Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi

Zamkatimu

Cholinga ndi mitundu ya nthawi:

1.1. Cholinga cha njira yogawa gasi:

Cholinga cha magawidwe amafuta ndikudutsa mafuta osakanikirana ndi ma cylindles ndi kutulutsa mpweya wa utsi. Kusinthanitsa kwa gasi kumachitika kudzera polowera ndi potseguka, zomwe zimatsekedwa mwanzeru ndi zinthu za lamba wa nthawi molingana ndi njira yomwe injiniyo imagwirira ntchito.

1.2. Ntchito yama Valve:

Cholinga cha gulu la valavu ndikutseka polowera ndi potsegulira ndikutsegulira munthawi yodziwika kwakanthawi kokhazikika.

1.3. Mitundu ya nthawi:

kutengera ziwalo zomwe ma injini amagetsi amalumikizana ndi chilengedwe, lamba wa nthawi ndi valavu, spool komanso kuphatikiza.

1.4. Kuyerekeza mitundu ya nthawi:

nthawi ya valve ndiyofala kwambiri chifukwa chakapangidwe kake kosavuta komanso ntchito yodalirika. Kusindikiza koyenera komanso kodalirika kwa malo ogwirira ntchito, omwe amakwaniritsidwa chifukwa chakuti ma valve amakhala osasunthika pakathamangidwe kazitsulo, amapereka mwayi waukulu kuposa valavu kapena nthawi yophatikizira. Chifukwa chake, nthawi yama valve imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri.

Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi

Valve gulu gulu:

2.1. Valavu chipangizo:

Mavavu amagetsi amakhala ndi tsinde ndi mutu. Mitu nthawi zambiri imakhala yopindika, yotsekemera kapena yopangidwa ndi belu. Mutu uli ndi lamba wocheperako (pafupifupi 2 mm) ndi bevel yosindikiza ya 45˚ kapena 30˚. Lamba wama cylindrical amalola, kumbali imodzi, kuti asunge gawo lalikulu la valavu popera chosindikiza chamfer, komano, kuwonjezera kuuma kwa valavu ndikuteteza kupindika. Zowonjezeka kwambiri ndi ma valve okhala ndi mutu wolimba komanso chidindo chosindikiza pamakona a 45˚ (awa nthawi zambiri amakhala mavavu olowetsa), ndikuwonjezera kudzaza ndi kuyeretsa masilindala, valavu yolowera imakhala ndi gawo lalikulu kuposa valavu yotulutsa. Mavavu otulutsa nthawi zambiri amapangidwa ndi mutu wa mpira.

Izi zimapangitsa kutuluka kwa mpweya wotulutsa mpweya kuchokera kuzipilala komanso kumawonjezera mphamvu ndi kukhazikika kwa valavu. Pofuna kukonza zinthu zochotsa kutentha pamutu wa valavu ndikuwonjezera kusokonekera kwa valavu, kusintha pakati pamutu ndi tsinde kumapangidwa mozungulira kwa 10˚ - 30˚ ndikukhala ndi chiwonetsero chachikulu chopindika. Pamapeto pake pa tsinde la valavu, ma grooves a conical, cylindrical kapena mawonekedwe apadera amapangidwa, kutengera njira yolumikizira kasupe ku valavu. Kuzirala kwa sodium kumagwiritsidwa ntchito mu injini zingapo kuti muchepetse kupsinjika kwamagetsi pamavali omwe amaphulika. Pachifukwa ichi, valavu imapangidwa yopanda pake, ndipo chotsekeracho chimadzazidwa ndi sodium, womwe umasungunuka ndi 100 ° C. Injini ikayamba kugwira ntchito, sodium imasungunuka ndipo, ikamayenda mu mphako ya valavu, imasamutsa kutentha kuchokera kumutu wotentha kupita ku tsinde lozizira, kuchokera pamenepo kupita ku chojambulira cha valavu.

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Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi

2.2. Kulumikiza valavu kumapeto kwake:

mapangidwe a chipangizochi ndiosiyanasiyana kwambiri, koma kapangidwe kofala kwambiri ndi theka-ma cones. Mothandizidwa ndi ma cones awiri, omwe amalowa mumayendedwe opangidwa ndi tsinde la valavu, mbaleyo imakanikizidwa, yomwe imagwira kasupe ndipo salola kuti disassembling ya unit. Izi zimapanga kulumikizana pakati pa kasupe ndi valavu.

2.3. Malo ampando wama Valve:

Mu injini zonse zamakono, mipando yotulutsa utsi imapangidwa mosiyana ndi mutu wamphamvu. Mipando yotere imagwiritsidwanso ntchito pokoka makapu pamene mutu wamphamvu umapangidwa ndi aloyi ya aluminiyamu. Ikaponyedwa chitsulo, zisoti zimapangidwamo. Kapangidwe, mpandowo ndi mphete yomwe imamangiriridwa pamutu wamphamvu pampando wopangidwa mwaluso. Nthawi yomweyo, ma grooves nthawi zina amapangidwira kumtunda kwa mpando, womwe, mukapanikizidwa pampando, umadzazidwa ndi mutu wamiyala yamphamvu, potero amaonetsetsa kuti akumangiririka. Kuphatikiza pakupanikizika, kulumikiza kumatha kuchitidwanso pomangirira chishalo. Kuonetsetsa kuti malo ogwirira ntchito akukhazikika pamene valavu yatsekedwa, malo ogwiritsira ntchito mpandowo amayenera kupangika chimodzimodzi ndi kusindikiza chamfer kwa mutu wa valavu. Pachifukwa ichi, zishalo zimapangidwa ndi zida zapadera zokongoletsa osakhala 15 osati, 45˚ ndi 75˚ kuti mupeze tepi yosindikiza pakona ya 45˚ ndi mulifupi wa 2 mm. Makona ena onse amapangidwa kuti athandize kuyenda mozungulira chishalo.

2.4. Malo Otsogolera Valve:

kapangidwe ka maupangiriwo ndiosiyanasiyana. Nthawi zambiri, amagwiritsa ntchito maulalo osalala akunja, omwe amapangidwa pamakina azipangizo opanda zingwe. Malangizo okhala ndi zingwe zakunja ndizosavuta kulumikiza koma ndizovuta kupanga. Pachifukwa ichi, ndikofunikira kwambiri kupanga njira yamphete yoyimira m'malo mwa lamba. Maupangiri amagetsi otulutsa utsi nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwateteza ku zotsatira za makutidwe ndi okosijeni a mtsinje wotentha wa mpweya. Poterepa, maupangiri ataliatali amapangidwa, enawo omwe amapezeka mumayendedwe amutu wamutu wamphamvu. Pamene mtunda pakati pa kalozera ndi mutu wa valavu umachepa, dzenje lakutsogolo kwa mutu wa valavu limachepa kapena kufutukuka m'chigawo cha mutu wa valavu.

Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi

2.5. Springs chipangizo:

mu injini zamakono, akasupe odziwika bwino kwambiri okhala ndi phula lokhazikika. Kuti apange malo othandizira, malekezero amtundu wa kasupe amasonkhanitsidwa motsutsana wina ndi mzake ndikumamatira ndi mphumi zawo, chifukwa chake kuchuluka kwa ma coil kumakhala kawiri kapena katatu kuposa kuchuluka kwa akasupe ogwira ntchito. Mapeto omaliza amathandizidwa mbali imodzi ya mbaleyo ndi mbali ina ya mutu wamphamvu kapena chipika. Ngati pali chiopsezo cha kumvekera, akasupe a ma valve amapangidwa ndi phula losinthasintha. Bokosi lamagiya lopindidwa limakhotera kuchokera kumapeto ena a kasupe kupita kumapeto ena, kapena kuchokera pakati mpaka kumapeto onse awiri. Valavu ikatsegulidwa, ma windings oyandikira wina ndi mnzake amakhudza, chifukwa chake kuchuluka kwa magwiridwe antchito kumachepa, komanso kuchuluka kwa kusuntha kwaulere kwa masika kumawonjezeka. Izi zimachotsa mikhalidwe yamayimbidwe. Pachifukwa chomwechi, nthawi zina amagwiritsa ntchito akasupe oyenda mozungulira, omwe masanjidwe achilengedwe amasiyanasiyana malinga ndi kutalika kwawo ndikukhala kosamveka.

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2.6. Zipangizo zopangira zida zamagulu zamagetsi:

• Ma Valves - Ma valve oyamwa amapezeka mu chrome (40x), chromium-nickel (40XN) ndi ma alloy ena. Mavavu otulutsa utsi amapangidwa ndi zitsulo zosagwira kutentha zomwe zimakhala ndi chromium, faifi tambala ndi zitsulo zina zosungunulira: 4Х9С2, 4Х10С2М, Х12Н7С, 40СХ10МА.
• Malo okhala ndi mavavu - gwiritsani ntchito zitsulo zosagwira kutentha, chitsulo chosungunuka, bronze ya aluminium, kapena ma cermets.
• Maupangiri a ma Valve ndi ovuta kupanga ndipo amafuna zida ndi matenthedwe apamwamba komanso kuvala kukana komanso matenthedwe abwino monga imvi pearlitic chitsulo chosungunulira ndi aluminiyamu bronze.
• akasupe - opangidwa ndikulumikiza waya kuchokera ku kasupe wa stoma, mwachitsanzo 65G, 60C2A, 50HFA.

Ntchito yamagetsi yamagetsi:

3.1. Njira yolumikizirana:

njira yolumikizirana ndiyolumikizana kwambiri ndi crankshaft, yoyenda molumikizana nayo. Lamba wanyengo amatsegula ndikusindikiza madoko olowera ndi kubwerekera a masilindala amodzi m'njira wamba. Iyi ndi njira yosinthira mpweya wamagalasi.

3.2 Ntchito yoyendetsa nthawi:

Kuyendetsa nthawi kumadalira komwe kuli camshaft.
• Ndi shaft yocheperako - kudzera pamagalasi oyenda mozungulira kuti ntchito yosalala ipangidwe ndi mano opendekera, ndipo poyenda mwakachetechete mphete yamanoyo imapangidwa ndi PCB. Chida chama parasitic kapena tcheni chimagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira kuyendetsa kwakutali.
• Ndi shaft yapamwamba - unyolo wodzigudubuza. Phokoso lotsika pang'ono, kapangidwe kake kosavuta, kulemera pang'ono, koma dera limatha ndikutambasula. Kupyolera mu lamba wokhala ndi mano otetezedwa ndi neoprene wolimbikitsidwa ndi waya wachitsulo wokutidwa ndi wosanjikiza wa nayiloni wosagwira. Kapangidwe kosavuta, kugwira ntchito mwakachetechete.

Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi

3.3. Ndondomeko yogawa gasi:

Malo okwanira otsegulira mpweya kudzera mu valavu zimatengera nthawi yotsegulira. Monga mukudziwa, mu injini zinayi zamagetsi, kuti mugwiritse ntchito zikwapu zolowetsa komanso zotulutsa utsi, pisitoni imodzi imaperekedwa, yofanana ndi kuzungulira kwa crankshaft pofika 180˚. Komabe, zokumana nazo zawonetsa kuti pakudzaza bwino ndi kuyeretsa silinda ndikofunikira kuti nthawi yodzaza ndikutsitsa ikhale yayitali kuposa zikwapu za pistoni, i.e. kutsegulidwa ndi kutsekedwa kwa ma valve sikuyenera kuchitika pamapeto a sitiroko ya piston, koma ndi zina zomwe zimachedwa kapena kuchedwa.

Nthawi zotsegulira ndi kutsekera ma valve zimawonetsedwa m'makona ozungulira a crankshaft ndipo amatchedwa nthawi ya valve. Kuti zikhale zodalirika kwambiri, magawo awa amapangidwa ngati ma chart a pie (mkuyu 1).
Valavu yokoka nthawi zambiri imatseguka ndi mbali yozungulira φ1 = 5˚ - 30˚ pisitoniyo isanafike pamwamba. Izi zimapereka gawo loyimilira la valavu koyambirira kwa sitiroko yodzaza motero kumathandizira kudzaza silinda. Kutsekedwa kwa valavu yokoka kumachitika mochedwa φ2 = 30˚ - 90˚ pisitoni itadutsa pakatikati pakufa. Kuchedwa kwa kutseka kwa valavu wololeza kumapangitsa kuti mafuta azigwiritsidwa ntchito kupititsa patsogolo mafuta ndikuwonjezera mphamvu zama injini.
Valavu yotulutsa imatsegulidwa ndi mawonekedwe overt3 = 40˚ - 80˚, i.e. kumapeto kwa sitiroko, pamene mpweya wamagetsi uli wambiri (0,4 - 0,5 MPa). Kutulutsa kwamphamvu kwamphamvu yamphamvu yamagesi, komwe kumayambira panthawi yamavutowa, kumabweretsa kutsika kwazovuta komanso kutentha kwawo, zomwe zimachepetsa kwambiri ntchito yosamutsa mpweya wogwira ntchito. Valve yotsekera imatseka ndikuchedwa φ4 = 5˚ - 45˚. Kuchedwa kumeneku kumatsimikizira kuyeretsa bwino kwa chipinda choyaka kuchokera ku mpweya wotulutsa mpweya.

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Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi

Diagnostics, kukonza, kukonza:

4.1. Kuzindikira

Zizindikiro zodziwitsa:

  • Mphamvu yochepetsedwa ya injini yoyaka mkati:
  • Kuchepetsa chilolezo;
  • Ma valve osakwanira;
  • Mavavu anagwira.
    • Kuchuluka kwa mafuta:
  • Kuchepetsa chilolezo pakati pamagetsi ndi okwera;
  • Ma valve osakwanira;
  • Mavavu anagwira.
    Valani mu injini zoyaka mkati:
  • Kuvala kwa camshaft;
  • kutsegula makamera a camshaft;
  • Kuchulukitsa pakati pa zimayambira za valavu ndi ma bushings a valavu;
  • Chilolezo chachikulu pakati mavavu ndi lifters;
  • kusweka, kuphwanya kukhathamira kwa akasupe a valavu.
    • Chizindikiro chotsika:
  • Mipando yama valve ndiyofewa;
  • Kasupe wofewa kapena wosweka;
  • Wotuluka vavu;
  • Chotentha kapena chong'ambika mutu wamtengo wapatali
  • Kusasintha kosasintha kwa matenthedwe.
    • Chizindikiro cha kuthamanga.
  • Kutsika kwa mutu;

Njira zowunikira nthawi:

• Kuyeza kwa kupanikizika kwa silinda kumapeto kwa kupsinjika. Pakati pa muyeso, zinthu zotsatirazi ziyenera kukwaniritsidwa: injini yoyaka iyenera kutenthedwa ndi kutentha; Ma plugs akuyenera kuchotsedwa; Chingwe chapakati cha koyilo chodulira chimayenera kuthiridwa mafuta ndipo valavu ya throttle ndi valavu yampweya imatseguka. Kuyeza kumachitika pogwiritsa ntchito compressors. Kusiyanitsa kwamphamvu pakati pa zonenepa payokha sikuyenera kupitirira 5%.

4.2. Kusintha chilolezo matenthedwe mu nthawi lamba:

Kuyang'ana ndikusintha kusiyana kwa matenthedwe kumachitika pogwiritsa ntchito mbale zamagetsi motsatana mogwirizana ndi kayendetsedwe ka injini, kuyambira pa silinda yoyamba. Gawolo limasinthidwa bwino ngati makulidwe a makulidwe, ogwirizana ndi kusiyana kwabwino, amadutsa momasuka. Mukamasintha chilolezo, gwirani chopukutira chosinthira, kumasula mtedza wa kupanikizana, ikani mbale yololeza pakati pa tsinde la valavu ndi cholumikizira, ndikutembenuza chopukutira kuti chikonzere chilolezo chofunikira. Kenako mtedza wotsekerawo umamangika.

Njira yogawa gasi - gulu lamagetsi
Kuchotsa ma valve yamagalimoto

4.3. Kukonza gulu la ma Valve:

• Kukonza mavavu - zolephera zazikuluzikulu ndikumenyera kwa malo ogwirira ntchito, tsinde ndi ming'alu. Ngati mitu ikuwotcha kapena kung'ambika, mavavu amatayidwa. Zimayambira zokhotakhota zimayenderera pamakina osindikizira pogwiritsa ntchito chida. Zimayambira zovalidwa zimakonzedwa mwa kulongosola kapena kusita ndi kuzipaka mchenga kukula kwake mwazing'ono kapena zazikulu. Ntchito yovalaza pamutu wa valavu ndiyokonza kukula. Ma valve amamatira pamipando pogwiritsa ntchito ma pastes owuma. Kulondola kopera kumayang'aniridwa ndikutsanulira palafini pamavavu olumikizidwa, ngati sakutuluka, ndiye kuti kupera kuli bwino kwa mphindi 4-5. Akasupe vavu sanabwezeretsedwe, koma m'malo mwa atsopano.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Ndi chiyani chomwe chikuphatikizidwa mu makina ogawa gasi? Ili pamutu wa silinda. Mapangidwe ake akuphatikizapo: bedi la camshaft, camshaft, ma valves, rocker arms, pushers, hydraulic lifters ndipo, mwa zitsanzo zina, chosinthira gawo.

ДKodi nthawi ya injini ndi chiyani? Njirayi imatsimikizira kupezeka kwanthawi yake kwa gawo latsopano la kusakaniza kwamafuta a mpweya ndi kuchotsedwa kwa mpweya wotulutsa mpweya. Kutengera kusinthidwa, imatha kusintha nthawi yanthawi ya valve.

Kodi njira yogawa gasi ili kuti? Mu injini yamakono yoyaka mkati, njira yogawa gasi imakhala pamwamba pa silinda mumutu wa silinda.

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