Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Zamkatimu

Kuchita bwino kwa injini iliyonse yoyaka mkati kumadalira osati kokha mtundu wa mafuta ndi kapangidwe ka masilindala okhala ndi ma pistoni. Makina otulutsa galimoto ali ndi gawo lofunikira. Iye anafotokoza mwatsatanetsatane za iye kubwereza kwina... Tsopano tiyeni tiwone chimodzi mwazinthu zake - kuchuluka kwa utsi.

Kodi kutulutsa kochuluka ndi kotani

Zochulukitsa injini ndi mapaipi angapo omwe amalumikizidwa ndi chitoliro chimodzi mbali imodzi, ndi mbali inayo, amakhala pa bar (flange) wamba, ndikukhazikika pamutu wamphamvu. Kumbali yamphamvu yamphamvu, kuchuluka kwa mapaipi kuli kofanana ndi kuchuluka kwa zonenepa zama injini. Kumbali inayo, kanyumba kakang'ono (resonator) kapena chothandizirangati ili mgalimoto.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Wosonkhanitsa amafanana kudya zobwezedwa... Mu zosintha zambiri zamagetsi, makina opangira utsi amapangika ndi chopangira mphamvu, chomwe chimayendetsedwa ndi kutulutsa kwa mpweya wotulutsa utsi. Amasinthasintha shaft, mbali inayo yomwe imayikidwanso. Chipangizochi chimalowetsa mpweya wabwino muzakudya zambiri za injini kuti iwonjezere mphamvu yamagetsi.

Kawirikawiri gawo ili limapangidwa ndi chitsulo chosungunuka. Cholinga chake ndikuti gawo ili limakhala lotentha kwambiri nthawi zonse. Mpweya wotentha umatenthetsa utsi wochuluka mpaka madigiri 900 kapena kupitilira apo. Kuphatikiza apo, injini yozizira ikayambitsidwa, mawonekedwe amadzimadzi pakhoma lamkati la dongosolo lonse lotulutsa utsi. Zomwezo zimachitika injini ikatsekedwa (makamaka ngati nyengo yanyowa ndi kuzizira).

Kuyandikira kwa mota, madzi amathanso kutentha ngati mota ikuyenda, koma kulumikizana kwachitsulo ndi mpweya kumathandizira kuthamanga kwa oxidative. Pachifukwa ichi, ngati analogue yachitsulo ikugwiritsidwa ntchito m'galimoto, imachita dzimbiri ndikuwotcha. Sizingatheke kujambula gawoli, chifukwa likatenthedwa mpaka madigiri 1000, utoto wosanjikiza utha msanga.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

M'magalimoto amakono, chojambulira cha oxygen (kafukufuku wa lambda) chimayikidwa m'malo ochulukitsa (nthawi zambiri pafupi ndi chothandizira). Zambiri za sensa iyi zafotokozedwa m'nkhani ina... Mwachidule, zimathandizira kuyang'anira kwamagetsi kuyang'anira kapangidwe kake ka mpweya wamafuta.

Nthawi zambiri, gawo ili lamafuta limatha bola galimoto yonse. Popeza ichi ndi chitoliro chabe, palibe choti muswe. Chokhacho chomwe chimalephera ndi sensa ya oxygen, chopangira mphamvu ndi zina zomwe zimakhudzana ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi. Ngati tizingolankhula za kangaude palokha, ndiye kuti pakapita nthawi, chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake, amatha kuwotcha. Koma izi sizimachitika kawirikawiri. Pachifukwa ichi, oyendetsa galimoto nthawi zambiri samakumana ndi kukonza kapena kusintha m'malo mwazambiri za utsi.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito utsi wochuluka

Kugwira ntchito kwamafuta angapo agalimoto ndikosavuta. Dalaivala akuyambitsa injini (ngakhale itakhala petulo kapena dizilo mayunitsi), kuyaka kwa chisakanizo cha mafuta-mpweya kumachitika muzipilala. Paulendo womasulidwa njira yogawa gasi imatsegula valavu yotulutsa utsi (pakhoza kukhala imodzi kapena awiri mavavu pa silinda iliyonse, ndipo pazosintha zina za ICE pali atatu mwa iwo kuti pakhale mpweya wabwino).

Pisitoni ikakwera pamwamba, imakankhira zinthu zonse zoyaka kudzera pa doko lotulutsa utsi. Kenako otaya amalowa chitoliro chakumaso. Pofuna kuteteza utsi wotentha kuti usalowe m'mimbamo pamwamba pa mavavu oyandikana nawo, payipi iliyonse imayikidwa pachilichonse.

Kutengera kapangidwe kake, chitolirochi chimalumikizidwa patali ndi choyandikana nacho, kenako chimaphatikizidwa kukhala njira yodziwika kutsogolo kwa chothandizira. Kudzera chosinthira othandizira (mmenemo, zinthu zowononga chilengedwe sizimalephereka), utsi umadutsa muzitsulo zazing'ono komanso zazikulu kupita ku chitoliro cha utsi.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Popeza chinthuchi chimatha kusintha mphamvu za injini pamlingo winawake, opanga amapanga mitundu ina ya akangaude amagetsi.

Pamene mpweya wotulutsa mpweya utachotsedwa, pulsation imapangidwa mundawo. Pakapangidwe ka gawoli, opanga amayesa kupanga izi mwanjira yoti maulendowa azigwirizana momwe zingathere ndikuwomba komwe kumachitika mosiyanasiyana (mgalimoto zina, munjira inayake yogwiritsira ntchito, zonse ziwiri ndi mavavu otulutsa amatsegulidwa kwakanthawi kochepa kuti mpweya wabwino ubwere). Gawo la gasi lotulutsa utsi litakankhidwira mwadzidzidzi mundawo, limapanga funde lomwe limawonetsa chothandizira ndikupanga chotupa.

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Izi zimafika pa valavu yotulutsa pafupifupi nthawi imodzimodzi yomwe pisitoni yolingana imagwiranso ntchito. Izi zimathandizira kuchotsa mpweya wotulutsa utsi, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mota iyenera kugwiritsa ntchito makokedwe ochepa kuthana ndi kukana. Mapangidwe amtunduwu amathandizira kuti athe kuchotsera zinthu zoyaka mafuta. Kusintha kwamtundu wamagalimoto kwambiri, izi zimachitika moyenera.

Komabe, pankhani yamachitidwe achikale otulutsa, palibe vuto. Chowonadi ndi chakuti pamene mpweya wa utsi umapanga funde, chifukwa cha mapaipi afupiafupi, amawonetseredwa munjira zoyandikana (ali m'malo abata). Pachifukwa ichi, valavu ya utsi wina ikatsegulidwa, funde ili limapangitsa cholepheretsa kutulutsa utsi. Chifukwa cha ichi, mota imagwiritsa ntchito makokedwe ena kuti athane ndi kukana uku, ndipo mphamvu yamagalimoto imachepa.

Kodi kutulutsa kochuluka ndi kotani?

Chifukwa chake, monga mukuwonera, kuchuluka kwa utsi m'galimoto kumakhudzidwa ndikuchotsa kwa utsi. Kapangidwe kazinthu kameneka kamadalira mtundu wamagalimoto ndi njira za wopanga, zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito popanga zobwezedwa.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Mosasamala kanthu za kusinthaku, gawo ili lidzakhala ndi:

  • Kulandira mapaipi. Zonsezi zimapangidwa kuti zizikhala pamwamba pa silinda winawake. Nthawi zambiri, kuti akhazikitse mosavuta, zonse zimakhazikika pamzere wamba kapena flange. Kukula kwa gawoli kuyenera kufanana ndendende ndi kukula kwa mabowo ndi ma grooves omwe ali pamutu wamphamvu kuti utsi usadutsike chifukwa cha chisokonezo ichi.
  • Chitoliro utsi. Awa ndi mathero a wokhometsa. M'magalimoto ambiri, mapaipi onse amadzipangira amodzi, omwe amalumikizidwa ndi resonator kapena chothandizira. Komabe, pali zosintha zamagetsi zomwe zimaphatikizira mapaipi awiri osiyana ndi enaake osakhazikika. Poterepa, mapaipi angapo amalumikizidwa mu gawo limodzi, kutanthauza mzere wosiyana.
  • Kusindikiza gasket. Gawoli limayikidwa pakati pamiyala yamphamvu yamatabwa ndi kangaude (komanso pa flange pakati pa chitoliro ndi kangaude). Popeza chinthuchi chimakhala ndi kutentha komanso kutentha, chimayenera kukhala chopangidwa ndi zinthu zolimba. Gasket Izi zimalepheretsa utsi kutayikira mu chipinda injini. Popeza mpweya wabwino wamkati mwamgalimoto umachokera mgawoli, ndikofunikira kuti chitetezo cha dalaivala ndi omwe akukwera kuti izi ndizabwino kwambiri. Zachidziwikire, ngati gasketyo idutsa, mudzangomva pomwepo - ma pops olimba adzawonekera chifukwa cha kuthamanga kwambiri mkati mwa thirakitilo.

Mitundu ndi mitundu yamafuta ochuluka otulutsa utsi

Nayi mitundu yayikulu yazinthu zambiri za utsi:

  1. Lonse. Poterepa, gawolo lidzakhala lolimba, ndipo njira zimapangidwira mkati, ndikusandulika chipinda chimodzi. Zosinthazi zimapangidwa ndi chitsulo chotentha kwambiri. Ponena za kukana kusintha kwakutentha kwambiri (makamaka m'nyengo yozizira, pakakhala chimfine chozizira kuchokera -10 kapena kuchepera, kutengera dera, mpaka madigiri 1000 Celsius mumasekondi ochepa), chitsulo ichi chilibe zofanana. Izi ndizosavuta kupanga, koma sizimayendetsa bwino mpweya. Izi zimakhudza kuyeretsa kwa zipinda zamphamvu, chifukwa zina mwa makokedwewa amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuthana ndi kukana (mpweya umachotsedwa pabowo laling'ono, chifukwa chake kutulutsa kope la utsi ndikofunikira kwambiri).Zida zambiri zamagalimoto
  2. Tubular. Kusinthidwa kumeneku kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pamagalimoto amakono. Nthawi zambiri amapangidwa kuchokera ku chitsulo chosapanga dzimbiri, ndipo nthawi zambiri samapangidwa ndi ziwiya zadothi. Kusintha uku kuli ndi maubwino ake. Amapangitsa kukhala kotheka kukonza mawonekedwe amiyala yamphamvu chifukwa cha zingalowe zopangidwa panjira chifukwa cha kuwomba kwamafunde. Popeza pamenepa pisitoni sayenera kuthana ndi kukana pakatentha, crankshaft imazungulira mwachangu. M'magalimoto ena, chifukwa chakusintha uku, ndikotheka kuonjezera mphamvu ya unit ndi 10%. Pamagalimoto wamba, kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu sikuwonekera nthawi zonse, chifukwa chake kukonza kumeneku kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pagalimoto zamasewera.Zida zambiri zamagalimoto
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Kukula kwa mapaipi kumachita gawo lofunikira pakuchulukitsa kwa utsi. Ngati kangaude wokhala ndi kachulukidwe kakang'ono adayikidwa pamakinawo, ndiye kuti kukwaniritsa kwa makokedwe omwe adavoteledwa kumasunthira kuzosintha zochepa komanso zapakatikati. Kumbali inayi, kukhazikitsa kwa wokhometsa wokhala ndi mapaipi a mulingo wokulirapo kumakuthandizani kuti muchotse mphamvu yayikulu yamafuta oyaka mkati mwachangu kwambiri, koma pang'onopang'ono, mphamvu yamaguluyo imachepa.

Kuphatikiza pa kukula kwa mapaipi, kutalika kwake ndi dongosolo lolumikizana ndi zonenepa ndizofunikira kwambiri. Chifukwa chake, pakati pazinthu zokonzera dongosolo la utsi, mungapeze mitundu yomwe mapaipi amapotozedwa, ngati kuti amalumikizidwa mwakhungu. Galimoto iliyonse imafunikira zosintha zingapo.

Kangaude wa 4-4 nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokonza mainjini 1-silinda. Poterepa, ma nozzles anayi amalumikizidwa nthawi yomweyo mu chitoliro chimodzi, kokha pamtunda wotalikirapo. Kusinthaku kumatchedwa kwakanthawi. Kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu yamagetsi kumawonedwa pokhapokha ngati akukakamizidwa, kenako pamayendedwe opitilira 6000 pamphindi.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Komanso, pakati pa mungachite kuti ikukonzekera masewera magalimoto otchedwa akangaude yaitali. Nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi chilinganizo cha 4-2-1. Poterepa, mapaipi onse anayi amalumikizidwa koyamba awiriawiri. Mapaipi awiriwa amalumikizidwa m'modzi pamtunda woyenda kuchokera pagalimoto. Kawirikawiri, mapaipi amatengedwa awiriawiri, olumikizidwa ku masilindala, omwe amakhala ndi malo ogulitsira ofanana (mwachitsanzo, woyamba ndi wachinayi, komanso wachiwiri ndi wachitatu). Kusinthaku kumawonjezera mphamvu mu rpm, koma chiwerengerochi sichimawonekera kwambiri. Pazitsanzo zamagalimoto apakhomo, kuwonjezeka kumeneku kumangowoneka kokha kuyambira 5 mpaka 7%.

Ngati makina otulutsira otaya molunjika adayikidwa mgalimoto, ndiye kuti mapaipi apakatikati okhala ndi gawo lowoloka angagwiritsidwe ntchito kuyendetsera mpweya wama cylinders ndikunyowetsa phokoso. Nthawi zambiri, pakusintha kwa akangaude ataliatali, chofufutira chochepa chotsutsana chimatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito. Mitundu ina ya osonkhanitsa m'malo ena amadula ma bellows (ziphuphu zachitsulo) m'mipope. Amachepetsa mafunde omwe amalepheretsa utsi kutuluka. Mbali inayi, ziphuphu sizikhala zazifupi.

Komanso, pakati akangaude yaitali, pali zosintha ndi 4-2-2 mtundu kugwirizana. Lamuloli ndilofanana ndi mtundu wakale. Musanaganize zakumapeto kwa dongosolo la utsi, muyenera kukumbukira kuti kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu kokha chifukwa chothandizira chothandizira (kotero kuti mapaipi atalikirapo) kumapereka 5%. Kuyika kangaude kudzawonjezera pafupifupi magawo awiri pa zana pantchito yamagalimoto.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Pofuna kukweza gawo lamagetsi kuti likhale logwirika, kuphatikiza pa ntchitoyi, njira zingapo zikuyenera kuchitika, kuphatikiza kukonza kwa chip (kuti mumve zambiri, werengani payokha).

Zomwe zimakhudza momwe wokhometsa amakhalira

Ngakhale kutulutsa kochulukitsa nthawi zambiri kumakhala ndi moyo wofanana ndi galimoto yonse, itha kulephera. Izi ndizowonongeka zomwe zimakhudzana ndi kuchuluka kwa utsi:

  • Chitoliro chawotchedwa;
  • Dzimbiri wapanga (imagwiranso ntchito zosintha zitsulo);
  • Chifukwa cha kutentha kwambiri komanso zopanga zolakwika, phulusa limatha kupanga pamwamba pa malonda;
  • Mng'alu wapangidwa ndi chitsulo (pomwe mota yakhala ikuyenda mothamanga kwambiri kwa nthawi yayitali, ndipo madzi ozizira amafika pamtengapo, mwachitsanzo, poyendetsa mumtsinje ndi liwiro lalikulu);
  • Chitsulo chafooka chifukwa chosintha pafupipafupi kutentha kwamakoma a gawolo (likatenthedwa, chitsulo chimakulanso, ndipo chitakhazikika, chimagwirizana);
  • Makoma amadzimadzi pamakoma a mapaipi (makamaka ngati galimoto siyimachoka kawirikawiri, mwachitsanzo, m'nyengo yozizira), chifukwa njira yamakina azitsulo imathamanga;
  • Ma soot deposits awonekera mkati;
  • Makapu ambiri awotchedwa.

Zovuta izi zitha kuwonetsedwa ndi izi:

  • Chizindikiro cha injini pa dashboard chidabwera;
  • Mu kanyumba kapena pansi pa nyumba fungo lamphamvu la utsi mpweya;
  • Njinga ndi wosakhazikika (rpm akuyandama);
  • Injini ikayamba, kumveka mawu akunja (mphamvu zawo zimadalira mtundu wa zowononga, mwachitsanzo, ngati chitolirocho chatenthedwa, chimakhala chachikulu kwambiri);
  • Ngati makina ali ndi chopangira mphamvu (choperekera chimazungulira chifukwa cha mpweya wa utsi), ndiye kuti mphamvu yake imachepa, yomwe imakhudza mphamvu za chipindacho.
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Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Zowonongeka zina zamisonkho zimalumikizidwa ndi zinthu zomwe woyendetsa sangakhudze, koma pali zinthu zina zomwe angachite kuti asawononge gawolo.

Pa liwiro lalitali kwambiri, zinthu zoyaka sizitha kutentha mpaka madigiri a 600, monga momwe zimakhalira, koma mwamphamvu kawiri. Ngati mapaipi olowera amatenthedwa mpaka pafupifupi madigiri a 300, ndiye kuti pazizindikiro izi chizindikirochi chimachulukanso. Chifukwa cha kutentha koteroko, wokhometsa amatha kusintha mtundu wake kukhala wofiira.

Pofuna kupewa kutentha kwambiri kwa gawolo, dalaivala sayenera nthawi zambiri kubweretsa chipangizocho kuthamanga kwambiri. Komanso, kutentha kumakhudzidwa ndikukhazikitsa dongosolo loyatsira (UOZ yolakwika imatha kupangitsa kuti pakhale kutulutsa kwa VTS kotentha, komwe kudzayambitsenso ma valve).

Kuchepetsa kwambiri kapena kukometsa chisakanizo chake ndi chifukwa china chomwe mapaipi olowerera adzatenthedwa. Kuzindikira kwakanthawi kwa zovuta m'machitidwe awa kumapangitsa kuti wokhometsa azikhala bwino kwa nthawi yayitali.

Utsi kukonza zambiri

Kawirikawiri, zobwezedwa za utsi sizikonzedwa, koma m'malo mwake ndizatsopano. Ngati uku ndikusintha ndikukonzekera ndipo kwatenthedwa, ena angalande malo owonongeka. Komabe, chifukwa chakuti chitsulo chimakhala ndi kutentha kwakukulu panthawi yamawotchi, msoko ukhoza kutukuka kapena kutentha. Kuphatikiza apo, mtengo wa ntchitoyi ndiwokwera kwambiri kuposa kukhazikitsa gawo latsopano.

Zida zambiri zamagalimoto

Ngati mukufuna kusintha gawo, ndiye kuti ntchitoyi iyenera kuchitidwa molondola.

Kuchotsa zobwezeretsa zambiri

Kuti musinthe wokhometsa ndi manja anu, muyenera:

  1. Limbikitsani mphamvu yapa bolodi podula batiri (momwe mungachitire izi mosamala mukufotokozedwa apa);
  2. Sungani zoletsa kuwuma;
  3. Chotsani chikopa cha matenthedwe (kabokosi kamene kamaikidwa pamagalimoto ambiri amakono), wolandila jekeseni (ma carburetor motors alibe chinthu ichi) ndi fyuluta yamlengalenga;
  4. Tsegulani zolumikizira zingapo kuchokera pachapa cholowera;
  5. Kutulutsa kambiri pamutu wamphamvu. Njirayi idzasiyana malinga ndi kusintha kwa magetsi. Mwachitsanzo, pamavavu a ma valavu 8, zolowetsera zingapo zimachotsedwa kaye, kenako zimatulutsa utsi;
  6. Chotsani gasket ndikuyeretsani pamutu pake pamiyeso yake;
  7. Ngati, pokonza, zikhomo kapena ulusi m'mabowo okwerawo zawonongeka, ndiye kuti ndikofunikira kubwezeretsa zinthu izi;
  8. Ikani gasket yatsopano;
  9. Lumikizani zobwezedwa zatsopano pamutu wamphamvu (ngati injini yamagetsi yoyaka 4-cylinder ili ndi ma valve 8, ndiye kuti msonkhano umachitika motsatana kuti uwonongeke, ndiye kuti, woyamba kutulutsa kangapo kenako ndikudyetsa kangapo);
  10. Limbikitsani, koma osamangitsa zolimba ndi mtedza pazolumikizana ndi mutu wamphamvu;
  11. Lumikizani zobwezedwa ndi chitoliro chakumaso kapena chothandizira, mukayika gasket yoyenera isanachitike;
  12. Limbikitsani phiri pamutu wamphamvu (izi zimachitika ndi wrench ya torque, ndipo torque yolimbitsa imawonetsedwa m'mabuku aukadaulo a galimoto);
  13. Limbikitsani zomangira zotchinga zotsika;
  14. Thirani kapangidwe katsopano kapenanso kosefera;
  15. Lumikizani batiri.

Monga mukuwonera, njira yosinthira kangaude palokha ndiyosavuta, koma pochita ntchitoyi, muyenera kukhala osamala kuti musadule ulusi wamutu wamutu (sitoloyo ndiyosavuta kusintha, ndikudula ulusi watsopano pamutu wamphamvu ndizovuta kwambiri). Pachifukwa ichi, ngati palibe chidziwitso chogwira ntchito ndi wrench ya torque kapena palibe chida choterocho, ndiye kuti ntchitoyi iyenera kuperekedwa kwa katswiri.

Pomaliza, tikupangira kuti tiwone chitsanzo chaching'ono cha momwe mungasinthire zobwezedwa ndi Renault Logan:

Kuchotsa zobwezedwa ndi Renault Logan

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi njira zambiri zogulitsira zimagwira ntchito bwanji? Mpweya umakokedwa ndi vacuum yomwe imapangidwa mu silinda iliyonse. Kuthamanga kumadutsa kaye kudzera mu fyuluta ya mpweya ndiyeno kudutsa mapaipi kupita ku silinda iliyonse.

Kodi kuchuluka kwa magetsi kumakhudza bwanji magwiridwe antchito a injini? Muli kumveka mkati mwake. Vavu imatseka mwadzidzidzi ndipo mpweya wina umasungidwa muzobweleza. Vavu ikatsegulidwanso, mpweya wotsalawo ungalepheretse kutuluka kotsatira kuchotsedwa.

Kodi mungasiyanitse bwanji pakati pa kuchuluka kwa madyedwe ndi kuchuluka kwa utsi? Kulowetsedwa kumalumikizana ndi chitoliro kuchokera ku fyuluta ya mpweya. Kutulutsa kotulutsa mpweya kumalumikizidwa ndi utsi wagalimoto.

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Ndemanga ya 1

  1. Ndakhutira, ndimayang'ana turbo condition ya bezza .. ngakhale eksoz akufuna kuyiyang'ana kuchokera ku chida chaching'ono kuti ndiwone

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