Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

Akufuna kusintha mafuta, komabe ali ndi cholakwika chachikulu chomwe opanga samangokhala chete.

M'badwo wa Malasha wakumbukiridwa kwanthawi yayitali. Nthawi yamafuta ikufikanso kumapeto. M'zaka khumi zapitazi za XNUMX, tikukhala m'nthawi ya mabatire.

Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

NTCHITO YAWO yakhala yofunika kuyambira pomwe magetsi adalowa m'moyo wa anthu. Koma tsopano zochitika zitatu mwadzidzidzi zapangitsa kuti kusungira mphamvu ukadaulo wofunikira kwambiri padziko lapansi.

Choyambirira ndi kuchuluka kwa zida zamagetsi - mafoni, mapiritsi, ma laputopu .. M'mbuyomu, timafunikira mabatire azinthu monga tochi, mawayilesi am'manja ndi zida zonyamula - zonse sizigwiritsa ntchito kwenikweni. Lero aliyense ali ndi foni yamtundu umodzi, yomwe amagwiritsa ntchito pafupifupi nthawi zonse komanso popanda moyo wake.

CHIWERUZO CHACHIWIRI ndikugwiritsa ntchito magetsi omwe angapangidwenso komanso kusagwirizana mwadzidzidzi pakati pa nsonga zamagetsi zamagetsi ndi zamagetsi. Zimakhala zophweka: eni ake akayatsa masitovu ndi ma TV nthawi yamadzulo, ndipo kugwiritsidwa ntchito kumakwera kwambiri, ogwiritsa ntchito magetsi ndi zida za nyukiliya amangofunikira kuwonjezera mphamvu zawo. Koma izi sizingachitike ndi kubala kwa dzuwa ndi mphepo: pachimake pakupanga nthawi zambiri kumachitika panthawi yomwe mowa umakhala wotsika kwambiri. Chifukwa chake, mphamvu ziyenera kusungidwa mwanjira inayake. Njira ina ndi yomwe amatchedwa "gulu la hydrogen", momwe magetsi amasandulika kukhala hydrogen kenako ndikupereka mafuta ku gridi ndi magalimoto amagetsi. Koma kukwera kwakukulu kwa zomangamanga zofunikira ndi zokumbukira zoipa za anthu za hydrogen ("Hindenburg" ndi ena) asiya lingaliro ili kumbuyo mpaka pano.

Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

Zomwe zimatchedwa "ma gridi anzeru" zimayang'ana m'maganizo am'madipatimenti otsatsa: magalimoto amagetsi amalandira mphamvu zochulukirapo pakupanga, kenako, ngati kuli kofunikira, amatha kuzibwezera pa gridi. Komabe, mabatire amakono sanakonzekere zovuta zotere.

YANKHO LINA LOTSATIRA pavutoli likulonjeza chinthu chachitatu: kusinthidwa kwa injini zoyaka zamkati ndi magalimoto amagetsi a batri (BEVs). Chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu zotsutsana ndi magalimoto amagetsi awa ndikuti atha kukhala otenga nawo mbali pa gululi ndikutenga zotsalira kuti abwezeretse zikafunika.

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Wopanga aliyense wa EV, kuyambira Tesla kupita ku Volkswagen, amagwiritsa ntchito lingaliroli muzinthu zawo za PR. Komabe, palibe aliyense wa iwo amene amadziwa zomwe zimamveka bwino kwa mainjiniya: mabatire amakono siabwino pantchito yotere.

LITHIUM-ION TECHNOLOGY yomwe ikulamulira pamsika lero ndipo imapereka ku chibangili chanu cholimbitsa thupi kupita ku Tesla Model S yachangu kwambiri ili ndi zabwino zambiri pamalingaliro akale monga asidi a lead kapena mabatire a nickel iron hydride. Koma ilinso ndi zoperewera ndipo koposa zonse, chizolowezi cha ukalamba ..

Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

Anthu ambiri amaganiza za mabatire ngati mtundu wa chubu momwe magetsi "amayendera" mwanjira inayake. Mwachizolowezi, komabe, mabatire samasunga magetsi pawokha. Amagwiritsa ntchito kuyambitsa kusintha kwamankhwala ena. Kenako atha kuyambitsa zosiyana ndikubweza mlandu wawo.

Kwa mabatire a lithiamu-ion, momwe magetsi amathandizira potulutsa magetsi zimawoneka motere: ma ion lithiamu amapangidwa pa anode mu batri. Awa ndi maatomu a lithiamu, omwe aliwonse ataya electron imodzi. Ma ayoni amayenda kudzera mumagetsi a electrolyte kupita ku cathode. Ndipo ma elekitironi omasulidwa amayendetsedwa kudzera pamagetsi, kutipatsa mphamvu zomwe tikufunikira. Batire ikatsegulidwa kuti izilipiritsa, njirayi imasinthidwa ndipo ma ayoni amatengedwa ndi ma elekitironi omwe atayika.

Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

"Kukula" ndi mankhwala a lithiamu kumatha kuyambitsa kanthawi kochepa ndikuyatsa batire.

Tsoka ilo, NGAKHALE, KUCHITITSA KWAMBIRI komwe kumapangitsa lithiamu kukhala yoyenera kupanga mabatire kumakhalanso ndi zovuta - zimakonda kutenga nawo mbali pazinthu zina, zosafunikira zamagulu. Chifukwa chake, anode amapangidwa pang'onopang'ono ndi mafuta a lithiamu, omwe amalepheretsa kuchitapo kanthu. Ndipo batire imachepa. Pamene imalimbitsa kwambiri kutulutsa ndikutulutsa, chovalacho chimakhala chachikulu. Nthawi zina zimatha kutulutsa zotchedwa "dendrites" - lingalirani ma stalactites opangidwa kuchokera ku mankhwala a lithiamu - omwe amachokera ku anode kupita ku cathode ndipo, ngati angafike, atha kuyambitsa kanthawi kochepa ndikuyatsa batiri.

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Kutulutsa kulikonse ndi kutulutsa kumachepetsa moyo wa batri la Li-ion. Koma kuthamanga kwaposachedwa kwaposachedwa ndi magawo atatu apano kumathandizira kwambiri njirayi. Kwa mafoni am'manja, ichi sichopinga chachikulu kwa opanga, k mulimonsemo, akufuna kukakamiza ogwiritsa ntchito kusintha zida zawo zaka ziwiri kapena zitatu zilizonse .. Koma magalimoto ndivuto.

Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

Kuti akope ogula kuti agule magalimoto amagetsi, opanga amafunikanso kuwakopa posankha mwachangu. Koma malo othamanga ngati Ionity sioyenera kugwiritsa ntchito tsiku ndi tsiku.

MITU YA BETTERI NDI YINA YACHITATU komanso yoposa mtengo wonse wamagalimoto amagetsi amakono. Pofuna kutsimikizira makasitomala awo kuti sakugula bomba, onse opanga amapereka chitsimikizo, chotalikirapo cha batri. Nthawi yomweyo, amadalira kubweza mwachangu kuti magalimoto awo azisangalatsa pamaulendo ataliatali. Mpaka posachedwa, malo olipira mwachangu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi 50 kilowatts. Koma Mercedes EQC yatsopano itha kulipitsidwa mpaka 110kW, Audi e-tron mpaka 150kW, malinga ndi malo opangira ma Ionity aku Europe, ndipo Tesla ikukonzekera kukweza bala kwambiri.

Opangawa amafulumira kuvomereza kuti kubweza mwachangu kumawononga mabatire. Malo onga ngati Ionity ndioyenera kuchitapo kanthu mwadzidzidzi munthu atabwera kuchokera kutali ndipo alibe nthawi yochepa. Kupanda kutero, kuyendetsa batri yanu pang'onopang'ono ndi njira yabwino.

Momwe zimakhalira ndi kutulutsidwa ndikofunikanso pa moyo wake. Chifukwa chake, opanga ambiri samalimbikitsa kubweza pamwamba pa 80% ndi pansi pa 20%. Ndi njirayi, batire la lithiamu-ion limataya pafupifupi pafupifupi 2% yamphamvu zake pachaka. Chifukwa chake, imatha kukhala zaka 10, kapena mpaka 200 km, mphamvu yake isanatsike kwakuti imakhala yosagwiritsidwa ntchito mgalimoto.

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Chifukwa chomwe kulipiritsa mwachangu ndi imfa ya mabatire

Pomaliza, zowonadi, MOYO WA BATTERY umadalira kapangidwe kake kapadera. Ndizosiyana ndi wopanga aliyense, ndipo nthawi zambiri zimakhala zatsopano kotero kuti sizikudziwika kuti zidzakalamba bwanji pakapita nthawi. Opanga angapo kale akulonjeza mbadwo watsopano wa mabatire okhala ndi moyo wa "miliyoni miliyoni" (ma kilomita 1.6 miliyoni). Malinga ndi Elon Musk, Tesla akugwira ntchito imodzi mwa izo. Kampani yaku China CATL, yomwe imapereka zinthu kwa BMW ndi makampani ena khumi ndi awiri, yalonjeza kuti batire yake yotsatira izikhala zaka 16, kapena ma kilomita 2 miliyoni. General Motors ndi LG Chem yaku Korea akupanganso ntchito yofananayo. Makampani aliwonsewa ali ndi njira zawo zamakono zomwe akufuna kuyesa m'moyo weniweni. GM, mwachitsanzo, idzagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zatsopano kuti chinyezi chisalowe m'ma cell a batri, chomwe chimayambitsa lithiamu kukulira pa cathode. Tekinoloje ya CATL imawonjezera zotayidwa ku anode ya nickel-cobalt-manganese. Izi sizimangochepetsa kufunika kwa cobalt, komwe pakadali pano ndiokwera mtengo kwambiri pazopangira izi, komanso kumawonjezera moyo wa batri. Osachepera ndi zomwe akatswiri aku China amayembekeza. Ofuna makasitomala amasangalala kudziwa ngati lingaliro limagwira ntchito.

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