Zomwe mungasankhe: loboti kapena chosinthira

Zamkatimu

Vuto losinthira ndi loboti ndizinthu ziwiri zatsopano komanso zowoneka bwino zodalirika. Imodzi ndi mtundu wa mfuti zamakina, inayo ndi makaniko. Kodi chosinthira chabwino kwambiri kapena loboti ndi chiani? Tiyeni tifotokoze kuyerekezera kwa ma transmissions onse awiriwa, kudziwa zabwino ndi zovuta zake, ndikupanga chisankho choyenera.

Zonse zokhudzana ndi chida chosinthira

Chosinthira ndi mtundu wa kufala basi. Amapangidwa kuti azitha kusuntha makokedwe kuchokera ku injini kupita ku mawilo ndikusintha magawanidwe amtundu mosiyanasiyana.

Nthawi zambiri zolembedwa zamagalimoto, chidule cha CVT chitha kupezeka ngati dzina la gearbox. Izi ndizomwe zimasinthidwa, kutanthauziridwa kuchokera ku Chingerezi - "kusintha kosinthira magiya mosinthasintha" (Continuously Variable Transmission).

Ntchito yayikulu ya kusiyanitsa ndikupereka kusintha kosalala kwa injini, zomwe zimapangitsa kuyendetsa bwino kwa galimoto, osagwedezeka ndi ma dips. Mphamvu yama makina imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndipo mafuta amadya osachepera.

Kuwongolera kusiyanasiyana kuli kofanana ndi kuwongolera kufalitsa kwadzidzidzi, kupatula kusintha kwakanthawi kosasintha.

Mwachidule zamitundu ya CVT

  1. V-lamba chosiyanasiyana. Analandira kugawa kwakukulu. Mtundu uwu uli ndi lamba wotambasulidwa pakati pama pulleys awiri osunthika. Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito V-belt variator imakhala ndi kusintha kosasintha kwa magiya chifukwa chosintha mosiyanasiyana pamawayilesi olumikizirana ndi pulasitiki ndi V-lamba.
  2. Kusintha kwa unyolo. Zosazolowereka. Apa, udindo wa lamba umaseweredwa ndi unyolo, womwe umafalitsa mphamvu yokoka, osati mphamvu yokankha.
  3. Kusiyana kwa Toroidal. Mtundu woyeserera wa toroidal, wopangidwa ndi ma disc ndi odzigudubuza, uyeneranso chidwi. Kutumiza kwa makokedwe apa kumachitika chifukwa cha kukhathamira kwa odzigudubuza pakati pa ma disc, ndipo kuchuluka kwa zida kumasinthidwa ndikusunthira ma roller odziyimira olumikizira olowera.

Magawo a gearbox yosinthira ndiokwera mtengo komanso osatheka kufikirako, ndipo bokosi lamagetsi lokhalo silikhala lotsika mtengo, ndipo mavuto akhoza kubwera pakukonzanso kwake. Njira yotsika mtengo kwambiri ingakhale bokosi la toroidal, lomwe limafunikira chitsulo champhamvu kwambiri komanso makina osanja olondola kwambiri.

Ubwino ndi zovuta zamagetsi zamagetsi

Zonse zabwino ndi zoyipa za zosinthazi zatchulidwa kale m'malembawa. Mwachidziwitso, timawapereka patebulo.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kuthamangitsani matayala athyathyathya omwe sagonjetsedwa
ubwinozolakwa
1.Smooth galimoto kayendedwe, stepless mathamangitsidwe1. Kukwera mtengo kwa bokosilo ndikukonzanso, zotsika mtengo ndi mafuta
2. Sungani mafuta pogwiritsa ntchito injini yonse2. Kusakwanira kwa katundu wambiri komanso misewu yolemera
3. Kupepuka ndi kulemera kwake kwa bokosi poyerekeza ndi kufalikira kwachidziwikire3. "Kulingalira bwino" posintha magiya (ngakhale, poyerekeza ndi loboti, chosinthira "chimachedwetsa" pang'ono)
4. Kutha kuyendetsa pagalimoto yayikulu kwambiri4. Zoletsa pakuyika pamagalimoto okhala ndi injini zamagetsi zazikulu

Pofuna kuteteza chipangizocho kuti chisamatsitse dalaivala pomwe akugwira ntchito, muyenera kutsatira izi:

  • kuyang'anira kuchuluka kwa mafuta ndikutumiza ndikusintha munthawi yake;
  • osakweza bokosilo m'nyengo yozizira yozizira kumayambiriro kwa kayendedwe, mukakoka galimoto ndikuyendetsa pamsewu;
  • nthawi ndi nthawi yang'anani zolumikizira zamagetsi ndi zingwe zopumira;
  • kuyang'anira magwiridwe antchito a masensa: kusapezeka kwa chizindikiro kwa iliyonse ya iwo kungayambitse kugwirira ntchito kolakwika kwa bokosilo.

CVT ndi njira yatsopano yopatsira anthu yomwe sinakonzedwebe yomwe ili ndi zovuta zambiri. Ngakhale zili choncho, opanga ndi opanga amapangira tsogolo labwino kwa iye. CVT ndiye mtundu wosavuta kwambiri wofalitsa onse malinga ndi kapangidwe kaukadaulo ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito.

Ngakhale maubwino omwe amawoneka kuti amapereka mafuta komanso kuyendetsa bwino, ma CVTs sagwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano ndipo, makamaka m'magalimoto oyendetsa kapena njinga zamoto. Tiyeni tiwone momwe zinthu zilili ndi loboti.

Bokosi lamagetsi la Robotic

Bokosi lamagetsi la Robotic (loboti) - Kutumiza kwamanja, momwe ntchito zamagetsi zosunthira ndi zowongolera zimathandizira. Ntchitoyi imaseweredwa ndimayendedwe awiri, imodzi mwamaudindo oyang'anira magiya, yachiwiri yophatikizira ndikuletsa zowalamulira.

Robot ija idapangidwa kuti iphatikize zabwino za kupititsa pamanja ndi makina oyenda. Zimaphatikizapo kuyendetsa bwino (kuchokera pamakina), komanso kudalirika komanso chuma chamafuta (kuchokera kumakaniko).

Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka loboti

Zinthu zazikuluzikulu zomwe zimapanga bokosi lama roboti ndi izi:

  • Kutumiza Kwamanja;
  • zowalamulira ndi zowalamulira pagalimoto;
  • zida zosinthira;
  • Malo olamulira.
Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Kodi ndichifukwa chiyani liwiro loyenda likuwonetsa 200 km / h kapena kupitilira apo?

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ya loboti sikusiyana ndi magwiridwe antchito amakaniko wamba. Kusiyanako kuli m'manja. Izi zimachitika mu loboti ndimayendedwe amagetsi ndi magetsi. Ma hayidiroliki amasunthira mwachangu, koma amafunikira zowonjezera zowonjezera. M'mayendedwe amagetsi, m'malo mwake, mtengo wake ndi wochepa, koma nthawi yomweyo kuchedwa kwa ntchito yawo ndikotheka.

Kutumiza kwa roboti kumatha kugwira ntchito m'njira ziwiri: zodziwikiratu komanso zodziwikiratu. Mwanjira zodziwikiratu, kuwongolera kwamagetsi kumapangitsa kuti zinthu ziziyenda bwino. Njirayi idakhazikitsidwa ndi zizindikilo zochokera pama sensa olowera. Mumayendedwe a semi-automatic (manual), magiya amasunthidwa motsatizana pogwiritsa ntchito chosinthira. M'magawo ena, kufalitsa kwa roboti kumatchedwa "gearbox yotsatizana" (kuchokera ku Latin sequensum - sequence).

Zabwino ndi zoyipa za Zidole

Bokosi lamagalimoto lamaloboti lili ndi maubwino onse pamakina ndi makina. Komabe, sitinganene kuti ilibe zovuta. Izi ndi monga:

  1. Zovuta zakusinthira kwa dalaivala panjira yowunika komanso kusadziwikiratu kwamakhalidwe a lobotiyo munjira zovuta pamsewu.
  2. Kusakhazikika pamayendedwe amzindawu (kuyambika mwadzidzidzi, kugwedezeka ndi kugwedezeka posintha magiya kumapangitsa kuti woyendetsa azimangika).
  3. Kutenthedwa kwa clutch ndikothekanso (kuti mupewe kutenthedwa kwa clutch, ndikofunikira kuyatsa mawonekedwe "osalowererapo" m'malo oyimilira, omwe nawonso ndiwotopetsa).
  4. "Kuganizira mozama" posunthira magiya (mwa njira, CVT ili ndi chimodzimodzi). Izi sizimangokwiyitsa dalaivala, komanso zimapangitsa kuti pakhale ngozi pompano.
  5. Kulephera kwa kukoka, komwe kulinso kosiyanasiyana.
  6. Kutha kugubuduza galimoto kumbuyo motsetsereka (izi sizotheka ndi kusiyanasiyana).

Kuchokera pamwambapa, titha kunena kuti bokosi lamiyeso yama roboti ikadali kutali ndi chisangalalo cha makinawa. Kusunthira pazinthu zabwino zakupatsira ma robotic:

  1. Mtengo wotsika poyerekeza ndi zomwezo zokha kapena CVT.
  2. Kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta pachuma (apa makina ndi otsika, koma chosinthira ndichabwino pankhaniyi: kusunthika kosalala komanso kosasunthika kumapulumutsa mafuta ambiri).
  3. Kuyanjana kolimba kwa injini ndi mawilo oyendetsa, chifukwa chake ndizotheka kutulutsa galimoto skid kapena kuyimitsa ndi injini pogwiritsa ntchito mafuta.

Robot yokhala ndi zotchinga ziwiri

Chifukwa cha zovuta zambiri zomwe zimapezeka mu bokosi la robotic, opanga adasankha kupitiliza ndikugwiritsabe ntchito lingaliro la kupanga bokosi lamagalimoto lomwe lingaphatikizire zabwino zonse za makina ndi makina.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Cholinga ndi chida choyendetsa galimoto

Umu ndi momwe makina oberekera opangidwa ndi Volkswagen adabadwa. Adalandira dzina la DSG (Direct Shift Gearbox), lomwe limamasuliridwa kuchokera ku Chingerezi limatanthauza "gearbox yokhala ndi masinthidwe olumikizirana". Kutumiza koyambirira ndi dzina lina la maloboti achiwiri.

Bokosi lili ndi zimbale ziwiri zowalamulira: imodzi imaphatikizapo magiya, inayo - yosamvetseka. Mapulogalamu onsewa nthawi zonse amakhala. Galimoto ikuyenda, chimbale chimodzi chimakhala chokonzeka nthawi zonse ndipo china chimatsekedwa. Yoyamba idzafalitsa ikangotulutsidwa yachiwiri. Zotsatira zake, kusintha kwamagiya kumakhala pafupifupi nthawi yomweyo, ndipo kuyenda kosalala ndikofanana ndi kwa chosinthira.

Bokosi la clutch lili ndi izi:

  • ndi ndalama zambiri kuposa makina;
  • omasuka kuposa bokosi losavuta la roboti;
  • imatumiza makokedwe ambiri kuposa chosinthira;
  • imapereka kulumikizana kofanana pakati pa mawilo ndi injini monga zimango.

Mbali inayi, mtengo wa bokosili udzakhala wokwera kuposa mtengo wamakaniko, ndipo kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndikokwera kuposa kwa loboti. Kuchokera pakuwona chitonthozo, CVT ndi zodziwikiratu zimapambanabe.

Fotokozani

Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa chosinthira ndi loboti, ndipo ndi ati mwa ma gearbox omwe akadali abwino? Vutoli ndi mtundu wamawotchi, ndipo loboti ili pafupi kwambiri ndi zimango. Ndi chifukwa chake kuyenera kupanga chisankho mokomera bokosi la gear.

Zokonda zamagetsi nthawi zambiri zimachokera kwa driver yekha ndipo zimatengera zomwe amafuna pagalimoto, komanso momwe amayendetsera. Kodi mukuyang'ana poyendetsa bwino? Kenako sankhani chosinthira. Kodi mumaika patsogolo kudalirika komanso kutha kukwera pamavuto amisewu? Kusankha kwanu ndi loboti.

Posankha galimoto, dalaivala ayenera "kuyesa" mabokosi onse awiri. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti loboti ndi chosinthira chili ndi zabwino zawo ndi zovuta zawo. Cholinga chomwe akukonzekera kugwiritsa ntchito galimotoyo chithandizanso kudziwa kusankha. Mukamayenda modekha m'tawuni, chosankha chimakhala chosankhika kuposa loboti yomwe "singapulumuke" mumayendedwe ambirimbiri. Kunja kwa mzindawu, munthawi yamavuto, mukamayendetsa kwambiri kapena mukamayendetsa masewera, loboti ndi yabwino.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi makina abwino osinthira kapena makina odziwikiratu ndi ati? Izi si za aliyense. Mfundo ndi yakuti mtunduwu amapereka yosalala stepless zida kusuntha (monga ndendende, pali liwiro limodzi lokha, koma chiŵerengero cha zida kusintha bwino), ndi makina basi ntchito mu mode anapatsira.

Cholakwika ndi chiyani ndi makina osinthira pagalimoto? Bokosi loterolo silimalekerera torque yayikulu, komanso katundu wakuthwa komanso wowopsa. Komanso, kulemera kwa makina ndi kofunika kwambiri - kumtunda kwake, ndiko kukulirakulira.

Kodi kudziwa chomwe variator kapena makina basi? Zomwe muyenera kuchita ndikuyendetsa galimoto. Chosinthiracho chimathamanga mwachangu, ndipo ma jolts opepuka amamveka pamakina. Ngati makinawo ali olakwika, kusintha pakati pa liwiro kumakhala kosiyana kwambiri.

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