Valavu

Zamkatimu

Kuti injini yoyaka yapakati yamagalimoto anayi igwire ntchito, chipangizocho chimaphatikizapo magawo osiyanasiyana ndi makina omwe amalumikizana. Zina mwa njirazi ndi nthawi yake. Ntchito yake ndikuwonetsetsa kuti nthawi ya valavu ikugwira bwino ntchito. Zomwe zimafotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane apa.

Mwachidule, makina ogawira gasi amatsegula valavu yolowera / kubwereketsa nthawi yoyenera kuti zitsimikizire nthawi yomwe ntchitoyi ikuchitika mu silinda. Nthawi zina, zimafunikira kuti mabowo onse atsekedwe, mzake, limodzi kapena onse atseguka.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Tiyeni tiwone mwatsatanetsatane mfundo imodzi yomwe imakupatsani mwayi wokhazikika. Ichi ndi valavu. Kodi mawonekedwe ake ndi otani, komanso imagwira ntchito bwanji?

Kodi valavu ya injini ndi chiyani?

Valavu ndi gawo lachitsulo lomwe limayikidwa pamutu wamphamvu. Ndi gawo limodzi lamagalimoto omwe amagawa ndipo amayendetsedwa ndi camshaft.

Kutengera ndi kusintha kwagalimoto, injini izikhala ndi nthawi yotsika kapena yayitali. Njira yoyamba ikupezekabe pakusintha kwakale kwamagetsi. Opanga ambiri akhala akusintha kale kukhala mtundu wachiwiri wamagetsi opangira mpweya.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Chifukwa cha ichi ndikuti mota yotere ndiyosavuta kuyimba ndikukonzanso. Kusintha mavavu, ndikokwanira kuchotsa chivundikiro cha valavu ndipo sikoyenera kuchotsa gawo lonse.

Cholinga ndi mawonekedwe a chipangizocho

Valavu ndi chinthu chodzaza masika. Mpumulo, imatseka dzenje. Camshaft ikatembenuka, kamera yomwe ili pamenepo imakankhira valavu pansi, ndikuitsitsa. Izi zimatsegula dzenje. Makonzedwe a camshaft amafotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane mu ndemanga ina.

Gawo lirilonse limagwira ntchito yakeyake, zomwe sizingatheke kuchitira chinthu chomwecho chapafupi. Pali mavavu osachepera awiri pa silinda iliyonse. M'mitundu yotsika mtengo, pali zinayi. Nthawi zambiri, zinthu izi zimakhala ziwiriziwiri, ndipo zimatsegula magulu osiyanasiyana a mabowo: ena amalowa pomwe ena amatuluka.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Mavavu olowa ndi omwe amachititsa kuti pakhale mafuta enaake osakanikirana ndi mpweya, komanso ma injini omwe ali ndi jakisoni (mtundu wa jekeseni wamafuta, amafotokozedwa apa- voliyumu ya mpweya wabwino. Izi zimachitika panthawi yomwe pisitoniyo imamaliza kupweteketsa (kuchokera kumtunda wakufa, ikachotsa utsi, imatsikira pansi).

Mavavu otulutsa ali ndi mfundo zomwezo zotsegulira, koma ali ndi ntchito yosiyana. Amatsegula bowo pochotsa zinthu zoyaka moto muzambiri.

Kapangidwe ka valavu yamajini

Zigawo zomwe zikufunsidwa zimaphatikizidwa mgulu lamagetsi lamagalimoto. Pamodzi ndi zina, zimapereka kusintha kwakanthawi munthawi ya valavu.

Ganizirani za kapangidwe ka mavavu ndi mbali zina, momwe ntchito yawo imadalira.

Mavavu

Ma valve amakhala ngati ndodo, mbali imodzi yomwe pamakhala mutu kapena chopopera, mbali inayo, chidendene kapena mathero. Gawo lathyathyathya lakonzedwa kuti lisindikizidwe zolimba pamitsempha yamutu. Kusintha kosalala kumachitika pakati pa chinganga ndi ndodo, osati sitepe. Izi zimapangitsa kuti valavu isinthidwe kuti isapangitse kukana kuyenda kwamadzimadzi.

Mu galimoto yomweyo, mavavu olowera ndi kutulutsa utsi azikhala osiyana pang'ono. Chifukwa chake, mitundu yoyamba yazigawo imakhala ndi mbale yayikulu kuposa yachiwiri. Chifukwa cha ichi ndikutentha kwambiri komanso kuthamanga kwambiri pamene zinthu zoyaka moto zimachotsedwa kudzera pamalo opangira mpweya.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Kupanga magawo kukhala otchipa, mavavu ali m'magawo awiri. Zimasiyana mosiyanasiyana. Mbali ziwirizi zimalumikizidwa ndi kuwotcherera. Chophimbira chogwiritsira ntchito chimbale chautulutsi ndichinthu china. Amayikidwa kuchokera ku chitsulo chamtundu wina, chomwe chimakhala ndi zinthu zosagwira kutentha, komanso chotsutsana ndi kupsinjika kwamakina. Kuphatikiza pa izi, mawonekedwe omaliza amalo otulutsa sangatengeke ndi dzimbiri. Zoona, gawo ili m'magetsi ambiri limapangidwa ndi zinthu zofanana ndi chitsulo chomwe mbaleyo imapangidwira.

Mitu yazinthu zolowera nthawi zambiri imakhala yosalala. Kapangidwe kameneka kali ndi kukhazikika kofunikira komanso kosavuta kuphedwa. Ma injini ophulika amatha kukhala ndi mavavu a concave disc. Kujambula kumeneku kumakhala kopepuka pang'ono kuposa mnzake wamba, potero kumachepetsa mphamvu ya inertia.

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Ponena za anzawo otulutsa utsi, mawonekedwe amutu wawo amatha kukhala osalala kapena otukuka. Njira yachiwiri ndiyothandiza kwambiri, chifukwa imathandizira kuchotsa mpweya kuchokera m'chipinda choyaka moto chifukwa chamapangidwe ake. Kuphatikiza apo mbale yokhotakhota ndiyolimba poyerekeza ndi mnzake. Mbali inayi, chinthu choterocho chimalemera, chifukwa cha momwe inertia imavutikira. Mitundu yamtunduwu idzafuna akasupe owuma.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Komanso mapangidwe amtengo wa ma valves amtunduwu ndi osiyana pang'ono ndi magawo azakudya. Pofuna kutaya kutentha kwabwino kuchokera ku zinthuzo, bala ndilolimba. Izi zimapangitsa kukaniza kutentha kwamphamvu kwa gawolo. Komabe, njirayi ili ndi vuto - imapangitsa kulimbana kwambiri ndi mpweya womwe wachotsedwa. Ngakhale izi, opanga akugwiritsabe ntchito kapangidwe kameneka, chifukwa mpweya wotulutsa utsi umatulutsidwa mopanikizika kwambiri.

Lero pali chitukuko chatsopano cha mavavu omwe adakakamizidwa. Kusinthidwa ali pakati dzenje. Sodiamu yamadzimadzi imaponyedwa m'mimbamo. Izi zimatuluka ngati chimatenthedwa kwambiri (chomwe chili pafupi ndi mutu). Chifukwa cha izi, mpweya umatenga kutentha kuchokera pamakoma azitsulo. Mukakwera m'mwamba, mpweyawo uzizirala. Madziwo amatsikira pansi, pomwe njirayi imabwerezedwa.

Pofuna kuti ma valve awonetsetse kulumikizana kwa mawonekedwe, chamfer amasankhidwa pampando ndi pa disc. Zimachitidwanso ndi bevel kuti athetse sitepeyo. Mukayika ma valve pama mota, amapaka pamutu.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Kukhazikika kwa kulumikizana kwa mpando kumutu kumakhudzidwa ndi dzimbiri lomwe limapangidwa paphewa, ndipo magawo ake amatuluka nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi ma kaboni. Kutalikitsa moyo wa valavu, ma injini ena amakhala ndi makina owonjezera omwe amasintha valavu pang'ono pomwe chatsekedwa. Izi zimachotsa zomwe zimayika kaboni.

Nthawi zina zimachitika kuti cholembera cha valavu chimaswa. Izi zipangitsa kuti gawolo ligwereni mumphamvu ndikuwononga mota. Kulephera, ndikokwanira kuti crankshaft ipange zosintha zingapo. Pofuna kupewa izi, opanga ma valavu oyendetsa galimoto atha kukonzekeretsa gawolo ndi mphete yosungira.

Pang'ono pokhudza mawonekedwe a chidendene cha valavu. Gawoli limayang'aniridwa ndi gulu lankhondo ngati limakhudzidwa ndi cam ya shaft. Kuti valavu itsegulidwe, kamera iyenera kuyikankhira pansi ndi mphamvu yokwanira kupondereza kasupe. Chipangizochi chiyenera kulandira mafuta okwanira, kuti chisatope msanga, chimakhala cholimba. Okonza magalimoto ena amagwiritsa ntchito zisoti zapadera kuti zisawonongeke ndi ndodo, zopangidwa ndi zinthu zosagwirizana ndi katundu wotere.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Pofuna kuteteza valavu kuti isakanike pamanja pakatenthetsa, gawo la tsinde pafupi ndi chinganga ndi locheperako pang'ono kuposa gawo lomwe lili pafupi ndi chidendene. Kuti akonze kasupe wamagetsi, ma groove awiri amapangidwa kumapeto kwa mavavu (nthawi zina, imodzi), momwe amalowetsa othandizirawo (mbale yokhazikika pomwe kasupe amakhala).

Akasupe vavu

Kasupe amakhudza kuyendetsa bwino kwa valavu. Ndikofunika kuti mutu ndi mpando upereke kulumikizana kolimba, ndipo sing'anga yogwirira ntchito siyilowerera kudzera mu fistula yopangidwa. Ngati gawoli ndi lolimba kwambiri, camshaft cam kapena chidendene cha tsinde la valavu chitha msanga. Mbali inayi, kasupe wofooka sangathe kuwonetsetsa kuti pali mgwirizano wolimba pakati pazinthu ziwirizi.

Popeza chinthuchi chimagwira ntchito pakusintha kwazinthu zambiri, chimatha kusweka. Opanga ma Powertrain amagwiritsa ntchito akasupe amitundu yosiyanasiyana popewa kuwonongeka mwachangu. Nthawi zina, mitundu iwiri imayikidwa. Kusinthaku kumachepetsa katundu pachinthu chimodzi, potero kumawonjezera moyo wake wogwira ntchito.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Mukupanga uku, akasupe adzakhala ndi mbali ina yakusinthana. Izi zimalepheretsa tinthu tating'onoting'ono kuti tisalowe pakati pa mbali inayo. Chitsulo cham'masika chimagwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga izi. Pambuyo popanga malonda, amapsa mtima.

M'mphepete mwake, kasupe aliyense amakhala wapansi kotero kuti gawo lonse lonyamula limalumikizana ndi mutu wa valavu ndi mbale yayikulu yolumikizidwa pamutu wamphamvu. Pofuna kuti gawolo lisakhudzidwe, limakutidwa ndi cadmium ndi kanasonkhezereka.

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Kuphatikiza pa ma valves achikale a nthawi, valavu ya pneumatic itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pagalimoto zamasewera. M'malo mwake, ichi ndi chinthu chomwecho, koma chimayendetsedwa ndi makina apadera a pneumatic. Chifukwa cha ichi, kugwira ntchito molondola kotero kuti njirayi imatha kupanga kusintha kosaneneka - mpaka 20 zikwi.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Kukula koteroko kudawonekera m'ma 1980. Zimathandizira kutsegula / kutseguka kwa mabowo, komwe sipangakhale kasupe. Chojambulira ichi chimayendetsedwa ndi mpweya wothinikizidwa mosungira pamwamba pa valavu. Kamera ikamenya valavu, mphamvuyo imakhala pafupifupi 10 bar. Valavu imatsegulidwa, ndipo camshaft ikafooketsa chidendene chake, mpweya wothinikizidwayo umabweza gawolo pamalo akewo. Pofuna kupewa kutsika chifukwa chodontha, dongosololi limakhala ndi kompresa yowonjezerapo, yomwe ili ndi bala pafupifupi 200 bar.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe
James Ellison, PBM Aprilia, Mayeso a CRT Jerez Feb 2012

Njirayi imagwiritsidwa ntchito panjinga zamoto za MotoGP. Kutumiza kumeneku ndi lita imodzi ya injini kumatha kupanga zosintha za 20-21 zikwizikwi. Model wina ndi limagwirira ofanana ndi imodzi mwa zitsanzo njinga yamoto Aprilia. Mphamvu yake inali yodabwitsa 240 hp. Zowona, ndizovuta kwambiri pagalimoto yamagudumu awiri.

Malangizo a Valve

Udindo wagawoli pakugwiritsa ntchito valavu ndikuwonetsetsa kuti ikuyenda molunjika. Manjawo amathandiziranso kuziziritsa ndodo. Gawo ili limafunikira mafuta nthawi zonse. Kupanda kutero, ndodoyo imatha kupsinjika nthawi zonse ndipo malayawo amatha.

Zinthu zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito popanga mabulosi otere ziyenera kukhala zosagwira kutentha, kupilira kukangana kosalekeza, chotsani kutentha kuchokera mbali yoyandikana nayo, komanso kupirira kutentha kwambiri. Zofunikira izi zitha kukwaniritsidwa ndi pearlite imvi kuponya chitsulo, aluminiyamu bronze, ceramic wokhala ndi chrome kapena chrome-nickel. Zipangizo zonsezi zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe olakwika, potero zimathandizira kusunga mafuta pamtunda wawo.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Kutsekemera kwa valavu yotulutsa mpweya kumakhala ndi chilolezo pang'ono pakati pa tsinde kuposa cholowa. Chifukwa cha ichi ndikokulitsa kwakukulu kwa valavu yochotsa mpweya.

Mipando vavu

Ili ndiye gawo lolumikizana la mutu wamphamvu womwe umanyamula pafupi ndi chimbale chilichonse ndi chimbale cha valavu. Popeza gawo ili lamutu limakumana ndi zovuta zamagetsi komanso zamatenthedwe, liyenera kukhala losagwirizana ndi kutentha kwakukulu komanso zoyipa zomwe zimachitika pafupipafupi (pamene galimoto ikuyenda mwachangu, camshaft rpm ndiyokwera kwambiri kotero kuti ma valve amalowa pampando).

Ngati cholumikizira ndi mutu wake ndizopangidwa ndi aloyi ya aluminiyamu, mipando yama valve iyenera kuti ikhale yachitsulo. Chitsulo choponyera chimatha kuthana ndi katundu wotere, motero chishalo pakusinthaku chimapangidwa m'mutu momwe.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Zisalu zolumikizira ziliponso. Amapangidwa ndi chitsulo chosanjikizika kapena chitsulo chosagwira kutentha. Pofuna kuti chamfer wa chinthucho asathere kwambiri, chimachitidwa ndi kuyika chitsulo chosagwira kutentha.

Mpando wolowetsa umakhala wokhazikika pamutu mosiyanasiyana. Nthawi zina, imakanikizidwamo, ndipo poyambira amapangidwa kumtunda kwa chinthucho, chomwe chimadzazidwa ndi chitsulo chamutu wamutu nthawi yakukhazikitsa. Izi zimapanga kukhulupirika kwa msonkhano kuchokera kuzitsulo zosiyanasiyana.

Mpando wachitsulo umaphatikizidwa ndikuwonekera pamwamba pamutu wamutu. Pali zishalo zozungulira komanso zozungulira. Pachiyambi choyamba, amakwera poyimilira, ndipo chachiwiri chimakhala ndi malire pang'ono.

Chiwerengero cha mavavu mu injini

Injini yoyaka 4 yoyaka ili ndi camshaft imodzi ndi mavavu awiri pa silinda. M'mawonekedwe awa, gawo limodzi limayang'anira jekeseni wa mpweya wosakanikirana kapena mpweya (ngati mafuta ali ndi jekeseni wachindunji), ndipo enawo ndi omwe amachititsa kuti mpweya wotulutsa utsi ubwerere muzambiri.

Kuchita bwino kwambiri pakusintha kwa injini, momwe muli ma valve anayi pa silinda - awiri pagawo lililonse. Ndiyamika kamangidwe kameneka, chipindacho chimadzazidwa bwino ndi gawo latsopano la VTS kapena mpweya, komanso kuthamangitsidwa kwachangu kwa mpweya wotulutsa utsi ndi mpweya wabwino wamtsempha. Magalimoto adayamba kukhala ndi magalimoto otere kuyambira m'ma 70s a zaka zapitazi, ngakhale chitukuko cha mayunitsi amenewo chidayamba koyambirira kwa ma 1910.

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Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Pakadali pano, kukonza magwiridwe antchito amagetsi, pali injini yopanga yomwe ili ndi ma valve asanu. Awiri potuluka, ndi atatu polowera. Chitsanzo cha mayunitsi amenewa ndi mitundu ya nkhawa za Volkswagen-Audi. Ngakhale mfundo yogwirira ntchito ya lamba wanyengo mu mota yotere ndiyofanana ndi mitundu yakale, kapangidwe ka makinawa ndi kovuta, komwe kumapangitsa kuti kukonzanso kumene kukwere mtengo.

Njira yofananira yofananira nayonso ikutengedwa ndi automaker wa Mercedes-Benz. Ma injini ena ochokera pamakina awa amakhala ndi mavavu atatu pa silinda (kudya 2, 1 utsi). Kuphatikiza apo, chipinda chilichonse cha mphika chimayikidwa ma plugs awiri.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Wopanga amatsimikiza kuchuluka kwa ma valve ndi kukula kwa chipinda chomwe mafuta ndi mpweya umalowera. Kuti mukwaniritse kudzaza kwake, ndikofunikira kuonetsetsa kuti magawo atsopano a BTC alowa bwino. Kuti muchite izi, mutha kukulitsa kukula kwa dzenje, komanso kukula kwake kwa mbaleyo. Komabe, kusinthaku kuli ndi malire ake. Koma ndizotheka kuyika valavu yowonjezerapo, motero opanga makina akupanga zosintha pamutu wamphamvu kwambiri. Popeza liwiro la kudya ndilofunika kwambiri kuposa utsi (utsi umachotsedwa pansi pa kupanikizika kwa pisitoni), ndimagetsi angapo, nthawi zonse pamakhala zinthu zowonjezera.

Zomwe ma valve amapangidwa

Popeza ma valavu amagwira ntchito m'malo otentha kwambiri komanso kupsinjika kwamakina, amapangidwa ndi chitsulo chosagwirizana ndi izi. Koposa zonse kumatenthedwa, komanso kukumana ndi kupsinjika kwamakina, malo olumikizirana pakati pa mpando ndi disc ya valve. Mothamanga kwambiri, mavavu amathira m'mipando mwachangu, ndikupangitsa mantha m'mbali mwa gawolo. Komanso, poyaka chisakanizo cha mpweya ndi mafuta, m'mphepete mwake mwa mbale mumakhala ndi kutentha kwakukulu.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Kuphatikiza pa disc ya valve, manja a valavu amalimbikitsidwanso. Zinthu zoyipa zomwe zimayambitsa kuvala pazinthu izi ndizokwanira kokwanira kofewa komanso kukangana kosalekeza poyenda kwama valve.

Pazifukwa izi, zofunikira zotsatirazi zimaperekedwa pamagetsi:

  1. Ayenera kusindikiza polowera / kubwereketsa;
  2. Ndikutentha kwamphamvu, m'mbali mwa mbaleyo musapunduke pazoyenda pa chishalo;
  3. Ziyenera kukhala zosanjidwa bwino kuti pasakhale kukana kulikonse komwe kukubwera kapena kotuluka;
  4. Gawo lisakhale lolemera;
  5. Chitsulo chiyenera kukhala cholimba komanso cholimba;
  6. Sitiyenera kukhala ndi makutidwe ndi okosijeni olimba (pomwe galimoto siyimayendetsa kwenikweni, m'mbali mwa mitu isachite dzimbiri).

Gawo lomwe linatsegula dzenje mu injini za dizilo limatenthetsa mpaka madigiri 700, ndi anzawo a mafuta - mpaka 900 pamwamba pa zero. Zinthu zimakhala zovuta chifukwa chakuti ndi kutentha kotentha kotere, valavu yotseguka siyabwino. Valavu yobwerekera imatha kupangidwa ndi chitsulo chilichonse chapamwamba chomwe chimatha kupirira kutentha kwakukulu. Monga tanenera kale, valavu imodzi imapangidwa kuchokera kuzitsulo zamitundu iwiri. Mutu umapangidwa ndizitsulo zotentha kwambiri ndipo tsinde lake limapangidwa ndi chitsulo cha kaboni.

Pazinthu zopangira, zimakhazikika pokhudzana ndi mpando. Komabe, kutentha kwawo kumakhalanso kwakukulu - pafupifupi madigiri 300, chifukwa chake sikuloledwa kuti gawolo lipunduke likatenthedwa.

Engine vavu. Cholinga, chida, kapangidwe

Chromium nthawi zambiri imaphatikizidwa ndi zopangira ma valve, zomwe zimakulitsa bata yake. Pa kuyaka kwa mafuta, mafuta kapena mafuta a dizilo, zinthu zina zimatulutsidwa zomwe zingakhudze kwambiri magawo azitsulo (mwachitsanzo, lead oxide). Nickel, manganese ndi nayitrogeni zimatha kuphatikizidwa pamutu wamutu wa valavu kuti zisawonongeke.

Ndipo potsiriza. Si chinsinsi kwa aliyense kuti mu injini iliyonse, popita nthawi, ma valve amawotchera. Nayi kanema wamfupi wazifukwa za izi:

ZIFUKWA ZOMWE MAVALU amawotcherA MU Galimoto YOPHUNZITSA 95% yama driver sanadziwe

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi ma valve mu injini amachita chiyani? Akamatsegula, ma valve olowetsa amalola kuti mpweya wabwino (kapena mpweya / mafuta osakaniza) ulowe mu silinda. Ma valve otsegula otulutsa amatsogolera mpweya wotulutsa mpweya kupita kumitundu yambiri.

Kodi mungamvetse bwanji kuti ma valve atenthedwa? Chofunikira chachikulu cha mavavu otenthedwa ndikuyenda katatu kwa mota mosasamala kanthu za rpm. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, mphamvu ya injini imachepetsedwa bwino, ndipo mafuta amawonjezeka.

Ndi mbali ziti zomwe zimatsegula ndi kutseka ma valve? Tsinde la valve limalumikizidwa ndi makamera a camshaft. M'mainjini ambiri amakono, zonyamula ma hydraulic zimayikidwanso pakati pazigawozi.

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