Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto

Zamkatimu

Palibe galimoto yomwe ili ndi injini yoyaka mkati yomwe imayendetsa ngati thanki yake ilibe kanthu. Koma sikuti mafuta amangokhala mu thanki iyi. Imafunikirabe kuperekedwa kuzipilala. Pachifukwa ichi, makina amafuta adapangidwa. Tiyeni tiganizire ntchito yomwe ili nayo, momwe galimoto yamagalimoto imasiyanirana ndi mtundu womwe injini ya dizilo imagwirira ntchito. Tiyeni tiwone zomwe zikuchitika masiku ano zomwe zimawonjezera mphamvu pakuperekera ndi kusakaniza mafuta ndi mpweya.

Kodi injini yamafuta ndi chiyani?

Makina amafuta ndi zida zomwe zimalola kuti injini ziziyenda zokha chifukwa chakutentha kwa mafuta osakanikirana ndi mafuta omwe amapangika muzipilala. Kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto, mtundu wa injini ndi zinthu zina, dongosolo lamafuta limodzi limatha kukhala losiyana kwambiri ndi linzake, koma onse ali ndi mfundo zofananira: amapereka mafuta kumagulu ofanana, kusakaniza ndi mpweya ndikuwonetsetsa kuti mosadodometsedwa osakaniza ndi zonenepa.

Makina opangira mafuta samapereka magwiridwe antchito amagetsi, ngakhale atakhala amtundu wanji. Ndizoyanjanitsidwa ndi makina oyatsira. Galimoto itha kukhala ndi chimodzi mwazosintha zingapo zomwe zimatsimikizira kuyatsa kwakanthawi kwa VTS. Zambiri za mitundu ndi mfundo zoyendetsera SZ mgalimoto zafotokozedwa kubwereza kwina... Njirayi imagwiranso ntchito molumikizana ndi makina amkati oyaka, omwe amafotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane. apa.

Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto

Zoona, ntchito yomwe yatchulidwayi ya galimoto ikukhudza mayunitsi a mafuta. Injini ya dizilo imagwira ntchito mosiyana. Mwachidule, ilibe dongosolo loyatsira. Mafuta a dizilo amayatsa mu silinda chifukwa cha mpweya wotentha chifukwa chothina kwambiri. Pisitoni ikamaliza kuponderezana, gawo la mpweya mu silinda limakhala lotentha kwambiri. Pakadali pano, mafuta a dizilo amabayidwa, ndipo BTC imayatsa.

Cholinga cha mafuta

Injini iliyonse yomwe imayatsa VTS ili ndi galimoto, zinthu zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimapereka zotsatirazi m'galimoto:

  1. Kupereka mafuta mosungira mu thanki ina;
  2. Zimatenga mafuta kuchokera mu thanki yamafuta;
  3. Kukonza chilengedwe kuchokera kuzinthu zakunja;
  4. Katundu wamafuta omwe amasakanikirana ndi mpweya;
  5. Kupopera VTS mu silinda yogwira ntchito;
  6. Mafuta kubwerera ngati owonjezera.

Galimotoyo idapangidwa kuti chophatikizira choyaka moto chimaperekedwa kwa silinda yogwira ntchito panthawi yomwe kuyaka kwa VTS kukhale kothandiza kwambiri, ndipo kuchira kwakukulu kuzichotsedwa pagalimoto. Popeza mtundu uliwonse wa injini umafuna mphindi yosiyana komanso mphamvu zamagetsi, mainjiniya apanga makina osinthira kuthamanga kwa injini komanso katundu wake.

Chipangizo cha mafuta

Makina ambiri operekera mafuta amakhala ndi mapangidwe ofanana. Kwenikweni, chiwerengerochi chimakhala ndi zinthu zotsatirazi:

  • Thanki mafuta kapena thanki. Zimasungira mafuta. Magalimoto amakono amalandira zochuluka kuposa chidebe chachitsulo momwe msewu waukuluwo umakwanira. Ili ndi chida chovuta kwambiri chokhala ndi zinthu zingapo zomwe zimatsimikizira kuti mafuta osungika bwino kapena mafuta a dizilo amasungidwa bwino. Njirayi ikuphatikizapo wotsatsa, fyuluta, sensa yamtundu komanso m'mitundu yambiri pampu yamagalimoto.Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto
  • Mzere wamafuta. Izi nthawi zambiri zimakhala payipi yama rabara yosinthasintha yolumikizira pampu yamafuta kuzinthu zina m'dongosolo. M'makina ambiri, mapaipi amatha kusintha pang'ono mwina pang'ono (gawo ili limakhala ndi mapaipi achitsulo). Phukusi lofewa limakhala ndi mafuta ochepa. Mu gawo lachitsulo la mzere, mafuta kapena mafuta a dizilo ali ndi mphamvu zambiri. Komanso, mafuta amtundu wamagalimoto amatha kugawidwa m'magawo awiri. Woyamba ali ndi udindo wodyetsa injini ndi mafuta atsopano, ndipo amatchedwa feed. Paulendo wachiwiri (kubwerera), dongosololi lidzakhetsa mafuta owonjezera / dizilo kubwerera m'galimoto yamafuta. Kuphatikiza apo, mapangidwe oterewa sangakhale mu magalimoto amakono okha, komanso mwa iwo omwe ali ndi mtundu wa carburetor wokonzekera VTS.Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto
  • Mpope mafuta. Cholinga cha chipangizochi ndikuwonetsetsa kuti nthawi zonse kupopera kwa malo ogwirira ntchito kuchokera ku malo osungira opopera kapena kupita kuchipinda komwe VTS imakonzedwa. Kutengera mtundu wamtundu wanji wamagalimoto, makinawa amatha kuyendetsedwa ndi magetsi kapena makina. Pampu yamagetsi imayang'aniridwa ndi gawo lamagetsi, ndipo ndi gawo limodzi la jekeseni wa ICE (jekeseni wamagalimoto). Pampu yamakina imagwiritsidwa ntchito mgalimoto zakale momwe carburetor imayikidwira pamakina. Kwenikweni, injini yamafuta yoyaka mkati imakhala ndi mpope umodzi wamafuta, koma palinso zosintha zamagalimoto okhala ndi jekeseni wokhala ndi pampu yolimbikitsira (mumitundu yomwe imaphatikizapo njanji yamafuta). Injini ya dizilo ili ndi mapampu awiri, imodzi ndi yothamanga kwambiri pampu yamafuta. Zimapanga kuthamanga pamzere (chipangizocho ndi momwe magwiridwe antchito amafotokozedwera mwatsatanetsatane payokha). Mapampu achiwiri amapangira mafuta, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti magetsi azigwiritsa ntchito mosavuta. Mapampu omwe amapanga kuthamanga kwambiri mu injini za dizilo amayendetsedwa ndi ma plunger (momwe amafotokozera apa).Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto
  • Oyeretsa mafuta. Makina ambiri amafuta amakhala ndi zosefera zosachepera ziwiri. Yoyamba imapereka kuyeretsa kovuta, ndipo imayikidwa mu thanki yamafuta. Chachiwiri chidapangidwa kuti chizitsuka mafuta bwino. Gawoli lidayikidwa kutsogolo kwa polowera njanji yamafuta, pampu yamafuta othamanga kapena kutsogolo kwa carburetor. Zinthu izi ndizogwiritsa ntchito ndipo zimafunika kusintha nthawi ndi nthawi.Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto
  • Ma injini a dizilo amagwiritsanso ntchito zida zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mafuta azitsitsimutsa asanalowe munthawiyo. Kupezeka kwake kumachitika chifukwa chakuti mafuta a dizilo amakhala ndi mamasukidwe akayendedwe ozizira kwambiri, ndipo zimakhala zovuta kwambiri kuti pampu igwire bwino ntchito yake, ndipo nthawi zina siyitha kupopera mafuta pamzere. Koma kwa mayunitsi oterowo, kupezeka kwa mapulagi owala ndiyofunikanso. Werengani za momwe zimasiyanirana ndi ma plugs komanso chifukwa chake amafunikira. payokha.Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto
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Kutengera mtundu wamakina, zida zina zitha kuphatikizidwanso pakupanga kwake, komwe kumapereka ntchito yabwino yamafuta.

Kodi mafuta amagalimoto amagwirira ntchito bwanji?

Popeza pali magalimoto osiyanasiyana, iliyonse ili ndi njira yake yogwirira ntchito. Koma mfundo zazikuluzikulu sizosiyana. Woyendetsa akatsegula kiyi mu loko (ngati jakisoni waikidwa mu injini yoyaka mkati), kumveka phokoso lakumaso kuchokera kumbali ya thankiyo. Mpope wamafuta wagwira ntchito. Zimapangitsa kupanikizika mu payipi. Ngati galimotoyo ili ndi carbure, ndiye kuti pamtundu wamafuta pampu yamafuta ndimakina, ndipo mpaka chipangizocho chikuyamba kuzungulira, chowonjezeracho sichigwira ntchito.

Sitata ikayambitsanso diski ya flywheel, magalimoto onse amakakamizidwa kuti ayambe mogwirizana. Pisitoni akamayenda m'miyendo yamphamvu, mavavu olowera pamutu amatseguka. Chifukwa cha zingalowezo, chipinda champhamvu chimayamba kudzaza ndi mpweya pochulukirapo. Pakadali pano, mafuta amabayidwa mumtsinje wopita. Pachifukwa ichi, mphuno imagwiritsidwa ntchito (za momwe chinthuchi chimagwirira ntchito ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito, werengani apa).

Pamene mavavu othamangitsa nthawi atseka, timadzi timagwiritsidwa ntchito pophatikiza mpweya / mafuta. Kutulutsa uku kumayatsa BTS, pomwe imatulutsa mphamvu yayikulu, yomwe imakankhira pisitoniyo mpaka pakufa. Njira zofananira zimachitika m'miyendo yoyandikana, ndipo mota imayamba kugwira ntchito mwaokha.

Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto

Njira yoyeserera iyi imagwiritsidwa ntchito ndimagalimoto amakono ambiri. Koma zosintha zina zamafuta amatha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito m'galimoto. Tiyeni tione kusiyana kwawo.

Mitundu ya kachitidwe jekeseni

Njira zonse za jakisoni zitha kugawidwa m'magulu awiri:

  • Zosiyanasiyana zamafuta amkati oyaka mafuta;
  • Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya injini zoyaka zamkati za dizilo.

Koma ngakhale m'magulu awa, pali mitundu ingapo yamagalimoto yomwe ingabwereke mafuta mwa njira yawo mlengalenga kupita kuzipinda zamphamvu. Nayi kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa mtundu uliwonse wamagalimoto.

Machitidwe a mafuta a injini zamafuta

M'mbiri yamakampani agalimoto, injini zamafuta (monga zida zazikulu zamagalimoto) zidawonekera pamaso pa injini za dizilo. Popeza mpweya umafunikira kuyatsa mafuta m'miyendo (yopanda oxygen, palibe chinthu chimodzi chomwe chingayatse), mainjiniya apanga makina omwe amapangira mafuta osakanikirana ndi mpweya potengera chilengedwe. Zimatengera momwe njirayi imagwirira ntchito ngati mafuta awotcha kwathunthu kapena ayi.

Poyamba, panali chida chapadera cha izi, chomwe chinali pafupi ndi injini momwe zingathere pambiri. Ichi ndi carburetor. Popita nthawi, zinawonekeratu kuti mawonekedwe azida izi amadalira mwachindunji mawonekedwe am'magazi ndi zonenepa, chifukwa chake, injini zotere sizimatha kupereka magwiridwe antchito pakati pamafuta ndi magwiridwe antchito.

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Kumayambiriro kwa zaka makumi asanu zapitazo, analogue ya jekeseni yomwe idapereka jekeseni wokakamiza wamafuta mumlengalenga womwe umadutsa munjira zingapo. Tiyeni tiwone kusiyana pakati pamachitidwe awiriwa.

Mafuta a carburetor

Galimoto ya carburetor ndiyosavuta kusiyanitsa ndi injini ya jekeseni. Pamwamba pamutu wamiyala padzakhala "poto" wosalala womwe ndi gawo la njira yodyetsera, ndipo muli sefa ya mpweya. Izi zakonzedwa mwachindunji pa carburetor. Carburetor ndichipinda chazambiri. Zina zimakhala ndi mafuta, pomwe zina zilibe kanthu, ndiye kuti, zimagwira ntchito ngati mipweya yomwe mpweya watsopano umalowera.

Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto

Valve ya throttle imayikidwa mu carburetor. M'malo mwake, iyi ndiye yokhayo yomwe imayang'anira mu injini yotere yomwe imatsimikizira kuchuluka kwa mpweya wolowa munsilindayo. Izi zimalumikizidwa kudzera pa chubu chosinthasintha kupita kwa omwe amagawa poyatsira (werengani zambiri za wogulitsa m'nkhani ina) kukonza SPL chifukwa chopuma. Magalimoto akale amagwiritsa ntchito chida chimodzi. Pa magalimoto amasewera, carburetor imodzi imatha kuyikidwa pamiyeso imodzi (kapena imodzi pamiphika iwiri), yomwe imakulitsa kwambiri mphamvu ya injini yoyaka yamkati.

Mafuta amaperekedwa chifukwa cha kuyamwa kwa magawo ang'onoang'ono a mafuta pamene mpweya umadutsa ma jets wamafuta (za kapangidwe kake ndi cholinga chake zafotokozedwa apa). Mafuta amayamwa mumtsinjewo, ndipo chifukwa cha kabowo kakang'ono kameneka, gawolo limagawidwa tating'onoting'ono.

Kupitilira apo, kutsika kwa VTS kumeneku kumalowa munthawi zambiri zopangira zingalowe chifukwa cha valavu yotseguka komanso pisitoni ikuyenda pansi. Pampu yamafuta mumachitidwe otere amafunikira kokha kuti mupope mafuta mu mphindikati wofanana wa carburetor (chipinda chamafuta). Mbali yapadera ya dongosolo ili ndilakuti pampu yamafuta imakhala yolumikizana molimba ndi makina amagetsi (zimatengera mtundu wa injini, koma mumitundu yambiri imayendetsedwa ndi camshaft).

Kotero kuti chipinda cha mafuta cha carburetor sichikusefukira ndipo mafuta sagwera mosalamulirika kuzipinda zoyandikana, zida zina zimakhala ndi mzere wobwerera. Amalola kuti mafuta ochulukirapo abwererenso mu thanki yamafuta.

Mafuta dongosolo jekeseni (mafuta dongosolo jekeseni)

Mono jekeseni wapangidwa ngati njira ina yopangira carburetor wakale. Iyi ndi njira yokakamiza atomization ya mafuta (kupezeka kwa nozzle kumakupatsani mwayi wogawa gawo lamafuta tinthu tating'onoting'ono). M'malo mwake, iyi ndi carburetor yomweyi, jakisoni imodzi yokha imayikidwa pazambiri m'malo mwa chida cham'mbuyomu. Imayang'aniridwa kale ndi microprocessor, yomwe imayendetsanso makina oyatsira magetsi (werengani mwatsatanetsatane za izi apa).

Pachifukwa ichi, pampu yamafuta imakhala yamagetsi kale, ndipo imapanga kuthamanga kwakukulu, komwe kumatha kufikira ma bar angapo (izi zimadalira chida cha jakisoni). Galimoto yotereyi mothandizidwa ndi zamagetsi imatha kusintha kuchuluka kwa madzi olowera mumtsinje wabwino (sinthani mawonekedwe a VTS - ipangitse kuchepa kapena kulemeretsa), chifukwa ma jakisoni onse ndiopanda ndalama kuposa ma carburetor omwe ali ndi voliyumu yofananira .

Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto

Pambuyo pake, jakisoniyo adasinthiratu pakusintha kwina komwe sikuti kumangowonjezera mphamvu ya kupopera mafuta, komanso kumatha kusintha njira zosiyanasiyana zogwirira ntchito. Zambiri za mitundu ya jakisoni yafotokozedwa m'nkhani yapadera... Nayi magalimoto akulu omwe amakakamizidwa kuti apange mafuta atomization:

  1. Kusinkhasinkha. Takambirana kale mwachidule za mawonekedwe ake.
  2. Kugawa jakisoni. Mwachidule, kusiyana kwake ndi kusinthidwa koyambirira ndikuti sichimodzi, koma mipweya ingapo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kupopera mbewu. Amayikidwa kale m'mapaipi osiyana azakudya zambiri. Malo awo amatengera mtundu wamagalimoto. M'magetsi amakono, opopera amaikidwa pafupi kwambiri ndi ma valve olowera. Munthu atomizing element amachepetsa kutayika kwa mafuta panthawi yogwiritsira ntchito. Kapangidwe ka magalimoto amtunduwu kali ndi njanji yamafuta (thanki yaying'ono yolumikizidwa yomwe imagwira ntchito ngati malo osungira mafuta omwe ali pamavuto). Gawoli limalola makinawa kugawa mafuta wogawana ma jakisoni popanda kugwedera. M'magalimoto otsogola, mtundu wamagalimoto wovuta kwambiri wagwiritsidwa ntchito. Imeneyi ndi njanji yamafuta, pomwe pamakhala pali valavu yomwe imayang'anira kupsyinjika kwa dongosololi kuti isaphulike (jekeseni wa jekeseni imatha kupangitsa kupanikizika kofunikira pamapaipi, popeza cholumikizira chimagwira kuchokera kulumikizidwe kolimba mpaka gawo lamagetsi). Momwe imagwirira ntchito, werengani payokha... Ma mota okhala ndi jakisoni wa multipoint amatchedwa MPI (jekeseni wama point angapo amafotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane apa)
  3. Jekeseni mwachindunji. Mtundu uwu umatanthawuza makina opopera mafuta ambiri. Chochititsa chidwi chake ndikuti ma jakisoni sapezeka munthawi zambiri, koma molunjika pamutu wamphamvu. Makonzedwe amenewa amalola opanga makina kuti azikonzekeretsa makina oyaka mkati ndi makina omwe amazimitsa masilindala angapo kutengera kuchuluka kwa katunduyo. Chifukwa cha ichi, ngakhale injini yayikulu kwambiri imatha kuwonetsa bwino, ngati dalaivala amagwiritsa ntchito makinawa moyenera.
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Chofunika cha ntchito ya injini jekeseni sichinasinthe. Ndi chithandizo cha pampu, mafuta amachotsedwa mu thankiyo. Makina omwewo kapena mpope wa jekeseni amapanga zovuta zofunika kuti atomization igwire bwino. Kutengera kapangidwe kake kazakudya, munthawi yoyenera, gawo laling'ono lamafuta opopera kudzera mumkombomo limaperekedwa (chifunga cha mafuta chimapangidwa, chifukwa chake BTC imayaka bwino kwambiri).

Magalimoto ambiri amakono amakhala ndi lampu ndi zowongolera pamagetsi. M'masinthidwe awa, kusinthasintha kwamagwiritsidwe a mafuta kwachepetsedwa, ndipo kumagawidwa mofanana pa ma jakisoni. Kugwiritsa ntchito dongosolo lonse kumayang'aniridwa ndi zida zamagetsi zamagetsi molingana ndi ma algorithms ophatikizidwa ndi microprocessor.

Machitidwe a dizilo

Machitidwe a mafuta a injini za dizilo ndi jekeseni wokha. Chifukwa chake chagona pamayendedwe a HTS. Mukusintha kwa motors kotere, palibe njira yoyatsira motere. Kapangidwe ka chipangizocho chimatanthawuza kupanikizika kwa mpweya mu silinda momwe ungatenthe mpaka madigiri mazana angapo. Pisitoniyo ikafika pakatikati kwambiri, mafuta amapopera mafuta mu silinda. Mothandizidwa ndi kutentha kwambiri, mafuta osakaniza ndi dizilo amayatsa, kutulutsa mphamvu yofunikira poyenda kwa pisitoni.

Ndondomeko yamafuta agalimoto

Mbali ina ya injini dizilo ndi chakuti, poyerekeza ndi analogues mafuta, psinjika awo ndi apamwamba kwambiri, choncho, dongosolo mafuta ayenera kupanga kuthamanga kwambiri kwambiri mafuta dizilo njanji. Pachifukwa ichi, amangogwiritsa ntchito pampu yamagetsi yamagetsi, yomwe imagwira ntchito pamaziko a ma plunger. Kulephera kwa chinthuchi kumapangitsa kuti magalimoto asamagwire ntchito.

Kapangidwe kagalimotoyi iphatikizira mapampu awiri amafuta. Imodzi imangopopa mafuta a dizilo kupita nayo yayikulu, ndipo yayikulu imayambitsa kupanikizika kofunikira. Chida chogwira ntchito kwambiri ndi machitidwe a Common Rail mafuta. Iye anafotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane m'nkhani ina.

Nayi kanema wamfupi wamtundu wanji:

Kufufuza Sitima Yapamtunda. Ma jakisoni a dizilo.

Monga mukuwonera, magalimoto amakono ali ndi zida zamafuta abwinoko komanso zosavuta. Komabe, zochitikazi zili ndi zovuta zina. Ngakhale kuti amagwira ntchito mokwanira, pakakhala kuwonongeka, kukonza kwawo kumakhala kotsika mtengo kwambiri kuposa kuthandizira anzawo a carburetor.

Mwayi wa machitidwe amakono amafuta

Ngakhale pamavuto ndi kukonza komanso kukwera mtengo kwa zinthu zosiyanasiyana zamafuta amakono, opanga makina amakakamizidwa kuti akwaniritse zochitikazi m'mitundu yawo pazifukwa zingapo.

  1. Choyamba, magalimoto awa amatha kupereka mafuta abwino poyerekeza ndi ma carburetor ICE amtundu womwewo. Nthawi yomweyo, mphamvu ya injini siyimaperekedwa, koma mumitundu yambiri, m'malo mwake, kuwonjezeka kwamphamvu zamagetsi kumawonedwa poyerekeza ndi zosintha zochepa, koma ndimitundu yomweyo.
  2. Kachiwiri, machitidwe amakono amathandizira kusintha mafuta kuti agwirizane ndi mphamvu yamagetsi.
  3. Chachitatu, pochepetsa mafuta omwe awotchedwa, galimotoyi imatha kukwaniritsa zachilengedwe.
  4. Chachinayi, kugwiritsa ntchito zamagetsi kumapangitsa kuti zitheke kungopereka malamulo kwa oyendetsa, koma kuwongolera zochitika zonse zomwe zikuchitika mkati mwa gawo lamagetsi. Zipangizo zamakina ndizothandizanso, chifukwa makina a carburetor sanagwiritsidwebe ntchito, koma sangathe kusintha mitundu yamafuta.

Chifukwa chake, monga tawonera, magalimoto amakono samangolola kuyendetsa kokha, komanso kugwiritsa ntchito kuthekera kwathunthu kwa dontho lililonse la mafuta, zomwe zimapatsa chisangalalo kwa woyendetsa chifukwa chakugwira ntchito kwamagetsi.

Pomaliza - kanema yayifupi yokhudzana ndi magwiridwe antchito amafuta osiyanasiyana:

Mitundu yanji ya jakisoni mu injini ya mafuta ndi dizilo, momwe imasiyanirana ndi jakisoni uti wabwino

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi mafuta amafuta amagwira ntchito bwanji? Tanki yamafuta (thanki yamafuta), mpope wamafuta, chingwe chamafuta (kutsika kapena kutsika kwambiri), zopopera (manozzles, ndi mitundu yakale ya carburetor).

Kodi mafuta m'galimoto ndi chiyani? Ichi ndi dongosolo lomwe limapereka kusungirako kwa mafuta, kuyeretsa kwake ndi kupopera kuchokera ku tanka ya gasi kupita ku injini yosakanikirana ndi mpweya.

Kodi pali makina otani amafuta? Carburetor, jekeseni wa mono (nozzle imodzi malinga ndi mfundo ya carburetor), jekeseni wogawidwa (injector). Jekeseni wogawidwa amaphatikizanso jekeseni wachindunji.

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