Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Zamkatimu

Ngakhale galimoto ndiyokongola komanso yamphamvu bwanji, popanda makinawa sizingatheke kuyenda bwinobwino. Kuwongolera kumathandiza kuti galimoto iziyenda mozungulira ngodya.

Palibe galimoto yopanda chipangizochi. Nthawi zina, ili ndi kapangidwe kakale, mwa ena ndizovuta kwambiri kuti ndi akatswiri okha omwe amatha kukonza.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Ngakhale m'galimoto, chiwongolero chimasinthanso zingapo. Tiyeni tiwone momwe makinawa amagwirira ntchito, mfundo zake zimagwirira ntchito, komanso zofunikira pakuwongolera.

Kuyendetsa galimoto ndi chiyani

Njira yoyendetsera ndi gawo la magawo amodzi, cholinga chake ndikusintha magudumu akutsogolo pagalimoto kuti atembenuzire galimotoyo poyendetsa. Makinawa amakulolani kuti musinthe momwe galimoto imayendera kutengera chidwi cha driver.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Njirayi imayendetsedwa potembenuza chiwongolero. Kuti ntchitoyo ikhale yosavuta kwa dalaivala, chiwongolero champhamvu nthawi zonse chimayikidwa mgalimoto zazikulu. Posachedwa, komabe, magalimoto okwera ambiri amakhalanso ndi zosintha zingapo zokulitsira.

Utsogoleri chipangizo

Njira yoyendetsera bwino imakhala ndi zinthu zotsatirazi:

  • Chiongolero. Ili mu cab (kapena chipinda chamagalimoto). Posintha malo ake, dalaivala amasintha kupatuka kwa magudumu akumanzere ndi kumanja kuchokera panjira yoyambirira. M'magalimoto amakono, pali mabatani ena ogwirira ntchito (mwachitsanzo, kuyang'anira makina azamagetsi kapena kusintha magawo owonekera pazenera).Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto
  • Utsogoleri ndime. Imeneyi ndi imodzi mwamtundu wa kufalikira kwamakalata. Mwa njirayi, migodi ingapo imalumikizidwa ndi zingwe. Chifukwa cha kapangidwe kameneka, opanga amatha kugwiritsa ntchito njirayi kuti asinthe momwe wokamba nkhani angafunire (kuti apereke chitonthozo ngati anthu ambiri akuyendetsa galimotoyo, onse amuna ndi akazi). Gawo loyendetsa limasunthira makokedwe kuchokera pagudumu kupita pagalimoto yoyendetsa. Ma bafa angapo amathandizanso kuti chitetezo chikhale chowopsa kutsogolo. Wokamba magawo ambiri ndiosavuta kupunduka, zomwe zimapangitsa kuwonongeka kocheperako kwa driver. Pa thupi la makinawa, ma swichi oyang'anira amayikika (masinthidwe akulu ndi mitundu yopepuka ndi yotsuka).Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto
  • Zida zoyendetsera. Amakhala ndi ndodo zowongolera mosiyanasiyana, zomwe zimatenga mphamvu kuchokera pazitsulo ndikuzisunthira kwina mawilo. Njirayi imaphatikizaponso malangizo ndi ma levers. Kapangidwe ka gawoli kangasiyenso kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto.Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Kuphatikiza pazoyambira pazowongolera, pangakhalenso kuwongolera kwamphamvu ndi machitidwe oyeserera (damper).

Kapangidwe kazowongolera

Lero pali zosintha zambiri pakuwongolera kwamagalimoto. Palinso zochitika zina zomwe zimatha kusokoneza zomwe woyendetsa amayendetsa, ndikusintha zoyendetsa galimoto. Palinso zochitika ndi kuyendetsa ndege zodziwikiratu, ngakhale ma autopilot athunthu akadali pano, ndipo lamuloli silimalola magalimoto odziyimira pawokha pamisewu yaboma.

Mwa machitidwe amakono othandizira madalaivala, pali mayendedwe kapena kuwunika momwe dalaivala alili (mwachitsanzo, akagona, manja ake amasunthira pang'onopang'ono gudumu, masensa amathandizidwa ndi mphamvu iyi ndipo dongosolo limamangitsanso galimotoyo mbali mwa mseu).

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Kuwongolera koyenera kumaphatikizapo zinthu zotsatirazi:

  • Chiongolero;
  • Utsogoleri ndime;
  • Chiongolero;
  • Mphamvu chiwongolero.

Nazi zina mwa zinthuzi.

Gudumu (chiongolero, chiwongolero)

Mfundo yosavuta imeneyi imalola dalaivala kusankha njira yagalimotoyo. Ma wheel oyendetsa amakono ali ndi zowongolera zomwe zimalola kuti dalaivala azitsegula kapena kusinthana pakati pama kachitidwe osiyanasiyana osasokonezedwa ndi kuyendetsa.

Kukula kwa chiwongolero ndikofunikira. Ngati galimoto ilibe chiwongolero chamagetsi, ndiye kuti chiwongolero chaching'ono chimakhala chovuta kuchigwira. Poterepa, mtundu wokulirapo wokulirapo ukhoza kukhazikitsidwa. Koma mbali inayi, chiwongolero chachikulu chimakhudzanso kuyendetsa bwino. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, kuyendetsa galimoto ndi chiongolero chaching'ono ndikowopsa kwambiri.

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Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Choyamba, kumtunda kwa chiwongolero kumakhudza mawonekedwe, kapena ngati woyendetsa ali wamkulu, adzapuma, zomwe zimakhudzanso chitetezo cha kuyendetsa. Chachiwiri, chiwongolero chomwe ndi chaching'ono kwambiri chidzafunika kuyesetsa kwambiri pagalimoto, makamaka poyendetsa liwiro lalikulu. Komanso, si zachilendo kuti mawilo ang'onoang'ono otsogolera amabisa zizindikiro zomwe zili pa dashboard.

M'magawo ogulitsa magalimoto, mutha kupeza magudumu oyenda mosiyanasiyana (osati ozungulira bwino). Kuluka kumakonzedwa ndi chiongolero kuti chiwonjezere chitonthozo. Mitundu yamagalimoto okwera mtengo imakhala ndi chiwongolero chotentha.

Kanemayo akukambirana za maupangiri oyendetsa njinga zamayendedwe okhudza kuyendetsa koyenera:

Momwe mungayendetsere - njira zama taxi. Wophunzitsa zamagalimoto a Sergey Markitesov.

Utsogoleri ndime

Kusamutsa makokedwe kuchokera pagudumu kupita pagalimoto loyendetsa, galimoto iliyonse ili ndi gawo loyendetsa. Zinthu zolamulira zimalumikizidwa ndi iyo pansi pa chiwongolero - chosinthira chakusinthana ndi zopukutira ndi ntchito zina zowonjezera. M'magalimoto amasewera, ma paddle shifters nthawi zina amapezeka omwe amalola kuti dalaivala asinthe zida, kapena kutsanzira kusinthaku pobweretsa kufalitsa m'njira yoyenera.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

M'masinthidwe am'mbuyomu, shaft yolunjika idagwiritsidwa ntchito pazoyendetsa. M'masinthidwe amakono, imagawidwa m'magulu angapo, omwe amalumikizidwa ndi kufalikira kwamakalata. Izi ndichifukwa chachitetezo - pakagwa ngozi pamutu, chiwongolero chimawongolera m'malo momira m'chifuwa cha woyendetsa.

Chifukwa cha kapangidwe kameneka, magalimoto ambiri aposachedwa ali ndi gawo losinthika. Izi zimathandizira kuti chiwongolero chikhale chogwirizana ndi chidziwitso cha madalaivala osiyanasiyana. Mu galimoto yoyambira, chinthuchi chimakhala ndi kusintha kosasintha, komwe nthawi zambiri kumakumbukira oyendetsa angapo.

Kuti muchepetse kugwedezeka komwe kumachokera pagudumu pomwe mukuyendetsa, gawo loyikapo zidaikidwa damper.

Zida zowongolera ndi chiwongolero

Gawo loyendetsa limalumikizidwa ndi chiongolero mbali imodzi ndi chiongolero china. Chipangizochi chimayimiriridwa ndi ndodo ndi zolumikizira zomwe zimasunthira mphamvu kumayendedwe. Dalaivala amagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu mozungulira kuti atembenukire makina, omwe amasandulika mphamvu yaying'ono pakuwongolera.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Pachifukwa ichi, awiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kwenikweni ndi chikombole kapena chowongoletsa nyongolotsi. Koma palinso zosintha zina zomwe zili ndi kapangidwe kake komanso mfundo yosamutsira mphamvu kuchokera pagudumu mpaka mawilo. Werengani za chipangizocho ndi momwe ntchitoyo imagwirira ntchito apa.

Zowongolera zili ndi ntchito ziwiri zofunika:

  1. Amapereka kasinthasintha wa mawilo kutsogolo;
  2. Amabwezeretsa magudumu pamalo pomwe anali atangotulutsa kumene gawo loyendetsa kuchokera mbali yoyendetsa.

Zida zonse zowongolera zimayikidwa mnyumba (chiwongolero). Chipangizocho chimayikidwa kutsogolo kwa galimoto (nthawi zambiri pamutu woyambira, ndipo pakalibe chimango, ndiye pagalimoto, pamagetsi kapena pa injini). Tiyenera kudziwa kuti m'mene makinawa amayikidwira, makina owongolera makina azigwira bwino ntchito.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Mukupanga kwachikale, zida zowongolera zimayendetsa matayala akutsogolo kwa galimotoyo. Komabe, m'zaka zaposachedwa, makina okhala ndi mawilo oyendetsa kumbuyo akuyambanso kutchuka, monga m'badwo waposachedwa wa Volkswagen Touareg. M'machitidwe amenewa amathamanga mpaka 40 km / h. mawilo kumbuyo ndi kutsogolo amazungulira mbali zosiyana. Galimoto ikayenda kwambiri kuposa 40 km / h, mawilo akumbuyo ndi kutsogolo amatembenukira mbali yomweyo. Kusinthaku kumachepetsa kwambiri utali wozungulira wotembenuka, komanso kumawongolera momwe magalimoto amayendetsera pakona.

Mphamvu chiwongolero

Popeza njira yoyendetsera mawilo (makamaka pagalimoto yokhazikika) imafunikira kuyesetsa kwa dalaivala, opanga apanga ma amplifiers osiyanasiyana. Poyamba, kusintha kwa ma hydraulic kunkagwiritsidwa ntchito poyendetsa katundu. Pang'ono ndi pang'ono, kachitidwe koteroko kanapeza ntchito yake mgalimoto zonyamula.

Kufunika kwama amplifier sikuwoneka kuti kungolimbikitsa. Chowonadi ndichakuti mukamayendetsa pa liwiro lalikulu, zimakhala zovuta kugwira chiwongolero cha galimoto mow kupinda, makamaka pagalimoto yamasewera. Kuwongolera mphamvu kumathandizira izi. Njirayi idalandiranso mayankho abwino kuchokera kwa amuna ndi akazi anzawo.

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Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Amplifiers amagwira ntchito mosiyanasiyana. Chofala kwambiri ndi chiwongolero champhamvu. Ma amplifiers amagetsi atchuka kwambiri. Koma palinso machitidwe ophatikizika omwe amagwiritsa ntchito zosintha zonse (EGUR). Kuphatikiza apo, za mitundu yoyendetsa ma racks adauzidwa mu ndemanga yapadera.

Cholinga chowongolera

Kuwongolera nthawi zambiri kumayendetsa matayala akutsogolo, komabe, palinso zoyendetsa ziwiri (makamaka magalimoto akuluakulu okhala ndi ma axel anayi, awiri mwa iwo omwe amatembenukira), komanso zosintha kumbuyo kwa gudumu.

Palibe galimoto yomwe singachite popanda chiwongolero, chifukwa palibe msewu wowongoka padziko lapansi. Ngakhale munthu atangolingalira njira yotereyi, zopinga zikadali zowonekera pamsewu zomwe zimayenera kupewedwa. Popanda kuwongolera, sizingatheke kuyimitsa galimoto yanu bwinobwino.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Ngati wopanga sanakhazikitse makinawa mgalimoto, kuwongolera kwawo sikukanakhala kosiyana ndi kuyendetsa sitimayo. Ngakhale kuyesera kupanga makina omwe amatha kuwongoleredwa ndi mphamvu yamaganizidwe samaima (chithunzi pamwambapa ndi chimodzi mwazomwe zikuchitika ndi GM).

Mfundo zoyendetsa

Mfundo zowongolera ndizosavuta. Woyendetsa amatembenuza chiwongolero, mphamvuzo zimasamutsidwa kupita pagawo loyendetsa. Kenako amapita ku chiwongolero. Mumapangidwe apamwamba, chikwangwani chimayendetsa ndodo zoyendetsera, zomwe zimalumikizidwa ndi matayala pogwiritsa ntchito malekezero a mpira.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Kulondola kwa gudumu lotembenukira molunjika kutengera kukula kwa chiwongolero. Komanso, kuyesayesa komwe kuyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutembenuza mawilo kumatengera gawo ili. Mitundu yambiri ili ndi zida zamagetsi zamagetsi kapena zamagetsi, zomwe zimapangitsa kugwiritsa ntchito tayala laling'ono m'galimoto.

Mitundu yoyendetsa

Machitidwe onse owongolera agawika mitundu itatu:

  • Pachithandara ndi pinion limagwirira. Nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito pagalimoto yama bajeti. Kapangidwe kazinthu zotere ndizosavuta. Ili ndi bala ndi mano. Amayendetsedwa ndi zida zoyendetsera gawo. Chiwembuchi ndichabwino kwambiri. Chokhacho chokhacho chomwe chimapangitsa kuti makinawo akhale osasunthika ndikumverera kwake kwadzidzidzi kuchokera pamisewu yoyipa.
  • Zida za nyongolotsi. Kusinthaku kumapereka chiwongolero chokulirapo. Sizimvetsetsa kunyamula katundu, koma ndiyokwera mtengo kuposa yapita, chifukwa ndizovuta kupanga.
  • Kagwere limagwirira. Ndikusintha kwa analogue ya nyongolotsi, koma yawonjezera kuchita bwino ndikuwonjezera kuyesayesa kofunikira kuyendetsa galimoto.
Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Mosasamala mtundu wamagalimoto, ntchito za njirazi zitha kupitilizidwa ndi zida izi:

  • Chilimbikitso hayidiroliki. Ili ndi kapangidwe kosavuta pamndandandawu. Njirayi ndi yaying'ono komanso yotsika mtengo kuyisamalira. Ngakhale mitundu ina yamagalimoto bajeti yamibadwo yatsopano ili ndi kusinthidwa kotere. Kuti dongosololi ligwire bwino ntchito, pamafunika kuwunika pafupipafupi kuchuluka kwa madzi amadzimadzi. The mkuzamawu mpope lotengeka ndi ntchito mkati injini kuyaka.
  • Zokuzira Zamagetsi. Ichi ndi chimodzi mwazosinthidwa posachedwa. Sichikusowa kukonza kovuta komanso kukonza bwino. Amapereka kuyendetsa kokwanira kwambiri. Monga momwe dzinalo likusonyezera, makinawo amayendetsedwa ndi mota wamagetsi.
  • Zamagetsi zamagetsi zokuzira. Kusinthaku kumagwira ntchito poyendetsa mphamvu. Kusiyana kokha ndikuti mpope wama hayidiroliki imayendetsedwa ndi magetsi, ndipo siyogwirizana ndi mota, monga momwe zinalili poyamba. Zochitika ziwiri zomaliza zimaloleza kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta ochepa poyerekeza ndi mtundu woyamba, popeza magwiridwe antchito samagwirizana ndi kuyendetsa injini.
Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Kuphatikiza pa ma amplifiers osiyanasiyana, galimoto itha kukhala ndi Active Dynamic Control kapena Adaptive Control. Kusiyana kwawo kuli motere:

  1. Amasintha chiŵerengero cha zida kutengera liwiro la gudumu. Izi zimatsimikizira kukhazikika kwamagalimoto m'misewu yoterera. Makinawa samakulolani kutembenuza chiwongolero mwadzidzidzi, kupewa wopondereza kapena wopondereza.
  2. Njira yamphamvu imagwiranso ntchito chimodzimodzi, kupatula kuti yamagetsi imagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo moyendetsa mapulaneti.
  3. Ikuwerengedwa kuti ndiukadaulo wopanga chifukwa kulibe kulumikizana kwakuthupi pakati pa chiwongolero ndi ziwongolero zamagalimotozi. Njirayi imayang'aniridwa ndi chida chowongolera zamagetsi chomwe chimasanthula zambiri: kuchokera pama sensa othamanga, chiwongolero, ndi zina zambiri.
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Posachedwa, pamitundu ina yamagalimoto oyambira ndi magalimoto amasewera, ukadaulo wapadera udayikidwa ndikusinthasintha osati kutsogolo kokha komanso magudumu akumbuyo. Izi zimapangitsa kukhazikika kwa galimoto mukamagona pothamanga kwambiri. Mawilo am'mbuyo amatembenuka kutengera kuthamanga kwagalimoto.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Ngati galimoto ikuyenda kutalika kwa 40 km / h, chitsulo chakumbuyo chimatembenukira mbali ina kuchokera ku mawilo akutsogolo (ngati kutsogolo kumanja, ndiye kumbuyo kumayang'ana kumanzere).

Liwiro la galimoto likakwera kuposa 40 km / h, ndiye mukalowa kukhota, mawilo akumbuyo adzatembenukira mbali yomweyo ndi yakutsogolo. Izi zimachepetsa chiopsezo cha kupanga mapangidwe.

Zofunikira pakuwongolera Magalimoto

Kuwongolera kwa galimoto iliyonse kuyenera kukwaniritsa izi:

  • Onetsetsani kuti magalimoto akuyenda mothamanga pa liwiro lililonse. Dalaivala ayenera kukhazikitsa njira yomwe akufuna;
  • Iyenera kukhala yosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito kotero kuti ngakhale dalaivala wotopa amatha kufikira komwe angapumule;
  • Mukamayendetsa matayala, chiwongolero chikuyenera kuperekanso koyendetsa bwino kwambiri. Pamakotama, mawilo sayenera kuterera kuti galimoto isataye bata. Pachifukwa ichi, mawonekedwe ndi magudumu oyendetsa amayenera kutsimikiziridwa molondola;
  • Bweretsani matayala kubwerera kulowera kolunjika (m'thupi) woyendetsa atasiya kuyesera kutembenuka;
  • Yonyowa pokonza pamene galimoto pa m'mbali msewu;
  • Khalani ndi mayankho apamwamba pamalamulo aliwonse oyendetsa;
  • Ngakhale zokuzira mawu zilephera, makinawo amayenerabe kulola dalaivala kuyendetsa galimoto.
Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Gawo lina lomwe limagwera mgulu lazofunikira pakuwongolera ndikuwongolera. Kuti mumve zambiri pazovomerezeka zovomerezeka, onani nkhani yapadera.

Makhalidwe oyendetsa dzanja lamanja ndi lamanzere

Si chinsinsi kwa aliyense kuti malamulo amayiko ena amapereka mayendedwe akumanzere panjira. Poterepa, chiongolero chidzaikidwa kumanja kwagalimoto, ndipo woyendetsa, mwachilengedwe, azikhala pomwe ndichikhalidwe m'dera lathu kuwona wokwera wakutsogolo.

Kusiyana kwa chiwongolero chotere sikugona kokha m'malo opezerera chiwongolero mu kanyumba. Wopanga amasinthanso makina owongolera molumikizana ndi kulumikizana ndi bokosi lamagetsi. Ngakhale zili choncho, galimoto yoti igwiritsidwe ntchito m'misewu yodzaza kumanzere imatha kusinthidwa kuti igwirizane ndi kuchuluka kwa magalimoto kumanja. Kuti muchite izi, musanagule galimoto yoyambirira, muyenera kudziwa ngati maupangiri ofanana amagulitsidwa kuti atembenuke.

Chipangizo ndi mitundu yoyendetsa magalimoto

Mitundu ina yamakina ogwiritsa ntchitoulimi imagwiritsa ntchito ma hydraulic system omwe amalola kuti chiwongolero chikayikidwe kulikonse m'kabati. Poterepa, kulumikizana pakati pa chiwongolero ndi chiwongolero chimaperekedwa ndi ma hydraulic, omwe amayang'aniridwa ndi pampu wama metering.

Mwa kusinthidwa koteroko, palibe kubwezera (ngakhale fakitore), popeza ilibe bokosi lamagiya lotengera zida, nyongolotsi kapena kagwere. Zachidziwikire, makina oterewa sapezeka kwambiri m'galimoto zopepuka. Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake kwakukulu ndi zida zazikulu zapadera.

Malfunctions chachikulu cha chiwongolero

Zolakwitsa zowongolera ndi izi:

  • Masewera oyendetsa (pomwe zimachitika, werengani apa);
  • Kugogoda mukamayendetsa (chifukwa chakumasula chiwongolero chokwera mabatani);
  • Kuwonongeka kwa ziwongolero za ndodo;
  • Kuvala mano pagulu lofalitsa (pamagiya, pachithandara, nyongolotsi kapena wodzigudubuza);
  • Kuphwanya malamulo osinthira makina;
  • Zolakwitsa zamagetsi zamagetsi kapena zamagetsi (pazolakwika ndi njira zina zomwe mungakonze, werengani m'nkhani yapadera).

Pofuna kuthana ndi zovuta, pamafunika kumangirira zolimba zonse, m'malo am'magazi ndikusintha makina opatsira. Nthawi zambiri, chiwongolero sichimalephera mwadzidzidzi. Chifukwa cha kukonza kwakanthawi, zinthu zazikuluzikulu zimatha nthawi yayitali (nthawi zambiri kuposa nthawi yomwe wopanga amapanga).

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Ndi mitundu yanji ya chiwongolero? Mitundu itatu yamakina ndiyofala: rack, nyongolotsi ndi screw. M'magalimoto a bajeti, mtundu woyamba wa chiwongolero umagwiritsidwa ntchito. Aliyense wa iwo akhoza kukhala ndi amplifier.

Kodi cholinga cha chiwongolero ndi chiyani? Amapereka kayendetsedwe ka galimoto kumalo oyendetsa galimoto. Makinawa amasuntha mawilo owongolera mu ndege yopingasa. Ndikoletsedwa kuyendetsa galimoto ndi chiwongolero cholakwika.

Kodi mbali zazikulu za chiwongolero ndi ziti? Zimapangidwa ndi: ulalo wopingasa, mkono wakumunsi, pini ya pivot, mkono wakumtunda, ulalo wautali, chowongolera, chowongolera, chiwongolero ndi chiwongolero.

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