Mafuta ofunikira amoto. Kupanga ndi kuwerengera

Zamkatimu

Madzi opatsirana ndi mafuta ena amakhala ndi moyo wocheperako. Mafuta a injini yonyansa amasintha mtundu kuchoka ku kuwala kupita ku bulauni ndikupanga zotsalira. Mafuta amafuta amchere amchere amasiyana ndi kapangidwe kake ndipo ali mgulu la 3rd hatari. Monga madzi ena aukadaulo, mafuta opangira ma hydraulic amatha kutaya kapena kusinthidwanso.

Kutaya mafuta opangidwa ndi semi-synthetic motor

Mafuta otayika amakhala ndi mankhwala 10 mpaka 30. Zina mwa izo ndi lead, nthaka ndi zitsulo zina zolemera, komanso calcium, phosphorous ndi polycyclic organic mankhwala. Izi zigawo zikuluzikulu kugonjetsedwa ndi kuvunda, poizoni nthaka, madzi, komanso kuchititsa ma masinthidwe mu zomera ndi anthu.

  • Mafuta amchere amakhala ndi gawo loyenga mafuta ndipo amakhala opanda zowonjezera, zolimbitsa thupi ndi ma halogen reagents.
  • Mafuta a semi-synthetic amapezeka posintha mafuta achilengedwe poyambitsa zowonjezera.
  • Synthetic analogues amapangidwa ndi kaphatikizidwe ka mankhwala.

Mosatengera komwe amachokera, madzi opaka mafuta amaphatikiza ma alkanes okhala ndi nambala ya kaboni ya C12 - NDI20, cyclic onunkhira mankhwala (arenes) ndi naphthene zotumphukira.

Mafuta ofunikira amoto. Kupanga ndi kuwerengera

Chifukwa cha ntchito, mafuta amakumana ndi vuto la kutentha. Zotsatira zake, ma organic cycle ndi naphthenes amapangidwa ndi okosijeni, ndipo maunyolo a parafini amatha kukhala aafupi. Zowonjezera, zosintha ndi zinthu za asphalt-resinous zimachulukana. M'chigawo chino, mafuta sakukwaniritsa zofunikira zogwirira ntchito, ndipo injini ikugwira ntchito kuti iwonongeke. Zinyalala zimatulutsidwa mumlengalenga ndipo zimawononga chilengedwe.

Njira Zobwezeretsanso ndi Kutaya

Zinyalala zamafuta zimapezedwanso ngati njirayo ndi yothandiza pazachuma. Apo ayi, zowonongeka zimatenthedwa kapena kukwiriridwa. Njira zoberekeranso:

  1. Kuchira kwa mankhwala - sulfuric acid chithandizo, alkaline hydrolysis, chithandizo ndi calcium carbide.
  2. Kuyeretsedwa kwathupi - centrifugation, kukhazikika, kusefera kwamagawo angapo.
  3. Njira zakuthupi ndi zamankhwala - kukonzanso, kusefera kwa ion-kusinthanitsa, kuchotsa, kulekanitsa adsorption, coagulation.

Mafuta ofunikira amoto. Kupanga ndi kuwerengera

Zinyalala zamafuta zosayenera kusinthika zimatsukidwa kuchokera ku zitsulo zolemera, madzi a emulsion, ndi mankhwala osagwirizana ndi kutentha. Zomwe zimapangidwira zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mafuta opangira magetsi. Kuwerengera kwa zinyalala kumapangidwa motsatira ndondomekoyi:

Мmmo = Kcl×Кв× ρм× ∑ Viм× Kipr×Ni×Li /NiL× 10-3,

kumene: Мmmo - kuchuluka kwa mafuta opezeka (kg);

Кcl - beseni index;

Кв - kuwongolera kuchuluka kwa madzi;

ρм - kachulukidwe zinyalala;

Viм - kuchuluka kwa lubricating madzimadzi anatsanulira mu dongosolo;

Li - mtunda wa hydraulic unit pachaka (km);

НiL - mlingo wa mileage pachaka;

Кipr ndiye chizindikiro chodetsedwa;

Ni - kuchuluka kwa makina ogwiritsira ntchito (injini).

Mafuta ofunikira amoto. Kupanga ndi kuwerengera

Gulu lowopsa

Zinyalala zamadzimadzi zochokera m'magalimoto, ndege ndi mafuta ena opangira mafuta amawerengedwa kuti ndi gulu lachitatu lowopsa. Mankhwala osamva mankhwala amtundu wa naphthenic amawopseza chilengedwe. Ma cyclic reagents amabweretsa kusintha kwa DNA ya mbewu, matenda a autosomal ndi oncological mwa anthu. Zitsulo zolemera zimabweretsa kuwonongeka kwa ma cell ku impso, mapapo ndi ziwalo zina. Organochlorine ndi organophosphorus zinthu za lawi retardants mu kupanga mafuta tifulumizane kutsokomola, kupuma movutikira, ndi milandu kwambiri kumabweretsa kupuma kumangidwa. Kuwonongeka koyipa kwamafuta agalimoto kukuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa mbalame ndi nyama zina.

Kodi mafuta agalimoto yanu amapita kuti?
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