Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

Zamkatimu

Magalimoto amagetsi ndi ma hybrids amakhazikika molimba m'maganizo a oyendetsa galimoto amakono ngati njira yatsopano yosinthira magalimoto. Poyerekeza ndi mitundu yokhala ndi zida za ICE, magalimoto amenewa ali ndi zabwino zawo komanso zovuta zake.

Ubwino wake nthawi zonse umakhala kugwira ntchito mwakachetechete, komanso kusakhala ndi kuipitsa poyenda (ngakhale lero kupanga bateri imodzi yamagalimoto yamagetsi kumayipitsa chilengedwe kuposa zaka 30 za injini imodzi ya dizilo).

Chosavuta chachikulu chamagalimoto amagetsi ndikofunikira kulipiritsa batri. Pogwirizana ndi izi, opanga magalimoto akutsogola akupanga njira zingapo zamomwe mungakulitsire moyo wa batri ndikuwonjezera nthawi pakati pamalipiro. Imodzi mwanjira izi ndikugwiritsa ntchito ma supercapacitors.

Ganizirani zaukadaulo uwu pogwiritsa ntchito chitsanzo cha kampani yatsopano yamagalimoto - Lamborghini Sian. Kodi zabwino ndi zoyipa zakukula uku ndi ziti?

Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

Chatsopano pamsika wamagalimoto amagetsi

Lamborghini ikayamba kutulutsa wosakanizidwa, mutha kukhala otsimikiza kuti sikungokhala mtundu wamphamvu kwambiri wa Toyota Prius.

Sian, woyamba wa kampani yamagetsi yaku Italiya, ndiye galimoto yoyamba yophatikiza (yopitilira mayunitsi 63) kugwiritsa ntchito ma supercapacitors m'malo mwa mabatire a lithiamu-ion.

Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

Asayansi ambiri ndi mainjiniya amakhulupirira kuti izi ndizofunikira pakuyenda kwamagetsi, osati mabatire a lithiamu-ion. Sian amagwiritsa ntchito izi posungira magetsi ndipo, pakufunika, amaidyetsa ku kagalimoto kake kakang'ono kamagetsi.

Ubwino wama supercapacitors

Ma supercapacitors amalipira ndikutulutsa mphamvu mwachangu kwambiri kuposa mabatire amakono. Kuphatikiza apo, amatha kupirira kuyendetsa kwambiri komanso kutulutsa zozungulira popanda kutaya mphamvu.

Pankhani ya Sian, supercapacitor amayendetsa 25 kilowatt motor yamagetsi yomwe imamangidwa mu bokosi la zida. Itha kulimbikitsanso mphamvu ya 6,5 yamahatchi 12-injini yoyaka mkati ya V785, kapena kuyendetsa yokha pamayendedwe othamanga kwambiri monga kuyimitsa magalimoto.

Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

Popeza kuti kulipiritsa kumakhala kothamanga kwambiri, mtundu uwu wosakanizidwa suyenera kutsegulidwa kukhoma kapena pobweza. Ma supercapacitors amalipidwa mokwanira nthawi iliyonse yomwe mabuleki amagalimoto. Ma hybrids amabatiri amakhalanso ndi mphamvu zowonjezeretsa mphamvu, koma ndizochedwa ndipo zimangothandiza pang'ono kuwonjezera ma mileage amagetsi.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kodi muyenera kukhala chiyani mu bokosi lazida zamagalimoto?

Wogwirizira wamkulu ali ndi chinthu china chachikulu kwambiri: kulemera. Ku Lamborghini Sian, makina onse - magetsi wamagetsi kuphatikiza capacitor - amangowonjezera ma 34 kilogalamu okha. Nthawi yomweyo, kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu ndi 33,5 ndiyamphamvu. Yerekezerani, Renault Zoe batire yekha (ndi 136 ndiyamphamvu) akulemera pafupifupi 400 kg.

Zoyipa zama supercapacitors

Zachidziwikire, ma supercapacitors amakhalanso ndi zovuta poyerekeza ndi mabatire. Popita nthawi, amapeza mphamvu zowonjezereka - ngati Sian sanayende sabata, palibe mphamvu yotsalira pa condenser. Koma palinso njira zothetsera vutoli. Lamborghini ikugwira ntchito ndi Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) kuti ipange mtundu wamagetsi wamagetsi potengera opanga ma supercapacitors - lingaliro lodziwika bwino la Terzo Millenio (Third Millennium).

Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?
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Zodabwitsa ndizakuti, a Lamborghini, omwe amathandizidwa ndi Volkswagen Group, si kampani yokhayo yomwe ikuyesera kudera lino. Mitundu ya Peugeot yosakanizidwa imagwiritsa ntchito ma supercapacitors kwazaka zambiri, monganso mitundu ya Toyota ndi Honda yama hydrogen yamafuta. Opanga aku China ndi aku Korea amawaika m'mabasi amagetsi ndi magalimoto. Ndipo chaka chatha Tesla adagula a Maxwell Electronics, m'modzi mwa opanga opanga opanga ma supercapacitors - chizindikiro chotsimikizika kuti Elon Musk ali ndi chiyembekezo chamtsogolo chaukadaulo.

Mfundo zazikuluzikulu 7 zomvetsetsa za ma supercapacitors

1 Momwe mabatire amagwirira ntchito

Tekinoloje ya batri ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe tazitenga mopepuka kwanthawi yayitali osaganizira momwe zimagwirira ntchito. Anthu ambiri amaganiza kuti tikamalipira, timangotsanulira magetsi mu batri, monga madzi mumgalasi.

Koma batire silisunga magetsi molunjika, koma limangowapanga ngati pakufunika kudzera munjira yamankhwala pakati pa maelekitirodi awiriwo ndi madzi owasiyanitsa (nthawi zambiri) otchedwa electrolyte. Pochita izi, mankhwala omwe ali mmenemo amasinthidwa kukhala ena. Munthawi imeneyi, magetsi amapangidwa. Akasinthidwa kwathunthu, zomwe zimachitika zimasiya - batire limatulutsidwa.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Momwe mungayang'anire batiri yamagalimoto
Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

Komabe, ndimabatire omwe amatha kubwezedwa, zomwe zimachitikanso zimatha kuchitika mosiyana - mukazipiritsa, mphamvu imayambitsa njira yotsutsana yomwe imabwezeretsa mankhwala oyamba. Izi zitha kubwerezedwa kangapo mazana kapena masauzande, koma zotayika ndizosapeweka. Popita nthawi, zinthu za parasitic zimakhazikika pama elekitirodi, motero moyo wa batri umakhala ndi malire (makamaka 3000 mpaka 5000).

2 Momwe ma capacitors amagwirira ntchito

Palibe kusintha kwamankhwala komwe kumachitika mu condenser. Milandu yabwinobwino komanso yoyipa imapangidwa ndimagetsi amagetsi okhaokha. Mkati mwa capacitor mumakhala mbale ziwiri zazitsulo zopatukana ndi zotetezera zotchedwa dielectric.

Kulipiritsa ndikofanana kwambiri ndi kupaka mpira mu sweta laubweya kuti likhale ndi magetsi. Mbale zabwino ndi zoyipa zimasonkhanitsidwa m'm mbale, ndipo olekanitsa pakati pawo, zomwe zimawalepheretsa kuti asakhudzane, ndiye njira yosungira mphamvu. Capacitor imatha kulipitsidwa komanso kumasulidwa ngakhale kangapo miliyoni osataya mphamvu.

3 Kodi supercapacitors ndi chiyani

Ma capacitors wamba ndi ochepa kwambiri kuti asasungidwe mphamvu - nthawi zambiri amayesedwa mu microfarads (mamiliyoni a farads). Ichi ndichifukwa chake opanga ma supercapacitors adapangidwa m'ma 1950. Mitundu yawo yayikulu kwambiri yamakampani, yopangidwa ndi makampani monga Maxwell Technologies, ili ndi kuthekera kwa masauzande masauzande angapo, omwe ndi 10-20% yamphamvu ya batri ya lithiamu-ion.

Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

4 Momwe ma supercapacitors amagwirira ntchito

Mosiyana ndi ma capacitors wamba, palibe ma dielectric apa. M'malo mwake, mbale ziwirizi zimamizidwa mu electrolyte ndikulekanitsidwa ndi kachingwe kakang'ono kwambiri. Kukhazikika kwa supercapacitor kumakulirakulira ndikuchulukirachulukira kwa mbale izi ndikuchepetsa mtunda pakati pawo. Kukulitsa kumtunda, pakadali pano adakutidwa ndi zida zopota - mwachitsanzo, ma nanotubes a kaboni (ochepa kwambiri mwakuti 10 biliyoni a iwo amakwana sikweya imodzi). Wolekanitsa akhoza kukhala molekyulu imodzi yokha yolimba ndi graphene wosanjikiza.

Kuti mumvetse kusiyana kwake, ndibwino kuganiza zamagetsi ngati madzi. Capacitor yosavuta ikadakhala ngati chopukutira pepala chomwe chimatha kuyamwa pang'ono. Supercapacitor ndiye siponji ya kukhitchini mchitsanzo.

5 Mabatire: Ubwino ndi Kuipa

Mabatire ali ndi mwayi umodzi wofunikira - mphamvu yawo yayikulu yamphamvu, yomwe imawalola kuti azisunga mphamvu zochulukirapo mosungira pang'ono.

Komabe, amakhalanso ndi zovuta zambiri - kulemera kolemera, kutalika kwa moyo, kutsitsa pang'onopang'ono, komanso kutulutsa mphamvu pang'ono. Kuphatikiza apo, zitsulo zowopsa ndi zinthu zina zowopsa zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga. Mabatire amangogwira ntchito pamtunda wochepa kwambiri, choncho nthawi zambiri amafunika kuzirala kapena kutenthedwa, zomwe zimachepetsa magwiridwe antchito awo.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kusintha kwamafuta m'malo mwake - kumachitika motani ndipo kumachitika ndi ndani?
Kodi ma supercapacitors amatha kusintha mabatire mumagalimoto amagetsi?

6 Supercapacitors: Ubwino ndi Kuipa

Ma supercapacitors ndi opepuka kuposa mabatire, moyo wawo ndiwotalikirapo kwambiri, safuna zinthu zowopsa, amalipiritsa ndikutulutsa mphamvu pafupifupi nthawi yomweyo. Popeza alibe kukana kwamkati, samawononga mphamvu kuti agwire ntchito - luso lawo ndi 97-98%. Ma supercapacitors amagwira ntchito popanda zolakwika zazikulu pamitundu yonse kuyambira -40 mpaka +65 madigiri Celsius.

Chosavuta ndichakuti amasunga mphamvu zochepa kuposa mabatire a lithiamu-ion.

7 Zatsopano

Ngakhale ma supercapacitors apamwamba kwambiri amakono sangasinthe mabatire amagetsi. Koma asayansi ambiri ndi makampani wamba akuyesetsa kuwongolera. Mwachitsanzo, ku UK, Superdielectrics ikugwira ntchito ndi chinthu chomwe chidapangidwa kuti apange magalasi olumikizirana.

Skeleton Technologies imagwira ntchito ndi graphene, mtundu wa allotropic wa kaboni. Katundu umodzi umodzi wosanjikiza ndi wolimba kuwirikiza nthawi 100 kuposa chitsulo champhamvu kwambiri, ndipo ndi gramu imodzi yokha imatha kutalika ma 1 mita. Kampaniyo yakhazikitsa ma graphene supercapacitors pamaveni wamba a dizilo ndipo yasunga 2000% yamafuta.

Ngakhale kuti ma supercapacitors sangasinthe batire, lero pali njira yabwino pakukula kwa ukadaulo uwu.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi supercapacitor imagwira ntchito bwanji? Zimagwira ntchito mofanana ndi high capacitance capacitor. Mmenemo, magetsi amadziunjikira chifukwa cha static panthawi ya polarization ya electrolyte. Ngakhale ndi chipangizo cha electrochemical, palibe mankhwala omwe amachitika mmenemo.

Kodi supercapacitor ndi chiyani? Ma Supercapacitor amagwiritsidwa ntchito posungira mphamvu, kuyambitsa ma motors, m'magalimoto osakanizidwa, monga magwero anthawi yayitali.

Kodi supercapacitor imasiyana bwanji ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mabatire? Batire imatha kupanga magetsi palokha pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala. Supercapacitor imangosunga mphamvu yotulutsidwa.

Kodi Ionistor imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati? Ma capacitor otsika amagwiritsidwa ntchito muzowunikira (zotulutsa kwathunthu) komanso munjira iliyonse yomwe imafuna kuchuluka kwa zotulutsa / zowongolera.

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