Yesani kuyendetsa komwe ena sakufika

Yesani kuyendetsa komwe ena sakufika

Ngakhale magalimoto oyenda kwambiri sangayende ngati akuyendetsa kumtunda. Zopangidwa ngati magalimoto osangalatsa, mitundu ya ATV tsopano ikupezeka m'mitundu yosiyanasiyana, osati yamasewera okha, komanso ngati ma workhorses ndipo nthawi zambiri ng'ombe.

ATV. Kwa ambiri, lingaliro ili ndi chidule cha mawu achingerezi akuti magalimoto onse pamtunda, i.e. "Galimoto yonse" ingagwirizane ndi kuphatikiza koyambira kwa galimoto ndi njinga yamoto, mothandizidwa ndi gulu lina la anthu omwe amapeza ndalama zambiri amasangalala ndi chilengedwe. Malinga ndi biology, nthawi zambiri, kuwoloka mitundu iwiri yosiyana ya nyama kumabweretsa ana osabereka, koma ndi momwe nyulu imabadwira (wosakanizidwa ndi bulu ndi mahatchi), omwe ali ndi mphamvu ngati kavalo komanso kupirira kwa bulu. Inde, mwanjira iyi kufanizira kumatha kugwira ntchito, koma pakuchita, ma ATV ali ndi mzere wawo wosinthika, koyambirira komwe kuli njinga yamoto. Ndipo monga cholengedwa chaumunthu, galimotoyi sikuti ili ndi m'badwo wokha, komanso yakwanitsa kukhala nthambi zambiri zosintha. Masiku ano, malingaliro ofala a ATV ngati chipinda chokhala ndi chipinda chimodzi chokhala ndi mawonekedwe otseguka, magudumu otseguka okhala ndi matayala akulu, injini yama njinga yamoto komanso kusowa kwazinthu zochititsa manyazi kuli kochepa poyerekeza ndi kusiyanasiyana kwakukulu komwe kulipo mdziko lapaderali. Zimaphatikizaponso ma ATV aana ang'onoang'ono, magalimoto oyendetsa magudumu oyenda kumbuyo, ma ATV amasewera ndi zinthu zingapo zomwe zimangokhala zazing'ono ngati galimoto yaying'ono, zimakhala ndi mipando inayi ndi / kapena nsanja zonyamula katundu, ndipo nthawi zambiri injini za dizilo. Zomalizazi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'magulu ankhondo, alimi, nkhalango, ndipo chifukwa chakudziwika kwawo amatchedwa UTV (kuchokera ku Chingerezi. Awa ndi othandizira othandiza makamaka kwa anthu, makamaka chifukwa chokhoza kuyenda m'malo ovuta, omwe sangayesedwe ndi galimoto iliyonse. Mlandu wapakati pa ATV ndi UTV ndimayendedwe oyandikira, momwe okwera awiri amakhala moyandikana, ndipo nthawi zambiri akakhala anayi, m'mizere iwiri. Mawu oti "ATV" amagwiritsidwa ntchito chimodzimodzi.

Ndipo zonsezi zidayamba pafupifupi ngati nthabwala

Gawo ili likuwoneka kuti ndi losatheka kugwirapo, ndipo opanga magalimoto samadzifotokozera okha. Kupatula Honda, adapanga zoyambirira za ATV panthawi yomwe njinga zamoto zili ndi gawo lalikulu kwambiri pakampani ndipo palibe kampani ina yamagalimoto yomwe ikuyesera kupezeka mderali. Apa opanga njinga zamoto monga Kawasaki, Suzuki ndi Yamaha, mbali imodzi, ndi makampani oyendetsa matalala ngati Polaris ndi Arctic Cat, magawo amakampani akulu ngati Bombardier yaku Canada, omwe ma ATV awo amatchedwa Can-Am, ali mgulu lawo. Kapena makampani omwe amagwirizana ndi kupanga mathirakitala ndi magalimoto ofanana. John Deere ndi Bobcat.

M'malo mwake, ma ATV otchuka masiku ano adabadwa ngati ma tricycle, ndipo ngakhale mu 1967 a John Schlesinger ena adapanga galimoto yofananira ndi kampani yamagetsi ya Sperry-Rand, kenako ndikugulitsa zovomerezeka ku New Holland (yomwe ndi ya kampani ya Sperry-Rand), ufulu wotchedwa woyambitsa woyamba kupanga ATV ili ndi Honda. Malinga ndi mbiri yakale ya kampaniyo, mu 1967, gulu lake ku US lidafunsa m'modzi mwa akatswiri ake, Osamu Takeuchi, kuti apange chinthu chomwe ogulitsa amatha kugulitsa nthawi yozizira, pomwe njinga zamoto zambiri zimasungidwa m'magalaja. Takeuchi adabwera ndi malingaliro ambiri, kuphatikiza 2, 3, 4, 5 komanso 6 matayala. Zidapezeka kuti galimoto yamagudumu atatu ili ndi mawonekedwe abwino kwambiri kuposa onse - yabwino kuposa mitundu yamagudumu awiri kutengera kutha kwa mtunda pa chipale chofewa, choterera komanso matope, komanso yotsika mtengo kwambiri kuposa magalimoto okhala ndi matayala ambiri. Chovuta chake chinali kupeza matayala amisinkhu yoyenera kuti agwire pansi pofewa komanso chipale chofewa. Takeuchi wathandizidwa ndi makanema apawailesi yakanema, makamaka BBC Moon Buggy, yaing'ono amphibious SUV yokhala ndi matayala opitilira muyeso. Galimoto yamagudumu atatu, yomangidwa mu 1970 ndi Honda, ili ndi kasinthidwe komwe dalaivala amakhala pa ATV (mosiyana ndi mtundu wa Schlesinger momwe amakhalamo) ndipo adadziwika chaka chotsatira chifukwa chakuchita nawo kanemayo. a James Bond "Ma diamondi Ali Kwamuyaya" ndi Sean Connery.

Poyambirira idapangidwa kuti ikhale yosangalatsa, galimoto yatsopanoyi idzasinthidwa kuchokera ku US90 kupita ku ATC90 (kuchokera ku All Terrain Cycle, kapena njinga zamoto zamtunda). ATC90 ili ndi kuyimitsidwa kolimba ndipo imalipirira izi ndi matayala akuluakulu. Akasupe osowa ndi othandizira pamagetsi adangowonekera koyambirira kwa ma 80s, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti matayala akhale otsika pang'ono. Ngakhale kumayambiriro kwa eyite, Honda adapitiliza kutsogolera bizinesiyo ndi ATC200E Big Red, yomwe idakhala yoyamba yamagudumu atatu a ATV ndikugwiritsa ntchito. Kutha kwa magalimoto awa kufika malo osafikirika kunawapangitsa kukhala odziwika kwambiri pazosowa zosiyanasiyana ku United States ndi Canada, ndipo posakhalitsa osewera ena mwachilengedwe adalowererapo mu bizinesi ndipo idayamba kukula mwachangu. Komabe, opanga kuchokera ku Honda sakhala phee ndipo alinso sitepe imodzi patsogolo pa ena - akupanga mitundu yoyamba yamasewera, yomwe idzakhala yokhayokha pamsika kwa nthawi yayitali chifukwa chakuwongolera bwino ndi injini zodalirika. Mu 1981, ATC250R idakhala tricycle yoyamba masewera othamangitsidwa ndi ma tricycle, mabuleki akutsogolo ndi kumbuyo; Galimotoyo ili ndi injini ya 18 hp, yowoneka bwino pamasewera ndipo imawonedwabe ngati imodzi mwamagalimoto abwino kwambiri amtundu wake. Mu 1985, injini ya sitiroko inayi yotentha 350 cc inalipo. Onani ndi mutu wamagetsi anayi - yankho lomwe linali lapaderadera panthawiyo. Kutengera izi, ATC350X imakhala ndi kuyimitsidwa kwakanthawi komanso mabuleki amphamvu kwambiri. Mitundu ya Honda ikupitilizabe kusintha, chimango chamachubu chimakhala chamakona ambiri m'malo mwa mbiri zozungulira, ndikusintha kwa kondomu kuthana ndi mayendedwe ofukula kwambiri.

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Ulamuliro waku Japan

M'zaka zotsatira, onse Suzuki adapanga magalimoto amitengo iwiri yamphamvu, koma palibe amene angayese malonda ndi Honda, yomwe idapanga kale mbiri yolimba pamunda. Ngakhale Yamaha amapereka Tri-Z YTZ250 yake ndi injini ya 250cc yama stroke awiri. Onani ndikuwongolera pamiyendo isanu kapena isanu ndi umodzi yothamanga, ndipo Kawasaki imayamba kupanga Tecate KTX250, yomwe ili ndi injini yama stroke awiri ndi gearbox yothamanga isanu kapena isanu ndi umodzi, mitundu ya Honda ya ATV ndiyabwino kwambiri. Kunja, wopanga ku America Tiger amalowa mumsika ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ma ATV okhala ndi matayala atatu ndi ma injini awiri a Rotax okhala ndi voliyumu ya 125 mpaka 500 cm3. Tiger 500 idakhala imodzi mwazitsanzo zofulumira kwambiri za nthawiyo chifukwa cha 50 hp. imafika pa liwiro lapamwamba kuposa 160 km / h - zowopsa pachinthu chotseguka, choyenda pama mawilo atatu. Komabe, pazifukwa zosiyanasiyana, kampaniyo sinakhalitse.

M'malo mwake, ndikukula kwa mphamvu komwe kumatsimikizira chiyambi cha mapeto a ATV zamagudumu atatu. Ndi osakhazikika komanso osatetezeka kuposa magalimoto amiyala inayi, ndipo mu 1987 kugulitsa kwawo kudaletsedwa m'malo ambiri. Ngakhale ali ndi kulemera kocheperako komanso samakoka pang'ono akamayendetsa ndi zabwino zonse zomwe amabwera nazo, amafunikirabe luso lapakona komanso luso pamasewera kuposa woyendetsa ndege yemwe amayenera kudalira kwambiri kuti azitha kuyerekeza. kukwera kumasiyana ndi kwamagalimoto anayi.

Kubadwa kwa ma ATV

Nthawi zina kugwa m'dera lina kungakupangitseni kukhala mpainiya kudera lina. Izi ndizomwe zidachitika kwa Suzuki, yemwe adachita upainiya wa ATV. Yoyamba yamtunduwu, QuadRunner LT125, idawonekera mu 1982 ndipo ndi galimoto yaying'ono yosangalatsa kwa oyamba kumene. Kuyambira 1984 mpaka 1987, kampaniyo idaperekanso LT50 yaying'ono kwambiri ndi injini ya 50cc. Onani, yomwe idatsatiridwa ndi ATV yoyamba yokhala ndi kufalikira kwa CVT. Suzuki adatulutsanso LT250R Quadracer yamphamvu kwambiri, masewera othamangitsa anayi a ATV omwe adagulitsa mpaka 1992, komanso adapezanso injini yaukadaulo wapamwamba, kuyimitsidwa kwakutali, injini yozizira. Honda ikuyankha chiwembucho ndi FourTrax TRX250R, ndi Kawasaki's Tecate-4 250. Pofuna kudzisiyanitsa, kudalira makamaka mainjini ozizira, Yamaha akutulutsa Banshee 350 yokhala ndi injini yotentha yamiyala iwiri yamiyala yochokera ku njinga yamoto ya RD350. ... ATV iyi inali yotchuka chifukwa chokwera pamavuto ovuta, koma idatchuka kwambiri chifukwa chokwera milu yamchenga.

Bizinesi yayikulu - Achimereka akusewera

M'malo mwake, kuyambira pamenepo, mpikisano waukulu pakati pa opanga udayamba ndikuwonjezeka kwa kuchuluka kwa magwiridwe antchito ndi kukula kwa ma ATV. Mbali inayi, malonda amayamba kukula mwachangu. Suzuki Quadzilla tsopano ili ndi injini ya 500cc. CM ndipo amatha kuyenda m'malo ovuta pa 127 km / h, ndipo mu 1986 Honda FourTrax TRX350 4 × 4 idatsogolera nthawi yotumizira awiri mu mitundu ya ATV. Posakhalitsa makampani ena adalumikizana nawo, ndipo makinawa adatchuka kwambiri pakati pa alenje, alimi, ogwira ntchito m'malo omanga akulu, m'nkhalango. Kunali kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 80 ndi kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 90 pomwe magawano amtundu wa ATV kukhala osangalatsa (masewera) ndikugwira ntchito (Sport Utility komanso mitundu yayikulu komanso yogwira ntchito ya UTV) idayamba. Zomalizazi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zolimba kwambiri, mwina zida ziwiri, zimatha kukoka katundu wolumikizidwa, ndikuchedwa pang'ono.

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Kampani yoyamba yaku America kulowa bizinesi ya ATV inali Polaris, yomwe tsopano imadziwika ndi magalimoto oyenda pamafunde. Kampani yachisanu ya Minnesota idatulutsa Trailboss yake yoyamba mu 1984 ndipo pang'onopang'ono yakhala yofunikira pamsika. Masiku ano Polaris imapereka magalimoto otakata kwambiri, kuyambira pamitundu yaying'ono mpaka mipando yayikulu anayi mbali ndi UTV, kuphatikiza zankhondo. M'modzi mwa omwe adayambitsa kampaniyo, Edgar Hatin, pambuyo pake adagawanika ndikukhazikitsa kampani ya Arcric Cat, yomwe lero ndi m'modzi mwamasewera akulu kwambiri mu bizinesi iyi. Kugawa njinga zamoto ku Canada Bombardier Corporation kuyambitsa mtundu wake woyamba wa ATV, Traxler, yemwe adapambana mphotho ya ATV ya Chaka chotsatira. Kuyambira 2006, gawo lamoto la kampaniyo limatchedwa CAN-Am. Ngakhale makampani akuluakulu ochokera ku Japan ndi America omwe atchulidwa pakadali pano akulamulira pamsikawu, osewera ambiri akupezeka m'zaka zaposachedwa, makamaka ochokera ku China ndi Taiwan. Kymco (Kwang Yang Motor Co Ltd.) idakhazikitsidwa ku 1963 ndipo ndiye wopanga njinga zamoto zazikulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, kuyang'ana ma ATV kuyambira koyambirira kwa zaka za XNUMXst. Masiku ano, Kymco imapereka ma ATV osiyanasiyana ndipo ili ndi ubale wolimba ndi opanga monga Kawasaki Heavy Industries ndi BMW. KTM idalowa bizinesiyo posachedwa.

Zolemba: Georgy Kolev

Mwachidule

Magulu a ATV

Sports ATV Yopangidwa ndi cholinga chomveka komanso chophweka - kuyenda mwachangu. Magalimotowa amathamanga kwambiri ndipo amakhala ndi ziwongola dzanja zonse. Ma Sport ATV akumva kunyumba ali panjira za motocross, milu yamchenga ndi malo osiyanasiyana olimba - kulikonse komwe mungaphatikizepo kuthamanga komanso kuthamanga. Ndi mitundu yayikulu yamitundu mitundu ndi zina zambiri, komanso njinga zamoto zowonjezereka, zonse ndizokhudza kuthekera kwachuma.

Youth ATV Ngati mukufuna kumudziwitsa mwana wanu kuti asachokere panjira, ili ndiye yankho. Mitundu iyi ya ATV ndi yaying'ono, yopanda mphamvu, ndipo ndimasewera osiyanasiyana komanso ma ATV ogwira ntchito. Ambiri aiwo ali ndi njira zapadera zolumikizira zovala za ana, motero injini imakhazikika ikagwa. Mitengo yawo ndi yotsika kwambiri kuposa ma ATV wamba.

Ntchito ATV Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pantchito komanso zosangalatsa. Kaya ndi muyezo wa ATV kapena wotchuka mbali-ndi-pafupi, mitundu yothandizira ndi yama multifunctional. Magalimotowa ndi akulu komanso olimba kuposa ma ATV amasewera, ndipo ambiri amakhala ndi kuyimitsidwa koyimilira kumbuyo kwawo kuti athetse malo ovuta kwambiri. Mitundu yamagalimoto a ATV amakonda kukhala omasuka kuposa anzawo amasewera, ndipo amakhala ndi matayala akulu kuti magetsi azitha kusamutsidwa mokwanira kumalo osagwirizana.

UTV Magalimoto amenewa akukhala otchuka kwambiri zikafika poyenda m'malo ovuta. Amapereka magwiridwe antchito ndipo amatha kukwaniritsa zosowa zilizonse. Kaya mukuyang'ana galimoto yothamanga kwambiri, galimoto yolimba komanso yolimba yomwe ili ndi malo onyamula katundu, kapena mtundu wamagetsi wamtendere pamsasa wanu wosaka, mudzawapeza pakati pa makina a UTV. Ubwino waukulu wamitundu ya UTV kuposa ma ATV wamba ndi kuthekera konyamula anthu ambiri - m'mitundu ina mpaka sikisi.

Mitundu yotchuka kwambiri ya ATV chaka chatha

Kawasaki Teryx ndi Teryx4

Mtundu wa UTV wa awiri kapena anayi atha kugwira ntchito yabwino ndikusangalatsa banja. Imayendetsedwa ndi injini yamapasa yamphamvu 783cc ndipo imakhala ndi chiwongolero champhamvu.

Mtsinje wa Arctic

Tsopano ili ndi injini ya injini ya 700 cc yopangidwira thupi lamtunduwu.

Honda wokonda

Wonderful Utility ATV yokhala ndi injini ya 420 cc imodzi yamphamvu. Bokosi lamagalimoto lamagalimoto limalola kusunthika kwamanja kapena kosintha kwamagalimoto.

Honda Apainiya 700-4

Mtunduwu umapereka chisankho pakati pa malo onyamula katundu ndi mipando iwiri yowonjezera. Injiniyo ili ndi kusuntha kwa 686 cm3 ndi jakisoni.

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Yamaha Viking

Izi zimachokera ku Rhino ndipo zimatha kuchita pafupifupi chilichonse kuyambira kubowola mpaka kusangalala panjira. Imatha kunyamula mpaka 270 makilogalamu kumbuyo kwakunyamula ndikunyamula katundu wolemera makilogalamu 680. Ngati zinthu zikuvuta kwambiri, mutha kungoyatsa makina a 4x4 ndipo zonse zikhala bwino.

Yamaha YFZ450R

Chidwi ndi ma ATV ogwira ntchito posachedwa chalowetsa chidwi pamasewera a ATV, koma Yamaha YZF450R ndi mtundu wotsimikizika. Ndiwotchuka m'mitundu yosiyana siyana ndipo mtundu waposachedwa uli ndi kapangidwe kake katsopano kosavuta kouluka.

Wosewera Polaris

Polaris amapereka mtunduwu pamtengo wotsika mtengo kwambiri wokhala ndi kuthekera kodabwitsa koyendetsa mdziko lankhondo. Kusamutsidwa kwa injini tsopano ndi 570 cm3, kufalikira kumangodziwonekera.

Opanga: Wowonjezera

Chilombo cham'chipululu ichi chimayendetsedwa ndi injini ya ProStar ya 1,0 hp 107-lita! Palibe cholepheretsa kuti kuyimitsidwa kumbuyo komwe kuli ndi 46 masentimita oyenda komanso kuyimitsidwa kutsogolo ndi 41 cm sikungathetse, ndipo magetsi akutsogolo a LED amapereka magwiridwe antchito usiku.

Kodi-Am Maverick Max 1000

UTV iyi imaphatikiza mipando inayi yoyimitsidwa yayitali ndi injini yotchuka ya 101 hp Rotax. Mtundu wa 1000R X xc uli ndi zotsalira zochepa ndipo umalola kugwiritsidwa ntchito kosavomerezeka m'nkhalango.

Posachedwa, mitundu ya ma ATV yakula kwambiri, kotero apa tizingopereka zitsanzo kuchokera kwa opanga akulu kwambiri, odziwika komanso odziwika bwino pamsika.

Honda

Zowonjezera ATV: FourTrax Foreman, FourTrax Rancher, FourTrax Rubicon и FourTrax Recon.

Masewera ATV: TRX250R, TRX450R ndi TRX700XX.

Pafupi: Big Red MUV.

Yamaha

Zosiyanasiyana ATV: Grizzly 700 FI, Grizzly 550 FI, Grizzly 450, Grizzly 125 ndi Big Bear 400.

Masewera ATV: Raptor 125, Raptor 250, Raptor 700, YFZ450X ndi YFZ450R.

UTV: Chipembere 700 и Chipembere 450.

Nyenyezi ya Pole

Zosiyanasiyana ATV: Sportsman 850 XP, Sportsman 550 XP, Sportsman 500 HO ndi Sportsman 400 HO.

Masewera ATV: Outlaw 525 IRS, Scrambler 500, Trail Blazer 330 ndi Trail Boss 330.

UTV: Ranger 400, Ranger 500, Ranger 800 XP, Ranger 800 Crew, Ranger Diesel, Ranger RZR 570, Ranger RZR 800, Ranger RZR 4 800 ndi Ranger RZR XP 900.

Suzuki

Zolemba za ATV: KingQuad 400 FSi, KingQuad 400 ASi, KingQuad 500 и KingQuad 750.

Masewera ATV: QuadRacer LT-R450, QuadSport Z400 ndi QuadSport Z250.

Kawasaki

Zosiyanasiyana za ATV: Brute Force 750, Brute Force 650, Prairie 360 ​​ndi Bayou 250.

Masewera ATV: KFX450R ndi KFX700.

UTV: Teryx 750, Mule 600, Mule 610, Mule 4010, Mule 4010 Dizilo и Mule 4010 Trans4x4.

Mphaka wa Arctic

Zosiyanasiyana ATV: ThunderCat H2, 700 S, 700 H1, 700 TRV, 700 Super Duty Diesel, 650 H1, MudPro, 550 H1, 550 S ndi 366.

Masewera ATV: 300DVX ndi XC450i.

UTV: Prowler 1000, Prowler 700 ndi Prowler 550.

Kodi-Am

Zosasinthika ATV: Outlander 400, Outlander MAX 400, Outlander 500, Outlander MAX 500, Outlander 650, Outlander 800R ndi Outlander MAX 800R.

Masewera ATV: DS 450, DS 250, Renegade 500 ndi Renegade 800R.

UTV: Commander 800R ndi Commander 1000.

John Deere

UTV: Gator XUV 4 × 4 625i, Gator XUV 4 × 4 825i, Gator XUV 4 × 4 855D, High Performance HPX 4 × 4 и High Performance HPX Dizilo 4 × 4.

kymco

Zogwiritsira ntchito ATV: MXU 150, MXU 300, MXU 375 ndi MXU 500 IRS.

Masewera ATV: Mongoose 300 ndi Maxxer 375 IRS.

UTV: UXV 500, UXV 500 SE ndi UXV 500 LE.

lynx

UTV: 3400 4 × 4, 3400XL 4 × 4, 3450 4 × 4, 3200 2 × 4, Toolcat 5600 Utility Work Machine ndi Toolcat 5610 Utility Work Machine

Ena

Ntchito ATV: Argo Avenger 8 × 8, Tomberlin SDX 600 4 × 4, Bennche Gray Wolf 700.

Masewera ATV: KTM SX ATV 450, KTM SX ATV 505, KTM XC ATV 450 ndi Hyosung TE 450.

UTV: Cub Cadet Volunteer 4x4 ndi Kubota RTV 900.

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