Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto

Zamkatimu

Galimoto iliyonse yokhala ndi injini yoyaka mkati imakhala ndi njira zosinthira zakale. Imaikidwa osati kungopereka chitonthozo kwa dalaivala ndi ena. Kukonzekera kumeneku kumathandiza kwambiri kuti mpweya wabwino uwonongeke.

Ganizirani kapangidwe ka utsi, komanso zosankha pakukonzanso ndi kukonza kwake.

Kodi dongosolo lotulutsa galimoto ndi chiyani?

Njira yotulutsa utsi imatanthawuza mapaipi amitundumitundu yotalikirapo komanso yautali, komanso zotengera zama volumetric, momwe muli zotchinga. Nthawi zonse imayikidwa pansi pa galimotoyo ndipo imagwirizanitsidwa ndi zobwezeretsa zambiri.

Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto

Chifukwa chamapangidwe osiyanasiyana amadamu (oyimitsa wamkulu, oyimilira ndi othandizira), mawu ambiri opangidwa chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito magetsi amaponderezedwa.

Cholinga cha pulogalamu yotulutsa galimoto

Monga momwe dzinali likusonyezera, dongosololi lakonzedwa kuti lichotse mpweya wotulutsa utsi mu injini. Kuphatikiza pa ntchitoyi, ntchitoyi imagwiritsanso ntchito:

  • Utsi phokoso damping. Injini ikayamba, kuphulika kwakanthawi pang'ono kwamafuta amafuta am'mlengalenga kumachitika muzipinda zogwirira ntchito zama cylinders. Ngakhale pang'ono, njirayi imatsagana ndi kuwomba m'manja mwamphamvu. Mphamvu zomwe zimatulutsidwa ndizokwanira kuyendetsa ma pistoni mkati mwazitsulo. Chifukwa chakupezeka kwa zinthu zosiyanasiyana zamkati, phokoso lotulutsa utsi limasokonezedwa ndi zovuta zomwe zili mu chimbudzi.
  • Kusalowererapo kwa zinyalala zapoizoni. Ntchitoyi imagwiridwa ndi chosinthira chothandizira. Izi zimayikidwa pafupi kwambiri ndi silinda. Pakati pa kuyaka kwa mafuta osakanikirana ndi mpweya, kumapangidwa mpweya wakupha, womwe umawononga kwambiri chilengedwe. Utsi ukadutsa mu chothandizira, zimachitika ndimankhwala, chifukwa chake kutulutsa kwa mpweya wovulaza kumachepa.
  • Kuchotsa mpweya kunja kwa galimotoyo. Ngati muyika chopukutira pafupi ndi injiniyo, ndiye galimoto ikayima ndi injini ikuyenda (mwachitsanzo, pamaloboti kapena mumsewu wamagalimoto), mpweya wotulutsa utsi ungadziunjike pansi pa galimotoyo. Popeza mpweya wozizira wa chipinda chonyamula umatengedwa mchipinda cha injini, pamenepa ndiye kuti mpweya wocheperako ungalowe mchipinda chonyamula.Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto
  • Utsi kuzirala. Mafuta akawotchera m'mizirayi, kutentha kumakwera kufika madigiri 2000. Mpweya utachotsedwa mwazambiri, umakhazikika, komabe ngakhale utakhala wotentha kwambiri kuti ungavulaze munthu. Pachifukwa ichi, ziwalo zonse za utsi zimapangidwa ndi chitsulo (zakuthupi zimakhala ndi kutentha kwakukulu, ndiye kuti, zimawotcha ndikuzizira). Zotsatira zake, mpweya wotulutsa utsi suotcha omwe amadutsa chitoliro chotulutsa utsi.
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Utsi dongosolo

Kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto, makina otulutsa utsi azikhala ndi mawonekedwe ena. Komabe, ambiri, kapangidwe ka dongosololi ndi chimodzimodzi. Zojambulazo zikuphatikizapo zinthu zotsatirazi:

  • Utsi zobwezedwa. Izi ndizopangidwa ndi chitsulo chosagwiritsa ntchito kutentha, chifukwa chimakhala ndi mafuta ambiri. Pachifukwa chomwechi, ndikofunikira kuti kulumikizana ndi mutu wamphamvu ndi chitoliro chakutsogolo ndikolimba momwe zingathere. Poterepa, dongosololi silidutsa kuthamanga kwakanthawi kwa mpweya wotentha. Chifukwa cha ichi, cholumikizacho chimatha msanga, ndipo zambiri zimayenera kusinthidwa pafupipafupi.
  • "Mathalauza" kapena chitoliro chakutsogolo. Gawoli limatchedwa chifukwa utsi wazitsulo zonse umalumikizidwa nawo kukhala chitoliro chimodzi. Kutengera mtundu wa injini, kuchuluka kwa mapaipi kutengera kuchuluka kwa zonenepa za unit.
  • Wowonetsanso. Izi ndizomwe zimatchedwa "zing'onozing'ono" zosokoneza. Posungira pang'ono, gawo loyamba lokhazikitsira mpweya wotuluka limachitika. Amapangidwanso kuchokera ku alloy refractory.Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto
  • Wothandizira othandizira. Izi zimayikidwa mgalimoto zonse zamakono (ngati injini ndi dizilo, ndiye kuti pali fyuluta yamtundu wina m'malo mwa chothandizira). Ntchito yake ndikuchotsa zinthu za poizoni m'mafuta amoto omwe amapangidwa mafuta oyaka dizilo kapena mafuta akapsa. Pali mitundu yambiri yazida zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mpweya woipa usasokonezeke. Chofala kwambiri ndi kusintha kwa ceramic. Mwa iwo, chothandizira thupi chimakhala ndi mawonekedwe ofanana ndi uchi. M'matumba oterewa, thupi limakhazikika (kuti makoma asatenthe), ndipo mauna azitsulo amaikidwa pakhomo. Mauna ndi ma ceramic amakutidwa ndi chinthu chogwira ntchito, chifukwa chake zimachitika ndi mankhwala. Mtundu wachitsulowu umafanana ndendende ndi ceramic, m'malo mwa ceramic, thupi lake limakhala ndi chitsulo, chomwe chimakhala ndi palladium kapena platinamu wosanjikiza kwambiri.
  • Kafukufuku wa Lambda kapena sensa ya oxygen. Imaikidwa pambuyo pothandizira. M'magalimoto amakono, gawo ili ndi gawo lofunikira lomwe limagwirizanitsa makina amafuta ndi utsi. Ikakumana ndi mpweya wotulutsa utsi, imayesa kuchuluka kwa mpweya ndikutumiza chizindikiritso ku gawo lowongolera (zambiri za kapangidwe kake ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito amafotokozedwera apa).Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto
  • Kusokoneza kwakukulu. Pali mitundu yambiri yamakina. Iliyonse ili ndi mawonekedwe ake apangidwe. Kwenikweni, "banki" ili ndi magawo angapo, chifukwa chake kutulutsa kwamphamvu kumazimitsidwa. Zitsanzo zina zimakhala ndi chida chapadera chomwe mothandizidwa ndi mawu apadera amakulolani kutsindika mphamvu ya injini (mwachitsanzo ichi ndi dongosolo la utsi wa Subaru Impreza).
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Pamphambano ya madera onse, kuyenera kutsimikizika kwambiri, apo ayi galimoto ipanga phokoso, ndipo m'mbali mwa mapaipi ziotcha mwachangu. Ma gaskets amapangidwa kuchokera kuzinthu zopangira. Kuti atetezeke bwino, ma bolts amagwiritsidwa ntchito, ndikuti kugwedezeka kuchokera ku injini sikumafalikira mthupi, mapaipi ndi maffin amayimitsidwa kuchokera pansi pogwiritsa ntchito ndolo za raba.

Momwe makina otulutsa ntchito amagwirira ntchito

Valavu ikatsegulidwa pa sitiroko ya utsi, mpweya wotulutsa nawo umatulutsidwa munthawi zambiri. Kenako amalowa mu chitoliro chakumaso ndipo amalumikizidwa ndi kutuluka kochokera kuzipilala zina.

Ngati injini yoyaka mkati ili ndi chopangira mphamvu (mwachitsanzo, mu injini za dizilo kapena ma turbocharged mafuta), ndiye kuti utsi woyamba kuchokera pazambiri umapatsidwa cholimbikitsira cha compressor, kenako amangolowera chitoliro chodyera.

Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto

Mfundo yotsatira ndi chothandizira momwe zinthu zovulaza zimachotsedwera. Gawoli nthawi zonse limayikidwa pafupi ndi injini momwe zingathere, popeza momwe mankhwala amathandizira amapezeka kutentha kwambiri (kuti mumve zambiri za momwe othandizira kusintha amagwirira ntchito, onani m'nkhani yapadera).

Kenako utsi umadutsa mu resonator (dzinalo limayankhula za magwiridwe antchito a gawo ili - kumveketsa mawu ambiri) ndikulowa muffler wamkulu. Pali magawo angapo mumng'alu wonyezimira wokhala ndi mabowo ocheperako. Chifukwa cha izi, kuyendetsa kumawongoleredwa nthawi zambiri, phokoso limachepetsedwa, ndipo chitoliro cha utsi chimakhala chosalala komanso chete momwe zingathere.

Zovuta zomwe zingachitike, njira zowachotsera ndi zosankha zawo

Njira yowonongeka kwambiri yotulutsa utsi ndi gawo lotopetsa. Nthawi zambiri izi zimachitika pamphambano chifukwa chodontha. Kutengera kuchuluka kwa kuwonongeka, mudzafunika ndalama zanu. Kutopa kumachitika nthawi zambiri mkati mwamatope.

Mulimonsemo, kuzindikira kuti pulogalamu ya utsi ndi imodzi mwazinthu zosavuta. Chinthu chachikulu ndikumvera ntchito ya mota. Phokoso la utsi likayamba kukulira (choyamba limapeza mawu oyambira "bass", ngati galimoto yamphamvu), ndiye nthawi yoyang'ana pansi pa galimotoyo ndikuwona komwe kutayikira kumachitika.

Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto

Kukonza muffler zimatengera kuchuluka kwa kuvala. Ngati gawolo ndi lotchipa, ndiye kuti ndibwino kuti mulibwezeretse lina. Zosintha zokwera mtengo zitha kupangidwa ndi sludge yamagesi ndi kuwotcherera kwamagetsi. Pali malingaliro osiyanasiyana pankhaniyi, chifukwa chake woyendetsa amayenera kusankha yekha njira yothetsera mavuto yomwe angagwiritse ntchito.

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Ngati pali sensa ya oksijeni m'dongosolo la utsi, ndiye kuti kulephera kwake kungasinthe kwambiri magwiridwe antchito amafuta ndipo kumatha kuwononga chothandizira. Pachifukwa ichi, akatswiri ena amalangiza kuti musunge sensa imodzi yabwino nthawi zonse. Ngati, mutasintha gawo, chizindikiro cholakwika ndi injini chikusowa pa dashboard, ndiye kuti vuto linali mmenemo.

Utsi dongosolo ikukonzekera

Kapangidwe ka utsi amakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi mphamvu ya injini. Pachifukwa ichi, madalaivala ena amawongolera powonjezera kapena kuchotsa zina mwazinthu. Njira yodziwika bwino kwambiri ndikukhazikitsa chosakanizira chowongoka. Poterepa, resonator imachotsedwa m'dongosolo kuti lithandizire kwambiri.

Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka utsi m'galimoto

Ndikoyenera kudziwa kuti kusokoneza dongosolo la makina kungakhudze mphamvu ya mphamvu yamagetsi. Kusinthidwa kulikonse kwamankhwala osankhidwa kumasankhidwa kutengera mphamvu ya injini. Kwa izi, kuwerengera kovuta kwaukadaulo kumapangidwa. Pachifukwa ichi, nthawi zina, kukweza makina sikosangalatsa phokoso lokha, komanso "kumabera" mphamvu yamtengo wapatali yamahatchi pagalimoto.

Ngati palibe chidziwitso chokwanira chokhudza kagwiritsidwe ka injini ndi utsi, ndibwino kuti wokonda magalimoto apemphe thandizo kwa akatswiri. Zithandizira osati kungosankha chinthu choyenera chomwe chimapanga zomwe mukufuna, komanso kupewa kuwonongeka kwa mota chifukwa cha kusayenerera kwa dongosololi.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa chitoliro cha exhaust ndi muffler? The muffler mu exhaust system ndi thanki yopanda kanthu yokhala ndi zopinga zingapo mkati. Chitoliro chotulutsa mpweya ndi chitoliro chachitsulo chomwe chimachokera ku muffler wamkulu.

Dzina lolondola la chitoliro cha exhaust ndi chiyani? Ili ndi dzina lolondola la gawo ili la makina otulutsa magalimoto. Sikoyenera kuyitcha kuti chivundikiro, chifukwa chitolirocho chimangopatutsa mpweya wotulutsa mpweya kutali ndi chopondera.

Kodi exhaust system imagwira ntchito bwanji? Mipweya yotulutsa mpweya imasiya masilindala kudzera mu ma valve otulutsa mpweya. Kenako amapita mu utsi wosiyanasiyana - mu resonator (m'magalimoto amakono akadali chothandizira patsogolo pake) - mu muffler waukulu ndi chitoliro utsi.

Kodi kutha kwa galimoto ndi chiyani? Ndi dongosolo lomwe limatsuka, kuziziritsa, ndi kuchepetsa kugunda ndi phokoso la mpweya wotuluka mu injini. Dongosololi litha kusiyanasiyana pamagalimoto osiyanasiyana.

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