Yesani kuyendetsa magalimoto amagetsi: nthawi ino mpaka kalekale

Yesani kuyendetsa magalimoto amagetsi: nthawi ino mpaka kalekale

Kuchokera ku Camilla Genasi kudzera pa GM EV1 mpaka Tesla Model X, kapena mbiri yamagalimoto amagetsi

Nkhani yamagalimoto amagetsi imatha kufotokozedwa ngati zochitika zitatu. Nkhani yayikulu mpaka lero ikadali pamalo omwe pamafunika zida zamagetsi zamagetsi kuti zitsimikizire kuti pali mphamvu zokwanira zofunika pamagetsi amagetsi.

Zaka zisanu Karl Benz asanayambe kuyendetsa njinga yamoto yake yamoto mu 1886, Mfalansa wa ku France Gustave Trouve adakwera galimoto yake yamagetsi ndi matayala omwewo kudutsa Exposition D'Electricite ku Paris. Komabe, aku America angakumbukire kuti kwawo Thomas Davenport adapanga chinthu chotere zaka 47 zapitazo. Ndipo izi zitha kukhala zowona, chifukwa mu 1837 wosula Davenport adapanga galimoto yamagetsi ndiku "iyendetsa "pamayendedwe, koma izi zimatsagana ndi mfundo yaying'ono - mulibe batire m'galimoto. Chifukwa chake, kunena motsimikiza, mbiri yakale, galimotoyi imatha kuonedwa kuti ndi yomwe idalowetsa tram, osati yamagetsi.

Katswiri wina wasayansi yaku France, Gaston Planté, adathandizira kwambiri pakubadwa kwa galimoto yamagetsi yamagetsi: adapanga batri ya lead-acid ndikuiyambitsa mu 1859, chaka chomwecho pomwe mafuta ogulitsa adayamba ku United States. Zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri pambuyo pake, mwa mayina agolide omwe adalimbikitsa kulimbikitsa makina amagetsi, dzina la Werner von Siemens waku Germany lidalembedwa. Zinali ntchito zake zamabizinesi zomwe zidapangitsa kuti magetsi azigwira bwino ntchito, omwe, limodzi ndi batri, adalimbikitsa kwambiri chitukuko cha galimoto yamagetsi. Mu 1882, galimoto yamagetsi imatha kuwoneka m'misewu ya Berlin, ndipo chochitikachi chinali chiyambi cha kukula kwachangu kwamagalimoto amagetsi ku Europe ndi United States, komwe mitundu yambiri idayamba kuwonekera. Chifukwa chake, nsalu yotchinga idakwezedwa pamsonkhano woyamba wa EV, tsogolo lomwe limawoneka lowala panthawiyo. Chilichonse chofunikira ndi chofunikira pa izi chapangidwa kale, ndipo chiyembekezo chokhala ndi injini yoyaka yamkati yakusokonekera chikuyamba kuda. Ngakhale kumapeto kwa zaka zana lino mabatire a lead-acid anali ma watts asanu ndi anayi okha pa kilogalamu (pafupifupi 20 kupitilira mabatire aposachedwa a lithiamu-ion), magalimoto amagetsi amakhala ndi makilomita 80 okwaniritsa. Uwu ndi mtunda waukulu panthawi yomwe maulendo a tsiku amayesedwa ndikuyenda ndipo amatha kuphimbidwa chifukwa cha mphamvu zochepa zamagetsi zamagetsi. M'malo mwake, ndi magalimoto ochepa okha olemera amagetsi omwe amatha kufikira liwiro pamwamba pa 30 km / h.

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Potengera izi, nkhani ya waku Camilla Genazi waku Belgian wopsa mtima imabweretsa mavuto pamoyo watsiku ndi tsiku wamagalimoto amagetsi. Mu 1898, "mdierekezi wofiira" adatsutsa a French Count Gaston de Chasseloup-Laub ndi galimoto yake, Jeanto, kuti ayambe kuthamanga kwambiri. Galimoto yamagetsi ya Genasi ili ndi dzina lodziwika bwino kwambiri "La jamais contente", kutanthauza kuti, "Kusakhutira nthawi zonse." Pambuyo pamipikisano yambiri komanso nthawi zina yochititsa chidwi, mu 1899 galimoto yonga ndudu, yomwe mozungulira imayenda pa 900 rpm, idathamangira kumapeto kwa mpikisano wotsatira, kujambula liwiro lopitilira 100 km / h (ndendende 105,88 km / h). Pomwepo ndi pomwe Genasi ndi galimoto yake ali osangalala ...

Chifukwa chake, pofika 1900, galimoto yamagetsi, ngakhale inali isanakhale ndi zida zokwanira, inali yoti iyambe kulamulira magalimoto oyendera mafuta. Mwachitsanzo, ku America, magalimoto amagetsi anali ochulukirapo kuposa mafuta. Palinso zoyesayesa kuphatikiza zabwino kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi - mwachitsanzo, mtundu wopangidwa ndi wopanga wachinyamata waku Austria Ferdinand Porsche, yemwe sakudziwikabe kwa anthu wamba. Ndi iye amene adalumikiza ma mota oyenda ndi ma injini oyaka mkati, ndikupanga galimoto yoyamba yophatikiza.

Galimoto yamagetsi ngati mdani wamagalimoto amagetsi

Komano china chake chosangalatsa komanso chodabwitsa chimachitika, chifukwa ndimagetsi omwe amawononga ana ake omwe. Mu 1912, Charles Kettering adayambitsa zoyambira zamagetsi zomwe zidapangitsa kuti makinawo azikhala opanda ntchito, ndikuphwanya mafupa a oyendetsa ambiri. Chifukwa chake, chimodzi mwazolephera zazikulu kwambiri zamagalimoto panthawiyo chinali m'mbuyomu. Mitengo yotsika yamafuta ndi Nkhondo Yadziko I idafooketsa galimoto yamagetsi, ndipo mu 1931 mtundu womaliza wamagetsi, Typ 99, adachoka pamsonkhano ku Detroit.

Patadutsa theka la zana limodzi, nthawi yachiwiri ndikubwezeretsanso pakupanga magalimoto amagetsi zidayamba. Kwa nthawi yoyamba, nkhondo yaku Iran-Iraq ikuwonetsa kuwopsa kwa mafuta, mizinda yomwe ili ndi mamiliyoni ambiri ikumira mu utsi, ndipo mutu wachitetezo cha chilengedwe ukukulirakulira mwachangu. Akuluakulu aku California adakhazikitsa lamulo loti pofika 2003, magalimoto khumi pa 1602 aliwonse asamatulutse mpweya uliwonse. Opanga magalimoto, nawonso, amadabwitsidwa ndi izi zonse, chifukwa galimoto yamagetsi yakhala yosamalidwa kwenikweni pazaka zambiri. Kukhalapo kwake kosalekeza muzochita zachitukuko ndi masewera achilendo kuposa kufunikira, ndipo zitsanzo zenizeni zochepa, monga zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kunyamula anthu oyendetsa mafilimu pa mpikisano wa Olympic (BMW 1972 mu 10 ku Munich), sizinawonekere. Chitsanzo chabwino kwambiri cha kupangika kwaukadaulo kumeneku ndikuwoloka mwezi ndi ma mota oyikiramo, opitilira $ XNUMX miliyoni.

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Ngakhale kuti pafupifupi palibe chomwe chachitika kuti apititse patsogolo ukadaulo wa batri, ndipo mabatire a lead-acid akadali chizindikiro pankhaniyi, madipatimenti achitukuko amakampani akuyambanso kupanga magalimoto osiyanasiyana amagetsi. GM ikutsogolera izi, ndi Sunraycer yoyesera ikumenya mbiri yayitali kwambiri pamagetsi a dzuwa, ndipo 1000 ya avant-garde yodziwika bwino ya GM EV1 yokhala ndi chiwongola dzanja cha 0,19 yabwerekedwa pagulu la ogula. ... Poyambirira inali ndi mabatire otsogola, ndipo kuyambira 1999 yokhala ndi mabatire a nickel-metal hydride, imakwaniritsa masanjidwe osangalatsa a makilomita 100. Chifukwa cha mabatire a sodium-sulfure ochokera ku studio ya Conecta Ford, amatha kuyenda mpaka 320 km.

Europe ikusangalatsanso. Makampani aku Germany akusintha chilumba cha Rügen ku Baltic Sea kukhala malo oyesera magalimoto awo amagetsi ndi mitundu monga VW Golf Citystromer, Mercedes 190E ndi Opel Astra Impuls (yokhala ndi batri ya Zebra 270-degree) amayendetsa 1,3 makilomita oyesa miliyoni. Njira zatsopano zamatekinoloje zikuwonekera zomwe zimangowona mwachangu thambo lamagetsi, lofanana ndi batire ya sodium-sulfure yomwe idayatsa BMW E1.

Panthawiyo, chiyembekezo chachikulu chodzipatula ku mabatire a asidi otsogolera anali ndi mabatire a nickel metal hydride. Komabe, mu 1991 Sony idapanga upainiya watsopano mderali ndikutulutsa batri yoyamba ya lithiamu-ion. Mwadzidzidzi aliyense amadwalanso matenda a magetsi - mwachitsanzo, malinga ndi andale aku Germany, msika wamagalimoto amagetsi uyenera kufika pa 2000% pofika 10, ndipo kampani ya Calstart inaneneratu kuti magalimoto okwana 825 azamagetsi kumapeto kwa zaka zana.

Komabe, chowotcha chamagetsi ichi chikuwotcha mwachangu kwambiri. Zikuwonekeratu kuti mabatire sangakwaniritse magwiridwe antchito, ndipo chozizwitsacho sichingachitike, ndipo California ikukakamizidwa kuti isinthe momwe ikufunira utsi. GM imatenga ma EV1 ake onse ndikuwawononga mopanda chifundo. Chodabwitsa ndichakuti, ndi pomwe mainjiniya a Toyota adakwanitsa kumaliza bwino ntchito yolimbikira ya Prius hybrid. Chifukwa chake, chitukuko chaukadaulo chikutenga njira yatsopano.

Act 3: Palibe Kubwerera

Mu 2006, chinthu chomaliza chawonetsero yamagetsi chidayamba. Zizindikiro zochulukirachulukira zakusintha kwanyengo komanso kukwera kwamitengo yamafuta kumapereka chilimbikitso champhamvu pakuyamba kwatsopano mu saga yamagetsi. Panthawiyi, anthu aku Asia omwe amapereka mabatire a lithiamu-ion amatsogolera pakukula kwaukadaulo, ndipo Mitsubishi iMiEV ndi Nissan Leaf akupanga nthawi yatsopano.

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Germany ikudzukabe ku tulo ta magetsi, ku United States, GM ikupukutira zikalata za EV1, ndipo Tesla yaku California idagwedeza dziko lakale lamagalimoto ndi 6831bhp roadster yomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pama laptops. Zoneneratu zikuyambiranso kukula.

Pakadali pano, Tesla anali atagwira kale ntchito yopanga Model S, yomwe sinangopatsa mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi, komanso idapanga chithunzi chodziwika bwino cha chizindikirocho, ndikupangitsa kuti akhale mtsogoleri m'munda.

Pambuyo pake, kampani iliyonse yayikulu yamagalimoto iyamba kuyambitsa mitundu yamagetsi pamndandanda wake, ndipo zitatha zoyipa zomwe zimakhudzana ndi injini ya dizilo, malingaliro awo tsopano akuchita mwachangu kwambiri. Mitundu yamagetsi yama Renault ili patsogolo - Mitundu ya Nissan ndi BMW i, VW ikuyang'ana kwambiri pamtunduwu ndi pulatifomu ya MEB, mtundu wa Mercedes EQ, komanso apainiya a hybrid a Toyota ndi Honda kuti ayambe kuchita bwino pamagetsi amagetsi. Komabe, chitukuko chogwira ntchito komanso chopambana cha makampani a cell lithiamu-ion, makamaka Samsung SDI, ikupanga ma cell a 37 Ah osasunthika kale kuposa momwe amayembekezera, ndipo izi zathandiza opanga ena kuti awonjezere mileage yayikulu yama EV awo mzaka ziwiri zapitazi. Pakadali pano, makampani aku China nawonso akulowa mumasewerawa, ndipo zochulukirapo za mitundu yamagetsi zikukula kwambiri.

Tsoka ilo, vuto la mabatire lidatsalira. Ngakhale adasintha kwambiri, ngakhale mabatire amakono a lithiamu-ion akadali olemera, okwera mtengo kwambiri komanso osakwanira.

Zaka zoposa 100 zapitazo, mtolankhani wina wa ku France wa zagalimoto, Baudrillard de Saunier ananena motere: “Galimoto yamagetsi yodekha ndiyo yoyera kwambiri ndi yolimba kwambiri imene ingafune, ndipo imayenda bwino kufika pa 90 peresenti. Koma mabatire amafunika kusintha kwakukulu. "

Ngakhale lero sitingathe kuwonjezera chilichonse pankhaniyi. Pakadali pano, opanga akuyandikira magetsi ndi olimba, koma olimba mtima, pang'onopang'ono akuyenda modutsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya haibridi. Chifukwa chake, chisinthiko ndichowona komanso chokhazikika.

Lemba: Georgy Kolev, Alexander Blokh

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