Galimoto yamagetsi dzulo, lero ndi mawa: gawo 2

Zamkatimu

Mapulatifomu oyimirira kapena mayankho osinthidwa a magalimoto amagetsi

Kodi kukhazikitsidwa ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa mapulatifomu athunthu amagetsi ndikotheka? Yankho: zimatengera. Kubwerera mchaka cha 2010, Chevrolet Volt (Opel Ampera) idawonetsa kuti pali njira zosinthira bwino mtengo wamagetsi kuti zitheke mwa kuphatikiza phukusi la batri mkatikati mwa nsanja ya Delta II pomwe dongosolo la utsi lilipo . ) ndi pansi pampando wakumbuyo wagalimoto. Komabe, malinga ndi malingaliro amakono, Volt ndi mtundu wosakanizidwa (ngakhale ukadaulo wapamwamba kwambiri wofanana ndi womwe umapezeka mu Toyota Prius) wokhala ndi batire ya 16 kWh ndi injini yoyaka mkati. Zaka khumi zapitazo, kampaniyo idamupempha kuti ikhale ngati galimoto yamagetsi yothamanga kwambiri, ndipo izi zikuwonetsa njira yomwe mtundu wamgalimoto wayendera mzaka khumi izi.

Kwa Volkswagen ndi mabungwe ake omwe amagwirizira, omwe zolinga zawo zikuphatikiza kupanga magalimoto amagetsi miliyoni miliyoni pachaka, pofika 2025, kukhazikitsidwa kwa nsanja zopangidwira magalimoto amagetsi ndikofunikira. Kwa opanga ngati BMW, komabe, nkhaniyi ndi yovuta kwambiri. I3 itatenthedwa kwambiri, yomwe inali patsogolo koma idapangidwa munthawi ina chifukwa chake sinakhale yotsika mtengo, opanga zisankho ku kampani yaku Bavaria adaganiza kuti opanga ayenera kufunafuna njira yopangira nsanja zosinthika zomwe zingakulitse Kuchita bwino kwa mitundu iwiri yonse. Tsoka ilo, nsanja zamagetsi zosinthidwa mwamwambo ndizowongoleredwa - maselowo amatumizidwa m'maphukusi osiyanasiyana ndikuwayika pomwe pali malo, ndipo mmapangidwe atsopano mavoliyumuwa amaperekedwa kuti agwirizane.

Komabe, malowa sagwiritsidwa ntchito moyenera monga ma cell apansi, ndipo zinthuzi zimalumikizidwa ndi zingwe zomwe zimakulitsa kulemera komanso kukana. Mitundu yamagetsi yamagetsi yamakampani ambiri, monga e-Golf ndi magetsi a B-Class a Mercedes, ndiotero. Chifukwa chake, BMW idzagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wa CLAR papulatifomu yomwe iX3 ndi i4 ikubwera. Mercedes adzakhala ndi njira yofananira mzaka zikubwerazi, pogwiritsa ntchito mitundu yomwe yasinthidwa asadakhazikitsidwe (pafupifupi zaka ziwiri pambuyo pake) za EVA II yodzipereka. Mwa mitundu yake yoyamba yamagetsi, makamaka e-Tron, Audi idagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wake wa MLB Evo, womwe udasintha wheelbase yonse kuti iphatikize batire lathunthu. Komabe, Porsche ndi Audi pakadali pano akupanga Premium Platform Electric (PPE) yopangidwira ma mota amagetsi, omwe adzagwiritsidwenso ntchito ndi Bentley. Komabe, ngakhale mbadwo wotsatira wama pulatifomu odzipereka agalimoto yamagetsi sangafune njira yotsogola ngati i3 - adzagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri zitsulo ndi zotayidwa pazifukwa izi.

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Ndipo aliyense akuyang'ana njira yatsopano m'nkhalango posachedwa. Fiat idagulitsa mtundu wamagetsi wa Panda zaka 30 zapitazo, koma FiatChrysler tsopano ikungotsalira izi. Mtundu wa Fiat 500e ndi pulogalamu yolowetsa ya Chrysler Pacifica ikugulitsidwa ku United States. Dongosolo lakampaniyo limafuna kuti pakhale ndalama zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi pofika chaka cha 9, ndipo ziyamba kupanga magalimoto amagetsi 2022 ku Europe pogwiritsa ntchito nsanja yatsopano yamagetsi. Maserati ndi Alfa Romeo alinso ndi mitundu yamagetsi.

Ford ikuyembekezeka kukhazikitsa magalimoto amagetsi a 2022 MEB ku Europe pofika 16; Honda idzagwiritsa ntchito ma powertrains amagetsi kusamutsa magawo awiri mwa atatu amitundu yake ku Europe pofika 2025; Hyundai amagulitsa magetsi a Kona ndi Ioniq bwino, koma tsopano ali wokonzeka ndi nsanja yatsopano ya EV. Toyota idzakhazikitsira mitundu yamagetsi yamagetsi mtsogolo pa e-TNGA, galimoto yamagetsi yopangidwa mwaluso yomwe idzagwiritsidwenso ntchito ndi Mazda, ndipo ngakhale dzinalo likufanana ndi njira zingapo zatsopano za nsanja ya TNGA, ndizachidziwikire. Toyota imakumana ndi magalimoto amagetsi komanso kasamalidwe ka magetsi, koma osati ndi mabatire a lithiamu-ion chifukwa, mdzina lodalirika, yagwiritsa ntchito mabatire a nickel-metal hydride mpaka kumapeto. Pazinthu zambiri zamagetsi zamagetsi, Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi imagwiritsa ntchito mapangidwe omwe asinthidwa kale, koma posachedwa ayambitsanso nsanja yamagetsi yatsopano, CMF-EV. Dzinalo la CMF siliyenera kukupusitsani - monganso Toyota ndi TNGA, CMF-EV ilibe kanthu kochita ndi CMF. Mitundu ya PSA idzagwiritsa ntchito mitundu ya CMP ndi EMP2. Pulatifomu ya m'modzi mwa omwe amapanga upangiri wamagetsi atsopano, Jaguar I-Pace, imakhalanso yamagetsi.

Kupanga kudzachitika bwanji

Kusonkhanitsa galimoto pafakitole kumakhala ndi 15% yazinthu zonse zomwe amapanga. 85% yotsala imakhudzana ndikupanga gawo limodzi la magawo opitilira zikwi khumi ndi kusonkhanitsanso kwawo mgawo la magawo 100 ofunikira, omwe amatumizidwa kumalo opangira. Magalimoto masiku ano ndi ovuta kwambiri, ndipo mawonekedwe azinthu zawo sawalola kuti azipangidwa kwathunthu ndi kampani yamagalimoto. Izi zimagwiranso ntchito kwa opanga monga Daimler omwe ali ndi digirii yayikulu yophatikiza komanso kudzipangira pazokha monga ma gearbox. Masiku omwe kampaniyo idalemba mpaka zazing'ono kwambiri ngati Ford Model T adapita kale. Mwina chifukwa palibe zambiri mwatsatanetsatane T ...

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Komabe, kulimba mtima pakupanga magalimoto amagetsi m'zaka zaposachedwa kwabweretsa zovuta zatsopano kwa opanga magalimoto wamba. Zosinthasintha monga momwe makina opanga amapangira, makamaka amaphatikiza mitundu yamachitidwe amisonkhano ndi matupi ochiritsira, ma powertrains, ndi ma powertrains. Izi zikuphatikiza mitundu ya plug-in ya haibridi, yomwe siyimasiyana kwambiri pakapangidwe kupatula kowonjezera batire ndi zamagetsi zamagetsi pamalo abwino pagalimoto. Izi ndizowona ngakhale pamagalimoto amagetsi potengera mapangidwe achikhalidwe.

Kupanga magalimoto, kuphatikiza magetsi, kumachitika nthawi imodzi ndi kapangidwe kake, momwe makampani amgalimoto iliyonse amasankhira njira yochitira. Sitikunena za Tesla, yemwe kupanga kwake kumangidwa pafupifupi kuyambira pachiyambi pamaziko a magalimoto amagetsi, koma za opanga odziwika, omwe, kutengera zosowa zawo, ayenera kuphatikiza kupanga magalimoto ndi magetsi wamba komanso magetsi. Ndipo popeza palibe amene akudziwa bwino zomwe zichitike posachedwa, zonse ziyenera kukhala zosinthika mokwanira.

Makina atsopano opanga ...

Kwa opanga ambiri, yankho ndikusintha mizere yawo yopangira kuti igwirizane ndi magalimoto amagetsi. Mwachitsanzo, GM imapanga ma volt osakanikirana ndi magetsi pamagetsi omwe alipo kale. Anzake akale PSA ati apanga magalimoto awo kuti atenge njira yomweyo.

Ntchito ya Daimler pakupanga magalimoto amagetsi pansi pa mtundu watsopano wa EQ ndikusintha mafakitore kutengera kuyerekezera kwa 15 mpaka 25% yamalonda a Mercedes-Benz pofika 2025. Kukhala okonzekera izi Ndi chitukuko cha msika, kuphatikiza kuneneratu uku, kampani ikukulitsa chomera ku Sindelfingen ndi chomera chotchedwa Factory 56. Mercedes amatanthauzira chomera ichi ngati "chomera choyamba chamtsogolo" ndipo ziphatikiza mayankho onse aukadaulo ... Enya ndi machitidwe amatchedwa. Makampani 4.0. Monga chomera cha PSA ku Tremeri, chomera ichi ndi chomera cha Daimler Full-Flex ku Kecskemét chitha kupanga magalimoto amagetsi limodzi ndi wamba. Kupanga kumasinthanso ku Toyota, yomwe ipanga magalimoto ake amagetsi ku Motomachi, Toyota City. Kwa zaka makumi ambiri, kampaniyo yakweza kugwiritsa ntchito bwino gulu lotsatila, koma kwakanthawi kochepa ilibe zolinga zopikisana nawo komanso VW pamagalimoto amagetsi oyera.

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... Kapena mafakitale atsopano

Osati opanga onse amatenga njira yosinthayi. Mwachitsanzo, Volkswagen ikupereka ndalama zokwana mayuro biliyoni m'munda wake wa Zwickau, ndikupanga kungopanga magalimoto amagetsi. Kampaniyo ikukonzekera angapo, kuphatikiza mitundu yazinthu zosiyanasiyana zomwe zikukhudzidwa, zomwe zakhazikitsidwa ndi kapangidwe katsopano ka MEB (Modularer E-Antriebs-Baukasten). Malo opangira omwe VW ikukonzekera azitha kusamalira mabuku ambiri, ndipo mapulani akulu amakampani ndi omwe ali pachimake pachisankho ichi.

Kuyenda pang'onopang'ono mbali iyi kuli ndi tanthauzo lomveka - opanga magalimoto okhazikika amatsata njira zokhazikitsidwa bwino, zotsatana pakupanga magalimoto ndi njira zopangira. Kukula kuyenera kulimbikitsidwa, popanda zosokoneza, monga Tesla. Kuphatikiza apo, zofunikira kwambiri zimafunikira njira zambiri ndipo zimatenga nthawi. Kuyenda kwamagetsi ndi mwayi kwa makampani aku China kukulira m'misika yapadziko lonse lapansi, koma ayeneranso kuyamba kupanga magalimoto odalirika komanso koposa zonse zotetezeka.

M'malo mwake, kupanga mapulatifomu ndikukonzekera njira zopangira sizovuta kwa opanga makina. Pachifukwa ichi, ali ndi zambiri kuposa Tesla. Kapangidwe kapangidwe ka pulatifomu yamagetsi ndiyosavuta poyerekeza ndi magalimoto wamba - mwachitsanzo, kapangidwe kotsika kameneka kamakhala ndi zopindika ndi zolumikizana zambiri zomwe zimafunikira kupanga kovuta komanso kodula. Makampani amadziwa zambiri pakusintha zinthu ngati izi, ndipo izi sizingakhale zovuta kwa iwo, makamaka popeza aphunzira zambiri ndi kapangidwe kazinthu zambiri. Ndizowona kuti kusintha kwa zinthu kumatenga nthawi, koma mizere yambiri yamasiku ano imasintha kwambiri pankhaniyi. Vuto lalikulu mumagalimoto amagetsi limakhalabe njira yosungira mphamvu, ndiye kuti, batri.

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