Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Zamkatimu

Magalimoto mwina ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu kwambiri m'mbiri ya anthu. Chifukwa cha magalimoto osavuta komanso omasuka, lero titha kusuntha mwachangu, kunyamula katundu, kuyenda padziko lonse lapansi.

Pamodzi ndi chitonthozo chomwe amatipatsa, magalimoto athu amaipitsa chilengedwe komanso amachepetsa mpweya womwe timapuma.

Kodi magalimoto amaipitsa bwanji mpweya?

Aliyense amadziwa kuti injini zamagalimoto zimayenda makamaka pa mafuta, kapena dizilo. Zonsezi zimapangidwa kuchokera ku mafuta. Iyenso imakhala ndi ma hydrocarbon. Pofuna kuti injini iziyenda, mpweya umawonjezeredwa mu mafuta kuti uwononge mafuta osakanikirana ndikupanga makokedwe oyendetsa galimotoyo.

Njira yoyaka imatulutsa mpweya monga carbon monoxide, mankhwala osakanikirana, ma nitrojeni oxides, omwe amatulutsidwa kudzera muutoto wamagalimoto ndipo ndi omwe amachititsa kuti pakhale mpweya woipa. Njira yokhayo yochepetsera izi ndikukhazikitsa chosinthira chothandizira m'galimoto.

Kodi chothandizira magalimoto ndi chiyani?

Chosinthira chothandizira ndichitsulo chomwe chimalumikiza dongosolo lamagalimoto. Ntchito yayikulu yosinthira othandizira ndikutulutsa mpweya woipa kuchokera ku injini yamagalimoto kuti musinthe mawonekedwe ake. Pokhapokha atadutsa muutoto ndikutulutsidwa mumlengalenga.

Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto ayenera kukhala ndi chosinthira chothandizira?

Pali magulu atatu owopsa amagesi opangidwa mu injini zamagalimoto:

  • Ma hydrocarboni - Hydrocarbon ndi gulu la maatomu a kaboni ndi haidrojeni omwe amatulutsidwa ngati mafuta osapsa. M'mizinda ikuluikulu, ndi chimodzi mwazifukwa zopangira utsi.
  • Mpweya wa monoxide umapangidwa mafuta akamawotchedwa mu injini ndipo ndiwowopsa kupuma.
  • Nitrogen oxides - Zinthu izi zotulutsidwa mumlengalenga zimapanga mvula yamchere ndi utsi.
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Mpweya wovulaza wonsewu umayipitsa chilengedwe, mpweya ndi kuvulaza osati chilengedwe chokha, komanso zamoyo zonse padziko lapansi. Magalimoto akachuluka m'mizinda, mpweya woipa umatulutsidwa mumlengalenga.

Wotembenuza othandizira amatha kuthana nawo powasintha ndikuwapangitsa kukhala opanda vuto kwa anthu ndi chilengedwe. Izi zimachitika ndi catalysis yomwe imachitika mkati mwa element.

Kodi chothandizira chimagwira bwanji?

Ngati mupanga chimbudzi m'thupi la chitsulo, mutha kuwona kuti chimakhala ndi chisa cha zisa ceramic, pomwe pamapezeka njira zing'onozing'ono zazing'onoting'ono, zonga uchi. Chophimbacho chimakutidwa ndi chopyapyala chachitsulo chamtengo wapatali (platinamu, rhodium kapena palladium) chomwe chimakhala chothandizira.

Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Mpweya woipa ukadutsa kuchokera pa injini kupita pa chosinthira, umadutsa pazitsulo zamtengo wapatalizo. Chifukwa cha momwe zinthu ziliri komanso kutentha kwambiri, kusintha kwamankhwala (kuchepetsa ndi makutidwe ndi okosijeni) kumapangidwa mu chothandizira, chomwe chimasintha mpweya woyipa kukhala mpweya wa nayitrogeni, kaboni dayokisaidi ndi madzi. Chifukwa chake, utsiwo umasandutsidwa mpweya wosavulaza womwe utha kuponyedwera kumtunda.

Chifukwa cha izi komanso kukhazikitsidwa kwa malamulo okhwima ochepetsa mpweya woipa wamagalimoto, pafupifupi mayiko onse a EU angadzitamande pochepetsa mpweya woyipa m'mizinda.

Kodi ma catalysts adayamba liti kuyikidwa mgalimoto?

Mpaka koyambirira kwa ma 1960, dziko lapansi silinakayikire ngakhale ngati magalimoto akuyenda mumisewu angawononge chilengedwe komanso anthu. Komabe, ndi kuchuluka kwa magalimoto m'mizinda yaku America, zidawonekeratu zomwe zingachitike pokhudzana ndi izi. Kuti adziwe za ngoziyi, gulu la asayansi lidachita kafukufuku wazomwe zimakhudza mpweya wakutha pazachilengedwe komanso thanzi la anthu.

Kafukufukuyu adachitika ku California (USA) ndikuwonetsa kuti kusintha kwamagetsi pakati pa ma hydrocarboni ndi ma nitrojeni oxides omwe amatulutsidwa mlengalenga kuchokera mgalimoto kumayambitsa kupuma, kukwiya kwa maso, mphuno, utsi, mvula yamchere, ndi zina zambiri.

Zotsatira zochititsa mantha za kafukufukuyu zidapangitsa kusintha kwa Environmental Protection Act. Kwa nthawi yoyamba, adayamba kukambirana zakufunika kwakuchepetsa mpweya ndikuyika zothandizila mgalimoto.

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Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Miyezo yotulutsa magalimoto oyendetsa ndege idayambitsidwa koyamba ku California mu 1965, ndikutsatiridwa ndi miyezo yaboma yochepetsera mpweya patatha zaka zitatu. Mu 1970, Clean Air Act idaperekedwa, yomwe idakhazikitsa zoletsa zowonjezereka - zofunikira pakuchepetsa HC, CO ndi NO x.

Ndi kukhazikitsidwa ndi kusintha kwa lamulo la 1970, boma la US lidakakamiza makampani opanga magalimoto kuti asinthe kuti achepetse mpweya woipa pagalimoto.

Chifukwa chake, kuyambira 1977, kukhazikitsa zida zogwiritsira ntchito magalimoto aku America kwakhala kovomerezeka.

United States itangokhazikitsa njira zachilengedwe zothanirana ndi chilengedwe, mayiko aku Europe adayamba kugwira ntchito mwakhama kukhazikitsa njira zatsopano zachilengedwe. Woyamba kukhazikitsa kukhazikitsa kovomerezeka ndikugwiritsa ntchito osintha othandizira ndi Sweden ndi Switzerland. Adatsatiridwa ndi Germany ndi mamembala ena a EU.

Mu 1993, European Union idakhazikitsa lamulo loletsa kupanga magalimoto popanda otembenuza othandizira. Kuphatikiza apo, zikhalidwe zaku Euro 1, Euro 2, ndi zina zambiri zafotokozedwa kuti zidziwitse mulingo wololeza wamafuta okwera pagalimoto iliyonse ndi mtundu wake.

Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Miyezo yaku Europe yotulutsa amatchedwa ma Euro ndipo amadziwika ndi nambala. Kuchulukitsa manambala pambuyo pamawu, ndizofunika kwambiri pazoyenera za mpweya wa utsi (zomwe zimayaka mafuta pakadali pano zimakhala ndi zinthu zosavulaza).

Zothandiza bwanji?

Potengera izi pamwambapa, ndizomveka chifukwa chake magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi chosinthira chothandizira, koma kodi ndi othandiza? Chowonadi ndichakuti sizachabe kuti pali zofunikira kuti magalimoto akhazikitse othandizira. Chiyambireni kugwira ntchito, mpweya wotulutsa utsi woyipa watsika kwambiri.

Zachidziwikire, kugwiritsa ntchito othandizira kuthana kwathunthu ndi kuwononga mpweya, koma iyi ndi gawo lofunikira panjira yoyenera ... Makamaka ngati tikufuna kukhala m'dziko loyera.

Kodi mungatani kuti muchepetse mpweya wa galimoto yanu?

Gwiritsani ntchito utsi wokhala ndi zowonjezera zowonjezera zotsutsa. Galimoto ikakhala zaka zambiri, madipoziti owopsa amakula mu injini, amachepetsa mphamvu zake ndikuwonjezera mpweya woyipa. Kuphatikiza zowonjezera zowonjezera sikungokuthandizani kukulitsa moyo wa injini yanu, komanso kukuthandizani kuti muchepetse mpweya.

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Sinthani mafuta anu munthawi yake

Mafuta ndi magazi a injini. Timadzimadzi timatulutsa, kuyeretsa, kuzizira ndikupewa kuvala pazinthu zamagetsi. Kusintha kwamafuta kwakanthawi kumathandiza kuchepetsa kuwonongeka kwa mpweya.

Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Amataya katundu wake pakapita nthawi, chifukwa mphero yamafuta imatha kuchepa, kupanikizika mu injini kumatha kuchepa ndipo mafuta ochulukirapo amatha kulowa muzitsulo, zomwe zikawotchedwa, zimawonjezera zinthu zoyipa kutulutsa.

Sinthani fyuluta yam'mlengalenga munthawi yake

Fyuluta ya mpweya ikatsekeka, mpweya wofunikira sulowa mu injini, ndichifukwa chake mafuta sawotchera kwathunthu. Izi zimawonjezera kuchuluka kwa madipoziti ndipo chifukwa chake zimatulutsa mpweya wowopsa. Ngati mukufuna kuti galimoto yanu izitulutsa mpweya wovulaza pang'ono momwe mungathere, onetsetsani kuti mwatsuka kapena kusintha fyuluta ya mpweya munthawi yake.

Onetsetsani kuthamanga kwa tayala

Koyamba, izi zimawoneka ngati zosagwirizana. Chowonadi ndi chakuti, ndi anthu ochepa okha omwe amadziwa kuti kuthamanga kwama tayala kumawonjezera mafuta ndipo chifukwa chake kumawonjezera mpweya woyipa wa CO2.

Musalole kuti galimoto ikhale pansi pomwe injini ikuyenda

Zawonetsedwa kuti mpweya wabwino ukuwonongeka kwambiri m'malo omwe magalimoto amayimitsidwa pomwe injini zawo zikuyenda (kuchuluka kwa magalimoto, kutsogolo kwa sukulu, kindergartens, mabungwe). Ngati mukufuna kuchepetsa mpweya, kaya mukudikirira mgalimoto kwa mphindi ziwiri kapena 2, zimitsani injini.

Chifukwa chiyani magalimoto amayenera kukhala ndi otembenuza othandizira?

Ikani chosinthira chothandizira

Ngati galimoto yanu ndi yokalamba ndipo ilibe chothandizira, lingalirani kugula yatsopano yomwe ili ndi chida chofananira. Ngati simungakwanitse kugula, onetsetsani kuti mwakhazikitsa chosinthira posachedwa.

Pewani maulendo osafunikira

Ngati mukufuna kupita kusitolo yomwe ili pamtunda wa 100 kapena 200 mita, simuyenera kupita kumeneko m'galimoto yanu. Pitani pansi. Izi zimakupulumutsirani mpweya, kukusungani malo oyenera ndikukhala malo oyera.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi neutralizer pagalimoto ndi chiyani? Ichi ndi chinthu cha dongosolo utsi amene anaika pamaso pa resonator kapena m'malo mwake - pafupi ndi zotheka injini utsi zobwezedwa.

Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa catalytic converter ndi catalyst? Izi ndizofanana ndi chosinthira chothandizira kapena chothandizira, oyendetsa amangoyitcha mosiyanasiyana chinthu ichi chautsi.

Kodi neutralizer amagwiritsidwa ntchito chiyani? Chosinthira chothandizira chidapangidwa kuti chichepetse ma nitrogen oxide omwe amapezeka mumipweya yamagalimoto. Amasandulika kukhala zinthu zopanda vuto.

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