Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

Zamkatimu

M'mbiri yonse yamakampani opanga magalimoto, pakhala pali mayankho ambiri apamwamba, kapangidwe kazipangizo ndi misonkhano yasintha. Zaka zoposa 30 zapitazo, kuyesayesa mwamphamvu kunayamba kusunthira injini ya pistoni kumbali, ndikupatsa mwayi injini ya Wankel rotary piston. Komabe, chifukwa cha zochitika zambiri, ma mota oyenda sanalandire ufulu wawo wamoyo. Werengani zonsezi pansipa.

Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

Momwe ntchito

Rotor ili ndi mawonekedwe amakona atatu, mbali iliyonse ili ndi mawonekedwe otukuka omwe amakhala ngati pisitoni. Mbali iliyonse ya rotor ili ndi malo apadera omwe amapereka malo ochulukirapo osakanikirana ndi mpweya wamafuta, potero amawonjezera kuthamanga kwa injini. Pamwamba m'mphepete mwake mumakhala chisindikizo chaching'ono chomwe chimathandizira kuponya kumenyedwa kulikonse. Rotor ili ndi mbali zonse ziwiri ndi mphete zosindikizira zomwe zimapanga khoma lazipinda. Pakatikati mwa rotor ili ndi mano, mothandizidwa ndi makinawo.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito injini ya Wankel ndi yosiyana kwambiri ndi chakale, komabe, zimagwirizana ndi njira imodzi yokha yomwe ili ndi zikwapu 4 (kudya-kupanikizika-kugwira ntchito stroke-utsi). Mafuta amalowa mchipinda choyamba chopangidwa, amafinyidwa kwachiwiri, kenako rotor imazungulira ndikusakanikirana komwe kumayatsidwa ndi pulagi, pambuyo poti chisakanizo chogwira ntchito chizungulira rotor ndikutuluka ndikupitilira kutulutsa kangapo. Chofunikira kwambiri kusiyanitsa ndikuti mu mota yamagetsi yamagetsi, chipinda chogwirira ntchito sichikhala chokhazikika, koma chimapangidwa ndi kayendedwe ka rotor.

Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

chipangizo

Musanamvetsetse chipangizocho, muyenera kudziwa zigawo zikuluzikulu zamagetsi oyenda mozungulira. Injini ya Wankel ili ndi:

  • nyumba za stator;
  • ozungulira;
  • gulu la magiya;
  • eccentric kutsinde;
  • kuthetheka mapulagi (kuyatsa ndi kuwotcha).

Makina oyenda ndi makina oyaka mkati. Mu mota iyi, mikwingwirima yonse inayi ya ntchito imachitika mokwanira, komabe, pagawo lirilonse pali chipinda chake, chomwe chimapangidwa ndi ozungulira poyenda mozungulira. 

Poyatsira atayatsa, sitata imatsegula mawilo ndipo injini imayamba. Kusinthasintha, ozungulira, kudzera pa korona wamagiya, imatumiza makokedwe ku shaft eccentric (ya injini ya pisitoni, iyi ndi camshaft). 

Zotsatira za ntchito ya injini ya Wankel iyenera kukhala mapangidwe a kuthamanga kwa osakanikirana, kukakamiza mobwerezabwereza kubwereza kayendedwe kazitsulo ka rotor, kutumiza makokedwe kufalitsa. 

Mu mota iyi, ma cylinders, ma piston, crankshaft okhala ndi ndodo zolowa m'malo mwa stator nyumba yonse ndi rotor. Chifukwa cha izi, kuchuluka kwa injini kumachepetsa kwambiri, pomwe mphamvu imakhala yayitali kwambiri kuposa yamagalimoto oyenda ndi makina opindika, omwe ali ndi voliyumu yomweyo. Kapangidwe kameneka kamakhala ndi bokosi lamiyala lokwanira chifukwa chakuchepa kotsutsana.

Mwa njira, kuthamanga kwa injini kumatha kupitilira 7000 rpm, pomwe injini za Mazda Wankel (pamipikisano yamasewera) zimapitilira 10000 rpm. 

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kamangidwe

Chimodzi mwamaubwino akulu a chipangizochi ndi kuphatikizika kwake ndi kutsika kwake poyerekeza ndi mainjini amtundu wofanana. Kapangidwe kamene kamakupatsani mwayi wotsitsa kwambiri mphamvu yokoka, ndipo izi zimathandizira kukhazikika ndi kuwongolera kwamphamvu. Izi zakhala zikusangalatsidwa ndi ndege zazing'ono, magalimoto amasewera ndi magalimoto. 

Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

История

Mbiri yakuyambira ndikufalikira kwa injini ya Wankel ikuthandizani kuti mumvetsetse chifukwa chake inali injini yabwino kwambiri m'masiku ake, komanso chifukwa chomwe idasiyidwa lero.

Zochitika zoyambirira

Mu 1951, kampani yaku Germany NSU Motorenwerke idapanga injini ziwiri: yoyamba - Felix Wankel, yotchedwa DKM, ndipo yachiwiri - KKM ya Hans Paschke (kutengera kukula kwa Wankel). 

Maziko ogwirira ntchito a Wankel anali kusintha kosiyana kwa thupi ndi ozungulira, chifukwa chake kusinthaku kudafikira 17000 pamphindi. Chovuta chinali chakuti injiniyo idayenera kudulidwa kuti isinthe ma plugs. Koma injini ya KKM inali ndi thupi lokhazikika ndipo kapangidwe kake kanali kosavuta kuposa kotengera.

Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

Kutulutsa ziphaso

Mu 1960, NSU Motorenwerke adasaina mgwirizano ndi kampani yopanga yaku America Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Panganoli linali loti mainjiniya aku Germany azingoyang'ana kwambiri pakupanga makina ang'onoang'ono oyendetsera magalimoto opepuka, pomwe American Curtis-Wright anali akuchita nawo ntchito yopanga injini za ndege. Makina opanga makina aku Germany a Max Bentele adalembedwanso kuti akhale wopanga. 

Ambiri opanga magalimoto apadziko lonse, kuphatikiza Citroen, Porsche, Ford, Nissan, GM, Mazda ndi ena ambiri. Mu 1959, kampani yaku America idatulutsa mtundu wabwino wa injini ya Wankel, ndipo patatha chaka chimodzi Britain Rolls Royce adawonetsa injini yake yazoyendetsa dizilo yamagawo awiri.

Pakadali pano, ma automaker ena aku Europe adayamba kuyesa kukonza magalimoto ndi ma injini atsopano, koma si onse omwe adapeza ntchito yawo: GM idakana, Citroen idakonzedwa kuti ipange injini yokhala ndi ma anti-piston oyendetsa ndege, ndipo Mercedes-Benz idakhazikitsa injini yama rotary piston muchitsanzo choyesera cha C 111. 

Mu 1961, ku Soviet Union, NAMI, pamodzi ndi mabungwe ena ofufuza, adayamba kupanga injini ya Wankel. Njira zambiri zinalengedwa, mmodzi wa iwo anapeza ntchito yake mu galimoto Vaz-2105 kwa KGB. Chiwerengero chenicheni cha ma mota omwe asonkhana sichikudziwika, koma sichidutsa khumi ndi awiri. 

Mwa njira, patatha zaka zingapo, kampani yamagalimoto ya Mazda yokha ndi yomwe idapezadi ntchito ya injini yama rotary. Chitsanzo chochititsa chidwi cha izi ndi RX-8.

Zochitika panjinga zamoto

Ku Britain, opanga njinga zamoto a Norton njinga zamoto apanga injini yoyendera yozizira ya Sachs yamagalimoto. Mutha kudziwa zambiri zakukula uku powerenga za njinga yamoto ya Hercules W-2000.

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Suzuki sanayime pambali, komanso anatulutsa njinga yamoto yake. Komabe, akatswiri adapanga mosamala kapangidwe ka mota, adagwiritsa ntchito ferroalloy, yomwe idakulitsa kwambiri kudalirika komanso moyo wantchitoyo.

Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

Kukula kwa magalimoto

Atasaina mgwirizano wofufuza pakati pa Mazda ndi NSU, makampaniwa adayamba kupikisana nawo pakupanga galimoto yoyamba ndi Wankel unit. Zotsatira zake, mu 1964, NSU idapereka galimoto yake yoyamba, NSU Spider, poyankha, Mazda idapereka mtundu wa injini za 2 ndi 4-rotor. Pambuyo pa zaka zitatu, NSU Motorenwerke adatulutsa mtundu wa Ro 3, koma adalandira ndemanga zambiri zoyipa chifukwa cha zolephera zingapo pazomwe zidapangidwa. Vutoli silinathetsedwe mpaka 80 ndipo kampaniyo itatha zaka 1972 idalowetsedwa ndi Audi, ndipo injini za Wankel zinali zitadziwika kale.

Wopanga ku Japan Mazda adalengeza kuti mainjiniya awo athana ndi vuto lotseka pamwamba (kuti likhale lolimba pakati pa zipindazo), adayamba kugwiritsa ntchito ma mota osati magalimoto amasewera okha, komanso magalimoto ogulitsa. Mwa njira, eni magalimoto a Mazda omwe ali ndi injini yoyenda adazindikira kuyankha kwamphamvu kwakanthawi komanso kusinthasintha kwa injini.

Mazda pambuyo pake adasiya kuyambitsa injini yayikulu, ndikungoiyika pa mitundu ya RX-7 ndi RX-8 yokha. Kwa RX-8, injini ya Renesis idapangidwa, yomwe yasinthidwa m'njira zambiri, monga:

  • kutulutsa ma mpweya kuti atuluke, zomwe zidakulitsa mphamvu;
  • adaonjezera magawo ena a ceramic kuti ateteze kupindika kwa matenthedwe;
  • makina oyang'anira zamagetsi oganiza bwino;
  • kupezeka kwa mapulagi awiri (oyambira ndi owotcha);
  • kuwonjezera jekete lamadzi kuti athetse kaboni pamalo ake.

Chifukwa, anali yaying'ono injini ndi buku la malita 1.3 ndi mphamvu linanena bungwe la za 231 HP.

Injini ya Wankel - chipangizo ndi momwe ntchito imagwirira ntchito RPD

ubwino

Ubwino waukulu wa makina ozungulira a pisitoni:

  1. Kulemera kwake ndi kukula kwake, komwe kumakhudza mwachindunji kapangidwe kagalimoto. Izi ndizofunikira pakupanga galimoto yamagalimoto yokhala ndi mphamvu yokoka yochepa.
  2. Zambiri zochepa. Izi zimakulolani kuti muchepetse mtengo wokhala ndi mota, komanso kuchepetsa kutayika kwamagetsi poyenda kapena kuzungulira kwa magawo ena. Izi zimakhudza mwachindunji magwiridwe antchito.
  3. Voliyumu yomweyi ngati injini ya pisitoni yapamwambamwamba, mphamvu ya makina oyendera ma pisitoni ndiokwera nthawi 2-3.
  4. Kutakasuka ndi kukhazikika kwa ntchito, kusakhala ndi magwiridwe antchito chifukwa chakuti palibe mayendedwe obwezeretsanso mayunitsi akulu.
  5. Injini imatha kuyendetsedwa ndi mafuta ochepa a octane.
  6. Mawotchi othamanga kwambiri amalola kugwiritsa ntchito kufalitsa ndi magiya ofupikira, omwe ndiosavuta kwambiri kumizinda.
  7. "Shelufu" ya torque imaperekedwa kwa ⅔ yoyenda, osati kotala, monga mu injini ya Otto.
  8. Mafuta a injini alibe kuipitsidwa, kutulutsa kwazitsulo nthawi zambiri ndikukula. Apa, mafuta sadzatha kuyaka, monga muma piston motors, njirayi imachitika kudzera mphetezo.
  9. Palibe omenyera nkhondo.
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Mwa njira, zatsimikiziridwa kuti ngakhale galimoto iyi itatsala pang'ono kugwiritsidwa ntchito, idya mafuta ambiri, imagwira ntchito mopanikizika kochepa, mphamvu yake ichepetsa pang'ono. Unali ulemu uwu womwe udandipatsa chiphuphu kuti ndikakhazikitse injini yama pistoni pa ndege.

Pamodzi ndi maubwino ochititsa chidwi, palinso zovuta zina zomwe zimalepheretsa makina oyendetsa makina oyendera kuti afikire anthu.

 zolakwa

  1. Njira yoyaka siyabwino kwenikweni, chifukwa mafuta amawonjezeka ndipo miyezo ya poyizoni imachepa. Vutoli limathetsedwa pang'ono pokha pokhala ndi pulagi yachiwiri yotentha, yomwe imawotcha osakaniza.
  2. Kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta kwambiri. Vuto limafotokozedwa ndikuti injini za Wankel zimadzola mafuta mopitilira muyeso, ndipo m'malo ena, nthawi zina, mafuta amatha kutentha. Pali mafuta ochulukirapo m'malo oyaka omwe amapangitsa kuti kaboni amange. Adayesetsa kuthana ndi vutoli pokhazikitsa mapaipi "otenthetsera" omwe amalimbikitsa kusinthasintha kwa kutentha ndikufanizira kutentha kwamafuta mu injini yonse.
  3. Zovuta pakukonza. Osati akatswiri onse omwe ali okonzeka kugwira bwino ntchito yokonza injini ya Wankel. Kapangidwe kake sikophweka kuposa njinga yamoto, koma pali ma nuances ambiri, osasunga zomwe zingayambitse injiniyo kulephera. Kwa izi timawonjezera kukwera mtengo.
  4. Zida zochepa. Kwa eni Mazda RX-8, mileage ya 80 km ndiye kuti ndi nthawi yokonzanso kwambiri. Tsoka ilo, kuphatikizika koteroko komanso kukhathamiritsa kwakukulu kuyenera kulipiridwa ndi kukonzanso mtengo komanso kovuta pamakilomita zikwi 000-80.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa injini ya rotary ndi piston? Palibe ma pistoni mu mota yozungulira, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti kusuntha kobwerezabwereza sikugwiritsidwa ntchito kutembenuza tsinde la injini yoyaka mkati - rotor nthawi yomweyo imazungulira.

Kodi injini yozungulira mgalimoto ndi chiyani? Ichi ndi unit matenthedwe (imagwira ntchito chifukwa cha kuyaka kwa mpweya wosakaniza mafuta), imagwiritsa ntchito rotor yozungulira, yomwe shaft imakhazikika, yomwe imapita ku gearbox.

Chifukwa chiyani injini yozungulira ndi yoyipa kwambiri? Choyipa chachikulu cha mota yozungulira ndi chida chaching'ono kwambiri chogwirira ntchito chifukwa cha kuvala kofulumira kwa zisindikizo pakati pa zipinda zoyaka moto za unit (njira yogwiritsira ntchito ikusintha nthawi zonse ndikutsika kutentha kosalekeza).

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