Kudya magalimoto

Zamkatimu

Kugwiritsa ntchito injini iliyonse yoyaka mkati kumadalira kuyaka kwa chisakanizo cha mpweya ndi mafuta muzitsulo zamagetsi. Kuphatikiza pa kuti mpweya ndi zinthu zoyaka (mafuta, dizilo kapena gasi) ziyenera kuperekedwa ku silinda iliyonse, kuwerengera kolondola kwa kuchuluka kwa chinthu chilichonse kumafunikira, ndipo ziyenera kusakanizidwa moyenera. Makina akamawonjezeka, momwemonso makina omwe amafunikira kuti athe kuchita bwino.

Kuchita bwino kwa injini kumadalira kokha pamtundu wamafuta ndi magwiridwe antchito. Ngati mafuta samasakanikirana bwino ndi mpweya, ambiri sadzawotchera, koma adzachotsedwa m'galimoto kudzera paipi yotulutsa utsi (momwe izi zingakhudzire chosinthira chothandizira apa). Kuti muwonjezere kuchita bwino, kusamalira zachilengedwe ndi magwiridwe antchito, magawo osiyanasiyana amagetsi akukonzedwa.

Tiyeni tiwone momwe gawo lazakudya limathandizira pantchitoyi, ndizinthu ziti zomwe zimapangidwa, cholinga chake ndi chiyani, mfundo yake ndi yotani?

Kodi dongosolo lodyera galimoto ndi chiyani?

Ma injini akale, omwe amapezekabe mgalimoto zapakhomo, analibe njira yodyetsera. Galimoto ya carburetor ili ndi zochuluka, zomwe chitoliro chake chimadutsa pa carburetor kupita kumlengalenga. Chipangizocho chimakhala ndi mfundo zotsatirazi.

Kudya magalimoto

Pisitoni wina wamphamvu akamaliza kupwetekedwa, zimatuluka m'malo mwake. Njira yogawa gasi imatsegula valavu yolowera. Kutuluka kwa mpweya kumayamba kuyenda m'njira zingapo. Kudutsa chipinda chosakanikirana cha carburetor, mafuta ena amalowa (voliyumu iyi imayendetsedwa ndi ma jets, omwe amafotokozedwa payokha). Kuyeretsa mpweya kumaperekedwa ndi fyuluta ya mpweya yomwe imayikidwa patsogolo pa carburetor.

Kusakanikirana kumayamwa mu silinda kudzera pa valavu yotseguka. Injini iliyonse yamlengalenga ili ndi gawo loyendetsa ntchito. Mmenemo, chophatikizira cha mpweya-mpweya chimalowera mwachilengedwe kudzera mu zingalowe muzakudya zambiri. Kudya koyamba kumangopereka mpweya kuchipinda cha carburetor.

Njirayi ili ndi zovuta zazikulu - magwiridwe antchito apamwamba a kachitidweko zimadalira kapangidwe ka njira yolumikizidwa ndi mutu wamphamvu. Komanso, pamene MTC imadutsa mwa wokhometsa, mafuta ena amatha kugwa pamakoma ake, zomwe zimasokoneza chuma chamgalimoto.

Pamene jakisoni adawonekera (chomwe ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito, amauzidwa payokha), kudakhala kofunikira kuti apange dongosolo lokwanira lokwanira lomwe lingakhale ndi ntchito yomweyo - kutenga mpweya ndikusakaniza ndi mafuta, koma magwiridwe ake amayang'aniridwa ndi zamagetsi.

Zamagetsi zimawerengera bwino mulingo woyenera wa mpweya ndi mafuta ndikusunganso gawo ili m'njira zosiyanasiyana zogwiritsira ntchito injini yoyaka mkati. Imaperekanso zonenepa bwino pama liwiro ochepa a injini. Kukula kumeneku pakudya kwa unit kumawonjezera magwiridwe ake popanda kuwonjezera mafuta. Mpweya woyenera kwambiri wamafuta amafuta ndi 14.7 / 1. Mtundu wamakina omwe amalowetsedwamo sangakwanitse kusunga magawanowa m'njira zosiyanasiyana.

Ngati m'mbuyomo galimotoyo inali ndi njira yokhayo yopumira momwe mpweya umayendera mwachilengedwe (voliyumu yake imatsimikizika ndi mawonekedwe amtundu wa mpweya ndi zoyendetsa), ndiye kuti galimoto yamakono imalandira dongosolo lonse lokhala ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zamagetsi. Amayang'aniridwa ndi ECU, chifukwa chake BTC ndiyabwino kwambiri.

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Kudya magalimoto

Tiyenera kutchula kuti mafuta, kuphatikiza mafuta (ogwiritsa ntchito osakhala wamba kapena fakitole LPG), ndi injini za dizilo zimalandiranso dongosolo lomweli. Komabe, kutengera mtundu wa jakisoni, itha kukhala ndi chida chosiyana pang'ono. Kubwereza kwina amalankhula za mitundu ya jakisoni machitidwe.

Makina amakono azakudya amagwirira ntchito molumikizana ndi makina ena pamakina. Mwachitsanzo, mndandandawu umaphatikizapo kutulutsa mpweya wamafuta ndi jekeseni wamafuta. Pofuna kudzaza zonenepa ndi gawo latsopano la mafuta osakaniza mpweya, turbocharger nthawi zambiri imayikidwa polowera. Kodi turbocharger mgalimoto ndi osiyana review.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito kayendedwe kabwino

Dongosolo lolowetsa limagwira ntchito potengera kusiyana kwa kuthamanga pakati pa silinda ndi mlengalenga. Zikuwoneka pamene pisitoni imasunthira pansi pakufa pakamenyedwe (pomwe sitiroko imagwiridwa, mavavu olowetsa ndi kutsekeka amatsekedwa), ndipo valavu yomwe mpweya ndi mafuta amalowa mu thankiyo zimatseguka.

Kuchuluka kwa mpweya molunjika kumadalira kukula kwa silinda palokha. Komabe, voliyumu iyi imasinthika kuti injini izitha kuthamanga pang'onopang'ono, ndipo ngati kuli kotheka, crankshaft imatha kupindika kwambiri (pomwe galimoto ikufulumira). Kuti musinthe magwiridwe antchito, valavu yapadera ya mpweya yotchedwa valavu yamagetsi imagwiritsidwa ntchito.

 Mu carburetor, mchitidwewu umalumikizidwa ndi pofikira. Valavu ikamatseguka kwambiri, ndimomwe mafuta amakopeka m'njira zambiri. Motors a jakisoni amalandira kutsamwa kwapadera. Ili ndi galimoto yaying'ono yamagetsi yolumikizidwa ndi gawo lowongolera. Dalaivala akakanikiza cholembera cha accelerator, kompyutayo imagwiritsa ntchito ma algorithms omwe adapangidwa kuti adziwe momwe angatsegulire valavu yampweya.

Kudya magalimoto

Kuti tikhale ndi mpweya wabwino komanso mafuta, pali chopumitsira chapafupi pafupi ndi fulumizitsa, ma siginolo omwe amatumizidwa ku zida zamagetsi zamagetsi (m'machitidwe amakono ambiri, zida zamagetsi ziwiri zimayikidwa: imodzi patsogolo pa damper, ndi inayo kumbuyo kwake). Atalandira izi, zamagetsi zimawonjezera / zimachepetsa kuchuluka kwa mafuta omwe amaperekedwa kudzera mu ma nozzles a injector (kapangidwe kake ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito akufotokozedwera m'nkhani ina).

Kutengera mtundu wa jakisoni, thirakiti limatha kukhala losiyana pang'ono. Mwachitsanzo, pakusintha komwe kumagawidwa, dongosolo la kudya limakhudzidwa pakupanga kosakaniza. Mukupanga kwake, ma jakisoni amaikidwa mu chitoliro chilichonse mosiyanasiyana momwe angathere ndi mavavu olowera. Makina ambiri amakono a jakisoni amalandila dongosolo lotere.

Ngati injiniyo ili ndi jekeseni wachindunji (pankhani ya dizilo, ndiye kusinthidwa kokha), ndiye kuti makina olowetsera amangopereka zonenepa ndi mpweya watsopano. Pachifukwa ichi, kuyaka kwa mafuta kumakhala kosavuta momwe zingathere, popeza kusakaniza kumachitika mwachindunji mu silinda popanda zotayika mu gawo logwiritsira ntchito.

Kuphatikiza apo, chifukwa cha kapangidwe ka jekeseni uwu (ziphuphu zina zimayikidwa pazowonjezera zochulukirapo, kulumikizana kwawo kwa ntchito kumaperekedwa ndi shaft yodziwika ndi magetsi), mafuta amatha kupereka mapangidwe osiyanasiyana osakanikirana. Pali mitundu iwiri ikuluikulu:

  1. Mtundu wosanjikiza. Momwemo, mphuno imapopera mafuta mu silinda, ndikugawa momwe mungathere mchipinda chonse. Kutentha kwa mpweya womwe ukubwera ndikokwera, chifukwa chake mafuta amayamba kutuluka, kusakanikirana bwino ndi mpweya. Njirayi imagwiritsidwa ntchito pang'onopang'ono komanso pamtengo wotsika mkati mwa injini zoyaka zamkati.
  2. Wofanana (homogeneous) mtundu. Kwenikweni ndi osakaniza owonda. Mwachidziwitso, kupanikizika kwa silinda ndi ma valve otsekedwa kumakhudza mwachindunji kutulutsa kwa injini panthawi yoyaka mafuta osakaniza ndi mpweya. Kuchokera apa, titha kunena kuti kuti tiwonjezere makokedwe pamafuta ochepa, m'pofunika kuwonjezera mpweya wolowa mchipinda. Komabe, pankhani ya jakisoni wogawidwa, vuto lotsatirali limawoneka. Ngati kuchuluka kwa BTC kusinthidwa mowonjezera kuchuluka kwa mpweya (kusakaniza kotsika), ndiye kuti kusakaniza koteroko kumayatsa pang'ono. Pachifukwa ichi, mapangidwe osakanikirana awa sagwiritsidwa ntchito pamitundu yogawa jakisoni. Koma ponena za jekeseni wachindunji, izi ndi zenizeni. Kutenthetsa kumadalira chifukwa chakuti mafuta ochepa amapopera pafupi ndi pulagi. Poyerekeza ndi kuchuluka kwa mpweya wothinikizidwa, mulibe mafuta ochepa mu silinda, koma chifukwa choti pamakhala mtambo wochulukitsa pafupi ndi ma plug a spark plug, injini siyitaya mphamvu yake ngakhale itapulumutsa mafuta ambiri.
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Nayi makanema ojambula mwachangu amomwe dera la VBM limagwirira ntchito:

Kodi kuchuluka kwamadyedwe kumakonzedwa bwanji? (Makanema ojambula a 3D) - Gulu la Motorservice

Kutengera mtundu wamafuta ndi kapangidwe ka oyendetsa, pakhoza kukhala mitundu ina yambiri. Zonsezi zimayambitsidwa ndi zamagetsi, zomwe zimalemba liwiro la injini ndi katundu wake. Kupereka mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mapangidwe osakanikirana, wopanga aliyense amagwiritsa ntchito njira zake.

Mwachitsanzo, mu ma injini ena, ma nozzles apadera a mitundu ingapo amaikidwa, ndipo mwa ena, kuphatikiza pa valavu yampweya, ma valve olowera amakhalanso. Kutengera mawonekedwe, amatha kutsegula ndikutseka osadalira valavu yampweya.

Kudya magalimoto

Pamene mpweya / mafuta osakanizika atha, mpweya wotulutsa utsi umachotsedwa. Iyi ndi njira ina yamagalimoto. Kuphatikiza pakuchotsa utsi, imathandizira kutulutsa kwa gasi ndikuchepetsa phokoso la injini (kuti mumve zambiri za kapangidwe ndi cholinga cha makina otulutsa utsi, werengani apa).

Chombocho chimagwiritsanso ntchito zingalowe m'malo ophatikizika. Ali panjira, imakhala ndi valavu yomwe imadula utsi wokonzanso mpweya.

Chiwembu chamakonzedwe amakono chimaphatikizapo masensa ambiri ndi ma actuator, kotero kuti amasintha pakadutsa mphindi mpaka magwiridwe antchito a injini kapena kusintha katundu pagawo lamagetsi. Mitundu ina yamakonoyi imagwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wapadera, womwe cholinga chake ndikuthandizira magwiridwe antchito amkati oyaka posintha kutalika ndi gawo lazakudya.

Kupititsa patsogolo kumeneku kumakupatsani mwayi kuti mutenge makokedwe apamwamba pamphamvu yocheperako yamlengalenga. Kapangidwe ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka osonkhanitsa omwe ali ndi kutalika kosiyanasiyana ndi gawo amafotokozedwa mwatsatanetsatane mu nkhani ina.

Ntchito yomanga

Kapangidwe kazakudya kamakhala ndi zinthu zotsatirazi:

  • Kudya mpweya. Mtundu uliwonse wamagalimoto uli ndi kapangidwe kake. Chofunikira mu gawoli ndi fyuluta yamlengalenga. Imayikidwa mnyumba (nthawi zambiri imakhala ndi thireyi yosindikizidwa mozungulira mbali zonse, koma palinso zosefera zotseguka zomwe zimayikidwa molowera mpweya), zomwe zimakhala ndi chitoliro chotseguka cha nthambi mbali imodzi. Kudzera pabowo ili, mpweya umalowa mu fyuluta, umatsukidwa ndikulowa chitoliro chodyera. Zambiri pazosefera mpweya zafotokozedwa apa.Kudya magalimoto
  • Mpweya. M'mapangidwe ake amakono, ndi valavu yamagetsi yamagetsi yomwe imayikidwa pa chitoliro chothamanga kuchokera kumlengalenga kupita kuzambiri. Kutengera zosowa ndi kuchuluka kwa mota, yoyang'anira yamagetsi imapereka lamulo loyenera kutsegula / kutseka damper. Izi zimayang'anira mawonekedwe amkati amkati.Kudya magalimoto
  • Wolandila (kapena wokhometsa). Kudyetsa kambiri kumayikidwa pakati pamutu ndi mutu wamphamvu. Ichi ndi chitoliro chovuta. Kumbali imodzi, ili ndi imodzi, ndipo mbali inayo, mapaipi angapo ama nthambi (kuchuluka kwawo kumadalira kuchuluka kwa zonenepa). Cholinga cha gawo ili ndikugawana kutuluka kwa mpweya wamkati pakati pa zonenepa. Ngati mafuta ali amtundu wogawidwa, ndiye kuti paboola lililonse limakonzedwa. Pachifukwa ichi, dongosolo la kudya limakhudzidwa kwambiri pakupanga mafuta osakaniza mpweya. Ngati injini ili ndi jekeseni wachindunji (ma jakisoni ali pafupi ndi mapulagi kapena mapulagi owala a injini za dizilo), ndiye kuti kudya kumangoyendetsa mpweya.Kudya magalimoto
  • Kudya ziphuphu. Awa ndi mavavu owonjezera omwe amaikidwa mkati mwa mapaipi ochulukirapo kuti athetse mtundu wamapangidwe osakanikirana. Zinthu izi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mu injini zoyaka zamkati ndi jekeseni wachindunji.Kudya magalimoto
  • Masensa a mpweya. Amalemba mphamvu yakomwe mpweya ukuyendera kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo kwa damper, komanso kutentha kwake. Zizindikiro za masensa awa zimatumizidwa ku gawo loyang'anira.Kudya magalimoto
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ECU ndiyomwe imagwira ntchito yolumikizana kwa onse ogwiritsa ntchito pulogalamu yodyetsa. Kutengera ndi zizindikilo zomwe zimalandiridwa kuchokera ku gasi, masensa otulutsa misa ndi masensa ena omwe galimotoyo ili nawo, zamagetsi zimayambitsa mtundu winawake. Malinga ndi pulogalamu yaubongo, zida zonse nthawi imodzi zimalandira zizindikilo zoyenera.

Ndi chiyani

Chifukwa chake, monga mukuwonera, popanda njira yabwino kwambiri yopangira, yopangidwa ndi masensa ndi ma actuator angapo, ndizosatheka kupanga ndalama, koma nthawi yomweyo galimoto yamphamvu komanso yosamalira zachilengedwe.

Chokhacho chokhacho chomwe chimapangitsa kuti anthu azidya zakudya zamakono ndi mtengo komanso zovuta pakusamalira. Ngati injini ya carburetor ingapezeke ndikukonzedwa ndi kuyesetsa kwa makina odziwa bwino zamagalimoto, ndiye kuti zamagetsi zimangoyang'aniridwa pazida zapadera. Kuti mukonze, muyenera kuyendera malo apadera othandizira.

Kuphatikiza apo, tikupangira kuti tiwonere kanema wonena zamomwe magalimoto akuyendera:

Chiphunzitso cha ICE: Njira Zowonjezera

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi kudya mu injini ndi chiyani? Dzina lina ndi dongosolo la kudya. Ichi ndi mpweya wolowa wolumikizidwa ndi chitoliro chomwe chimatha kukhala mipope ingapo (imodzi pa silinda). Dongosolo limafunikira kuti pakhale mpweya wabwino ndikupanga VTS.

Chimachitika ndi chiyani ngati muwonjezera kuchuluka kwa kudya? Kutalikirana kwa zochulukira mu aspirated kumabweretsa kukana kolowera, zomwe zingayambitse kuyaka koyipa kwa VTS. Izi zipangitsa kuchepa kwa torque ndi mphamvu.

NKHANI ZOFANANA
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Ndemanga za 2

  1. Kodi pali amene amawerenga lembalo asanalitumize pa intaneti? Nkhani yomangidwa mopanda chiyembekezo. Mitu ya mituyi silingafanane, yabwerezedwa, mawu ena amangoponyedwa m'malemba popanda kufotokozera (mwina wolemba samazimvetsetsa iyemwini, koma adakopera / kutanthauzira mawuwo kwinakwake). Koma ndidaphunzira, mwachitsanzo, kuti "ma valve otsekedwa amatsekedwa". Kawiri. Manyazi

  2. Nkhani yabwino, zikomo.

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