Volkswagen limagulitsanso magalimoto ambiri otchuka (A3, TT, Gofu, Tiguan, Touran, etc.), pazitsanzozi zinali zofunikira kupereka magudumu anayi.

Ndipo apa ndi pomwe Quattro ikuperekedwa ku Volkswagen, Seat ndi Skoda, chifukwa siyiyinso Quattro yeniyeni yomwe imayesetsa kupembedza.

Ngati chipangizocho chinali pang'onopang'ono poyankha kuyambika kwake (kutsegula kwa chitsulo chakumbuyo), ndiye kuyambira pamenepo chapita patsogolo kwambiri ndi m'badwo wachisanu wamakono. Komabe, ndizosavuta komanso zowoneka bwino kuposa Quattro ya injini yayitali yopangidwira magalimoto apamwamba kwambiri. Chida ichi chidapangidwa ndi anthu aku Sweden, osati ndi Audi.

Kugwira ntchito ndi mfundo zogwirira ntchito za Audi Quattro

Kugwirizana kwa Porsche?

Ngakhale Porsche angachite bwino kupondereza izo, ndi Quattro powertrains ndi concessions kwambiri, ngati si ndani. Tikamalankhula za Cayenne, titha kunena za Quattro. The Macan inangolowetsa m'malo mwa Haldex yapakati ndi dongosolo lofanana ndi Quattro Ultra (Torsen yochotsedwa). Kusiyana apa ndikuti tikhoza kuponyera 100% kutsogolo kapena kumbuyo, ndi Quattro ultra yokhala ndi malire kuti atembenuzire galimotoyo kuti ikhale yovuta. Kupanda kutero, ndizofanana ndi masiyanidwe am'mbuyo a Vectoring ndi gearbox ya PDK, yomwe kwenikweni ndi S-Tronic (yomwe imaperekedwanso ndi ZF). Koma shsh, ndidzadzudzulidwa ngati zidziwika ...

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