Zithunzi za galimoto ndi zotani komanso makulidwe ake pamitundu yosiyanasiyana

Zamkatimu

Thupi lagalimoto ndilofunika kwambiri komanso lotsika mtengo pagalimoto. Ziwalo zake zimapangidwa ndi chitsulo chosindikizidwa, kenako chimamangirizidwa kukhala chimodzi chonse. Pofuna kuteteza chitsulo ku dzimbiri, zojambulajambula zamagalimoto zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pafakitale, zomwe zikutanthauza kupenta. Sikuti imangoteteza, komanso imapereka mawonekedwe okongola komanso okongoletsa. Moyo wauthupi wa thupi ndi galimoto yonse makamaka idzadalira mtundu wa zokutira, makulidwe ake ndi chisamaliro chotsatira.

Ukadaulo wopaka magalimoto pafakitole

Pazomera, kujambula kumachitika magawo angapo kutsatira miyezo yonse. Wopanga payekhapayekha amakhazikitsa makulidwe a utoto, koma mogwirizana ndi zofunikira ndi miyezo.

  1. Choyamba, chitsulo chimakulungidwa mbali zonse. Izi zimateteza kuti dzimbiri lisawonongeke ngati zingawonongeke ndi utoto. Mothandizidwa ndi magetsi osasunthika, ma molekyulu a zinc amaphimba chitsulo, ndikupanga gawo limodzi lokhala ndi makulidwe a ma microns a 5-10.
  2. Kenako thupi limatsukidwa bwino ndikuchepetsa. Kuti muchite izi, thupi limasambitsidwa ndikusamba ndi choyeretsera, kenako ndikupopera njira yothetsera. Pambuyo kutsuka ndi kuyanika, thupi limakhala lokonzekera gawo lotsatira.
  3. Kenako, thupi phosphated kapena primed. Mitundu yambiri yamchere ya phosphorous imapanga chingwe cha crystalline chitsulo cha phosphate. Chojambula chapadera chimagwiritsidwanso ntchito pansi ndi mawilo amiyala, omwe amapanga zotchinga motsutsana ndi miyala.
  4. Pamapeto pake, utoto wokha umagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mzere woyamba ndi utoto, ndipo wachiwiri ndi varnish, yomwe imapatsa gloss ndi mphamvu. Pachifukwa ichi, njira yamagetsi imagwiritsidwa ntchito, yomwe imathandizira kuyika ngakhale zokutira.

Ndikothekanso kubwereza ukadaulo wotere kunja kwa fakitare, chifukwa chake kujambula kwaukatswiri (ngakhale kwapamwamba kwambiri) kapena kupukuta kokhwima kumasintha makulidwe azithunzi, ngakhale kunja kwake izi sizingawoneke. Izi ndizowona makamaka kwa iwo omwe akuyang'ana kugula galimoto yakale.

Magawo ojambula thupi pamsonkhano

Kujambula thupi kwathunthu pamsonkhanowu kumawononga nthawi komanso kumawononga ndalama zambiri. Ndikofunikira pamene utoto wawonongeka kwambiri kapena mtundu ukasintha. Nthawi zambiri, kujambula kwanuko kwa zinthu zilizonse zowonongeka kumachitika.

  1. Pa gawo loyamba, mawonekedwe amakonzedwa. Ziwalo zonse zosafunikira zimachotsedwa mthupi (ma handles, linings, mapanelo okongoletsera, ndi zina zambiri). Madera owonongeka amachotsedwa, pamwamba pake amatsukidwa ndikuchotsedwa.
  2. Gawo lotsatira limatchedwa kukonzekera. Kuda kwa dzimbiri kumachotsedwa padziko lapansi, kumachitika ndi nthaka ya phosphate kapena dothi lopanda kanthu. Pamwambapa pamakhala mchenga, choyikapo ndi putty chimayikidwa m'malo owonongeka. Ndi gawo lokonzekera lomwe limatenga nthawi yayitali komanso khama.
  3. Pamapeto pake, utoto ndi varnish zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito mfuti yopopera. Mbuyeyo amapaka utotowo mbali zingapo, kuti uume. Kenako pamwamba pake pamapangidwa varnished ndikupukutidwa. Varnish amateteza utoto ku chinyezi, ma radiation a ultraviolet ndi zokopa zazing'ono.

Zowonongeka ndi kuwonongeka komwe kungachitike

Pambuyo penti, zolakwika zingapo zimatsalira kumtunda. Amagawidwa m'magulu awa:

  • shagreen - zojambula zomwe zimafanana ndi khungu lovala mwapadera;
  • madontho - kutulutsa thickenings opangidwa chifukwa chodontha utoto;
  • makwinya - makola pafupipafupi;
  • zoopsa - zokanda kuchokera ku abrasive;
  • inclusions - tinthu tachilendo mu utoto;
  • mithunzi yosiyana - utoto wosiyanasiyana;
  • pores ndi punctate depressions.

Ndizosatheka kuti zojambula zagalimoto zizikhala bwino kwa nthawi yayitali. Zinthu zingapo zimatha kusokoneza kukhulupirika kwake. Ndizovuta kupeza galimoto yopitilira zaka ziwiri popanda kuwononga zojambula.

Zinthu zotsatirazi zingakhudze utoto wosanjikiza:

  • kukhudzidwa kwachilengedwe (mvula, matalala, dzuwa, kutentha kwadzidzidzi, mbalame, ndi zina zambiri);
  • mankhwala (reagents panjira, zakumwa zowononga);
  • kuwonongeka kwamakina (kukanda, kumenyedwa kwamiyala, tchipisi, zotsatira za ngozi).

Woyendetsa ayenera kutsatira malamulo posamalira utoto. Ngakhale kupukuta ndi nsalu youma komanso yolimba kumasiya zokanda pang'ono pathupi. Kuyeretsa mwaukali komanso pafupipafupi sikudziwikanso.

Momwe mungayesere khalidwe

Kuti muyese mtundu wa utoto, lingaliro loti kumatira limagwiritsidwa ntchito. Njira yodziwira kumangiriza imagwiritsidwa ntchito osati matupi okha, komanso malo ena aliwonse omwe amagwiritsa ntchito utoto.

Kutsatira kumamveka ngati kukana kwa zojambulazo kuti zisungunuke, kupindika ndi kugawanika.

Njira yodziwira kumamatira ndi iyi. Mothandizidwa ndi lumo, mabala 6 ozungulira komanso osakhazikika amagwiritsidwa ntchito pamwamba, omwe amapanga mauna. Kusiyanitsa pakati pa notches kumadalira makulidwe:

  • mpaka ma microns 60 - nthawi 1 mm;
  • 61 microns 120 - imeneyi 2 mm;
  • kuchokera 121 mpaka 250 - imeneyi 3 mm.

Zojambulazo zimadulidwa kuzitsulo. Pambuyo popaka mauna, tepi yomata imamangilizidwa pamwamba. Kenako, ataimirira kwa masekondi 30, tepi yomatira imatuluka popanda kugwedezeka. Zotsatira zoyeserera zimafanizidwa malinga ndi tebulo. Izi zimatengera kukula kwamabwalo. Adhesion idavoteledwa pamfundo zisanu. Pazitsulo zomata, zokutira ziyenera kukhalabe zofananira, popanda kupindika kapena kulimbikira. Izi zikutanthauza kuti zojambulazo ndizabwino kwambiri.

Palinso chida chapadera chochitira mayeso - mita yolumikizira. Mutha kukhazikitsa nthawi ndikulemba gridi mosavuta.

Kuphatikiza pa magawo awa, kusiyana kumapangidwanso pakati pa:

  • gloss wa utoto;
  • mulingo wa kuuma ndi kulimba;
  • makulidwe.

Makulidwe a zokutira utoto

Kuti muyese makulidwe azithunzi, chida chogwiritsira ntchito makulidwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mafunso amabuka: chifukwa chiyani muyenera kudziwa makulidwe azithunzizo komanso kuti zikhale zotani pagalimoto yochokera kufakitoli?

Mukamagula galimoto yomwe idagwiritsidwa ntchito, kuyeza makulidwe azipentekedwa kumatha kudziwa malo opakidwa utoto, potero kuzindikira mano akale ndi zolakwika zomwe wogulitsayo sangazidziwe.

Kukula kwa utoto kumayesedwa ndi ma microns. Makulidwe a fakitole pafupifupi magalimoto amakono ali mumayendedwe a 80-170 microns. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ili ndi magawo osiyanasiyana, omwe tiwapatse patebulopo.

Zomwe muyenera kuganizira mukamayeza

Mukamayesa kukula kwa utoto, ndikofunikira kukumbukira mfundo zina:

  1. Miyeso iyenera kutengedwa pamalo oyera popanda dothi.
  2. Ziwerengero patebulo nthawi zina zimatha kusiyanasiyana pang'ono ndi zenizeni. Mwachitsanzo, ndi muyezo wa 100-120 µm, mtengo umawonetsa 130 inm mdera lina. Izi sizitanthauza kuti gawolo lakonzanso. Vutoli ndilovomerezeka.
  3. Ngati mtengowo upitilira ma microns a 190, ndiye kuti gawo ili lidayendetsedwa molondola. 1% yamagalimoto oyambira okha ndi omwe ali ndi utoto wokulirapo kuposa ma microns 200. Ngati mtengowu ndi ma microns 300, ndiye kuti izi zikuwonetsa kupezeka kwa putty.
  4. Muyeso uyenera kuyambika kuchokera padenga, popeza malowa alibe chiopsezo ndipo utoto upangidwira kumeneko. Tengani zotsatira zake monga zoyambirira ndikuyerekeza ndi ena.
  5. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti ngakhale pagalimoto yatsopano, makulidwe akumaderawa akhoza kukhala osiyana. Izi si zachilendo. Mwachitsanzo, hood ndi ma microns 140, ndipo chitseko ndi 100-120 microns.
  6. Makulidwe azinthu zamkati nthawi zambiri samapitilira ma microns 40-80, chifukwa mawonekedwe awa safuna chitetezo chowonjezera pamiyala kapena zinthu zaukali.
  7. Makamaka onani ziwalo za thupi zomwe zimakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi zotumphukira (bampala, opendekera, zitseko, ndi zina zambiri).
  8. Kupukuta kumasintha makulidwe pang'ono, koma vinyl ndi makanema ena oteteza amatha kukulitsa makulidwe a ma microns 100-200.
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Matebulo azithunzi zopaka pamagalimoto osiyanasiyana

Chotsatira, timapereka matebulo amitundu yamagalimoto, zaka zopanga ndi makulidwe a utoto.

Acura, Alfa Romeo, Audi, BMW
PanganilachitsanzoZaka zopanga / thupiUtoto wa utoto, ma microns
ACURATLXIV 2008105-135
MdxIII 2013125-140
RDXIII 2013125-140
Alfa RomeoGuliettandi 2010170-225
Bodza2008120-140
AUDIA12010 - Nov (I)125-170
Ine2012 - nv (8V)120-140
Ine2003-2013 (8P)80-100
S32012 - nv120-150
S3 Kutembenuka2012 - nv110-135
A42015 - nv (B9)125-145
A42007-2015 (B8)120-140
A42004-2007 (B7)100-140
A42001-2005 (B6)120-140
S42012 - nv125-145
RS42012 - nv120-140
A52007 - nv100-120
S52011 - nv130-145
Kutembenuka kwa RS52014 - nv110-130
A62011 - nv (Q)120-140
A62004-2010 (C6)120-140
RS62012 - nv110-145
A72010 - nv100-135
RS72014 - nv100-140
A82010 - nv (04)100-120
A82003-2010 (D3)100-120
Zamgululi2013 - nv105-130
S82013 - nv110-130
Q32011 - nv115-140
RS Q32013 - nv110-140
Q52008 - nv125-155
SQ52014 - nv125-150
Q72015 - nv120-160
Q72006-2015100-140
TT2014 - nv100-115
TT2006-2014105-130
Njira ya A42009 - nv.120-150
Bmw1 khalani2011 - nv (F20)120-140
1 khalani2004-2011 (E81)100-140
2 khalani2014 - nv105-140
3 khalani2012 - nv (F30)120-130
3 khalani2005-2012 (F92)110-140
3 khalani1998-2005 (E46)120-140
4 khalani2014 - nv115-135
4 khalani cabrio2014 - nv125-145
5 khalani2010 - nv (F10)90-140
5 khalani2003-2010 (E60)130-165
5 khalani1995-2004 (E39)140-160
6 khalani2011 - nv (F06)120-145
6 khalani2003-2011 (E63)120-145
7 khalani2008-2015 (F01)100-130
7 khalani2001-2008 (E65)120-160
6T2014 - nv160-185
Ml2011 - nv (F20-F21)110-135
M22015 - nv105-140
M32011 - nv105-135
M42014 - nv100-130
MS2010 - nv90-140
M62011 - nv100-130
X-12009-2015 (E84)115-130
X-32010 - nv (F25)120-130
X-32003-2010 (E83)90-100
X-3M2015 - nv100-120
X-42014 - nv120-130
X-52013 - nv (F15)100-125
X-52006-2013 (E70)140-160
X-51999-2006 (E53)110-130
X-62014 - nv (F16)120-165
X-62008-2014 (E71)110-160
X-5M2013 - nv (F85)115-120
X-5M2006-2013 (E70)140-160
X-6M2014 - nv (F86)120-165
X-6M2008-2014 (E71)110-160
Z-42009 - chatsopano (E89)90-130
Kukongola, BYD, Cadillac, Changan, Chery, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Citroen
PanganilachitsanzoZaka zopanga / thupiUtoto wa utoto, ma microns
KUSANGALALAH2302014 - nv185-220
H230 Zowonongeka2015 - nv165-195
H5302011 - nv80-125
V52014 - nv170-190
BYDF32006-201490-100
CADILLACATS2012 - nv115-160
BL52005-2010110-150
as2014 - nv105-160
as2007-2014115-155
as2003-2007120-150
kukwera2015 - nv140-150
kukwera2006-2015135-150
kukwera2002-2006120-170
SRX2010 - nv125-160
SRX2004-2010110-150
KusinthaEado2013 - nv130-160
CS 352013 - nv160-190
Reaton2013 - nv120-140
CHISONIbonasi2011 - Nov (A13)100-125
kwambiri2011 - Nov (A13)100-125
Zamgululi2011 - nv (S180)120-140
Zikwi za Sedan2010 - Nov (A3)90-120
kutsinde2010 - Nov (A3)90-120
Bonasi 32014 - Nov (A19)110-130
Arizzo2014 - nv105-140
Amulet2003-2013 (A15)110-120
Tigo2006-2014 (T11)120-140
Inu 52014 - nv110-130
CHEVROLETCamaro2013 - nv190-220
Njanji blazer2013 - nv115-140
Zosangalatsa2008 - nv155-205
Silverado2013 - nv120-140
Tahoe2014 - nv120-145
Tahoe2006-2014160-180
Tracker2015 - nv115-150
Zilowerereni2010-2015115-130
Epic2006-201290-100
Lacetti2004-2013110-140
lanos2005-2009105-135
Aveo2012 - nv150-170
Aveo2006-201280-100
Nkhanza2009-2015135-165
Cobalt2013 - nv115-200
Kaptiva2005-2015115-140
Ndiva2002 - nv100-140
Orlando2011-2015115-140
Rezzo2004-201080-130
CHRYSLER300C2010 - nv120-150
300C2004-2010160-170
Grand Voyager2007 - nv155-215
PT - cruiser2000-2010120-160
MNTHUC4 chithunzi2014 - nv120-140
C4 chithunzi2007-2014110-130
Kudumpha2007 - nv110-135
Jumper2007 - nv105-120
Berlingo2008-2015120-150
Berlingo2002-2012110-140
C3 chithunzi2009 - nv85 -100
Xsara picasso2000-201075-120
C4 ndege2012 - nv105-125
C-elysee2013 - nv105-145
C - Crosser2007-201355-90
C4 gawo2011 - nv105-125
DS32010-201590-150
DS42012-2015115-145
C12005-2015110-130
C22003-2008120-140
C32010 - nv90-120
C32002-200990-120
C42011 - nv125-150
C42004-201175-125
C52007 - nv110-130
C52001-2008110-140
Daewoo, Datsun, Dodge, Fiat, Ford, Geely, Khoma Lalikulu, DFM, FAW, Haval
PanganilachitsanzoZaka zopanga / thupiUtoto wa utoto, ma microns
DAEWOONexia2008-2015105-130
Hue2000-2015100-110
Wachinyamata2013 - nv115-140
lanos1997-2009105-135
DATSUNpa Chitani2014 - nv105-125
mi Chitani2015 - nv105-125
KUDZIWAZowopsa2006-2012120-160
Amalonda2007 - nv150-180
FIATOyera2004-2012115-130
Mfundo2005-2015110-120
Doblo2005-2014105-135
Duchy2007 - nv85-100
5002007 - nv210-260
Fremont2013 - nv125-145
Chishango2007 - nv90-120
FordeFocus 32011 - nv120-140
Focus 22005-2011110-130
Focus 11999-2005110-135
Yang'anirani ST2012 - nv105-120
Fiesta2015 - нв (mk6 RUS)120-150
Fiesta2008-2013 (mk6)110-140
Fiesta2001-2008 (mk5)85-100
Fusion2002-201275-120
Eco - Masewera2014 - nv105-125
kuthawa2001-2012105-145
Explorer2011 - nv55-90
Woyesa Masewera2011 - nv105-125
Mondeo2015 - nv90-150
Mondeo2007-2015115-145
Mondeo2000-2007110-130
Maverick2000-2010120-140
C-Max2010 – n.v90-120
C-Max2003-201090-120
S-Max2006-2015125-150
Way2006-201575-125
Mliri2013 - nv110-130
Mliri2008-2013110-140
Mphepete2013-2015105-130
stow2012-2015100-110
stow2006-2012115-140
Kupita kwachikhalidwe105-135
kudutsa2014 - nv105-125
kudutsa2000-2014105-125
Lumikizani chiphaso2002-2013120-160
Ulendo2000-2012150-180
Mwambo wa Tourneo2013 - nv115-130
Kulumikizana kwa Tourneo2002-2013110-120
NDIPONSOgawo x72013 - nv105-135
Emgrand ec72009 - nv85-100
MK2008-2014210-260
GC5 RV2014125-145
Otaka2005 - nv90-120
Gc62014 - nv120-140
Khoma LabwinoWingle 5 watsopano2007 - nv80-115
M42013 - nv110-140
H5 yatsopano2011 - nv90-105
H6 PA2013 - nv135-150
fungatirani2005-2010130-150
Zamgululiolemera2014 - nv60-125
V252014 - nv80-105
Kupambana2014 - nv80-105
H30 mtanda2014 - nv115-130
S302014 - nv105-125
AX72014 - nv105-125
FAWV52013 - nv95-105
Mtengo wa B502012 - nv100-120
Bestum X802014 - nv115-140
Mtengo wa B702014 - nv125-150
HAVALH82014 - nv170-200
H62014 - nv115-135
H22014 - nv120-140
H92014 - nv190-220
Mliri2013 - nv110-130
Mliri2008-2013110-140
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Honda, Hyundai, Infinity, Jaguar, Jeep, KIA, Lada (VAZ), Land Rover, Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Lifan, Mazda
PanganilachitsanzoZaka zopanga / thupiUtoto wa utoto, ma microns
HONDAChigwirizano2013-2015130-150
Chigwirizano2008-2013155-165
Chigwirizano2002-2008130-145
CR-V2012 - nv95-125
CR-V2007-201280-100
CR-V2002-200790-120
Civic2012 - nv110-130
Civic2006-201290-130
Zachilengedwe 4D2006-2008115-140
Civic2000-2006100-130
Mthiti2011-2015110-140
zoyenera2001-200885-100
Jazz2002-201285-100
Aria110-115
Bakuman2008-2012120-160
Woyendetsa2006-2015110-135
HYUNDAIChofikira2006-2015110-130
Elantra2006-2015110-135
Elantra2012 - nv105-120
Elantra2015 - нв (mk6 RUS)120-150
Sonata2008-2013 (mk6)110-140
Sonata NF2001-2008 (mk5)85-100
Sonata2002-201275 -120
Equus2014 - nv105-125
Kukula2001-2012105 -145
Genesis2011 - nv55-90
Genesis2011 - nv105-125
Getz2015 - nv90-150
masanjidwewo2007-2015115-145
Santa Fe Zachikhalidwe2000-2007110-130
Santa Fe2000-2010120-140
Santa Fe2010 - nv90-120
Solaris2003-201090-120
Solaris2006-2015125-150
Grand Santa Fe2006-201575-125
Starex2013 - nv110-130
Tucson2008-2013110-140
Tucson Chatsopano2016 - nv90-120
Veloster2012 - nv105-130
i202008-2016100-120
i302012 - nv95-120
i302007-2012100-130
i402012 - nv105-140
iX352010 - nv105-125
INFINITIQX70 / FX372008 - nv95-130
QX80 / QX562010 - nv115-145
QX50 / EX252007 - nv115-125
Q502013 - nv130-140
QX602014 - nv120-140
FX352002-2008110-120
nyamaziF-mtundu2013 - nv95-130
S-mtundu1999-2007130-180
X-Mtundu2001-2010100-126
XE2015 - nv115-150
XF2007-2015120-145
XJ2009 - nv85-125
JeepKampasi2011 - nv125-145
Cherokee2014 - nv90-120
Cherokee2007-2013120-140
Cherokee wamkulu2011 - nv80-115
Cherokee wamkulu2004-2010110-140
Rubicon2014 - nv90-105
Wrangler2007 - nv135-150
KIACeed2012 - nv100-130
Ceed2006-2012115-125
Ndi GT2014 - nv105-125
Cerato2013 - nv105-140
Cerato2009-2013100-140
eyiti2010-2016115-130
ovomereza Ceed2007-2014110-125
zokometsera2011 - nv95-120
Kusuntha2008 - nv110-130
Quoris2013 - nv150-180
Rio2005-2011105-125
Rio2011 – n.v100-130
Spectra2006-2009125-160
Masewera2015 - nv100-135
Masewera2010-201595-120
Masewera2004-2010100-140
Sorento2009-2015115-120
Sorento2002-2009115-150
Sorento woyamba2015 - nv180-200
Soul2014 - nv100-120
Soul2008-2014115-135
Inu2011 - nv105-125
VAZ Lada21072014 - nv120-140
21092002-2008110-120
21102013 - nv95-130
21121999-2007130-180
2114-152001-2010100-126
Zotsogola2015 - nv115-150
Largus2007-2015120-145
Viburnum2009 - nv85-125
Kalina 22011 - nv125-145
Kalina Masewera2014 - nv90-120
Kalina mtanda2007-2013120-140
Largus mtanda2011 - nv80-115
Perekani2004-2010110-140
Masewera a Granta2014 - nv90-105
Granta Hatchback2007 - nv135-150
4X4 Niva 3D2012 - nv100-130
4X4 Niva 5D2006-2012115-125
Vesta2014 - nv105-125
X Ray2013 - nv105-140
MALO PANSIFreelander2009-2013100-140
anapeza2010-2016115-130
anapeza2007-2014110-125
Kupeza Masewera2011 - nv95-120
Range Rover2008 - nv110-130
RangeRoverVogue2013 - nv150-180
Masewera a Ranoe Rover2005-2011105-125
Range Rover SVR2013 - nv130-170
Renge Rover Evogue2011 - nv135-150
Rover kutanthauzaChitsanzo 751999-2004130-150
LexusСT200h2011 - nv145-175
ES2006 - nv140-145
GS2012 - nv160-185
GS2005-2012120-160
GX2002 - nv125-150
IS2013 - nv150-185
IS2005-2013170-190
IS1999-2005110-120
LS2000 - nv125-150
LX1999-2005140-145
NX2014 - nv135-165
RX2009-2015115-150
RX2003-2009140 -145
RX Chatsopano2016 - nv125-135
LINCOLNNavigator110-130
LS2004-2010119-127
ZOCHITIKAX602012 - nv85-105
Kumwetulira2011 - nv95-110
Celliya2014 - nv75 * 100
solano2010 - nv95-110
Cebra2014 - nv90-110
MAZDA22007-2014115-125
32012 - nv100-130
32006-2012115-125
32014 - nv105-125
52013 - nv105-140
52005-201080-100
62012 - nv80-110
62007-2012110-130
62002-2007100-140
CX-52011 - nv100-120
CX-72006-201285-120
CX-92007-201690-120
Msonkhano2000-200785-120
Mercedes-Benz, Mini, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Opel, Peugeot, Porsche, Renault, Saab, Mpando, Skoda
PanganilachitsanzoZaka zopanga / thupiUtoto wa utoto, ma microns
Mercedes-BenzKalasi2012 – n.v (w176)90-130
Kalasi2004-2012 (w169)90-115
B-Maphunziro2011 – n.v (w246)90-115
B-Maphunziro2005-2011 (W245)90-110
C-Maphunziro2014 – n.v (w205)120-140
C-Maphunziro2007-2015 (W204)110-170
C-Maphunziro2000-2007 (W203)110-135
CL - Kalasi2007-2014 (C216)100-140
CL - Kalasi1999-2006 (C215)115-140
CLA - Kalasi2013 – n.v (S117)100-130
Kalasi ya CLS2011 – n.v (W218)110-140
Kalasi ya CLS2004 - pano (C219)115-130
CLK - Kalasi2002-2009 (W209)120-140
E - Kalasi2009-2016 (W212)110-140
E - Kalasi2002-2009 (W211)230-250
E - Klasse Coupe2010 - pano (C207)110-130
G - kalasi1989 – n.v (W463)120-140
GLA - Kalasi2014 – n.v90-120
GL - Kalasi2012 - pano (X166)90-100
GL - Kalasi2006-2012 (X164)120-140
Kalasi ya GLE2015 – n.v120-150
WI - kalasi coupe2015 – n.v120-150
Kalasi ya GLK2008-2015 (X204)135-145
GLS - Kalasi2016 – n.v120-140
Kalasi ya ML2011-2016 (W166)100-135
Kalasi ya ML2005-2011 (W164)100-130
Kalasi ya ML1997-2005 (W-163)110-140
S-kalasi2013 – n.v (W222)110-120
S - Klasse2005-2013 (W221)80-125
S-kalasi1998-2005 (W220)110-140
Gulu la SL2011 - pano (R231)105-120
zinthu2014 – n.v (W447)100-130
Wothamanga Kwambiri2003 – n.v90-100
Sprinter2008 – n.v80-100
MINIPaceman2012 – n.v115-130
Cooper2006-2014105-115
Mphindi2011 – n.v95 -120
Roadster2012 – n.v90-110
Mdziko2010 – n.v100-120
MITSUBISHIMtengo wa ASX2015 – n.v100-135
Carisma2010-201595-120
Colt2004-2010100-140
12002009-2015115-120
L200Chatsopano2002-2009115-150
Ponyani 92003-2007100 -120
Ponyani X2007 – n.v95 -120
Outlander2008-2014115-135
ZowonjezeraXL2011 – n.v105-125
Samurai Wopanda Kunja2014 – n.v120-140
pajero2002-2008110-120
Masewera a Pajero2013 – n.v95 -130
NissanAlmera2013 – n.v (G15)130-150
Almera2000-2006 (N16)100-130
Almera classic2006-2013120-140
Bluebird Sylphy140 -160
Juke2010-2016115-135
Mikra2003-2010 (K13)100-120
Murano2008-2016 (Z51)95-110
Murano2002-2008 (Z50)105-160
Navara2005-2015 (D40)120-135
Zindikirani2005-2014110-140
Pathfinder2014 – n.v100-120
Pathfinder2004-2014135-175
Patrol2010 – n.v110-115
Patrol1997-201080 100
Primera2002-2007 (P12)90-110
Qashqai2013 – n.v (J11)100-120
Qashqai2007-2013 (J10)110-135
Kashqai +22010-2013110-140
Center2012 – n.v100-120
@Alirezatalischioriginal2014 – n.v100-130
@Alirezatalischioriginal2008-2014110-135
@Alirezatalischioriginal2003-2008110-130
Zamgululi2014 – n.v115-155
Tiida2004-2014120-140
Tiida Watsopano2015 – n.v100-110
X-Njira2015 – n.v100-130
X-Njira2007-2015105-130
GTR2008 – n.v170-185
VAUXHALLAstra OPCJ 2011-2015120-155
Astra GTCJ 2011-2015115-140
Chizindikiro OPCIne 2013–2015105-150
Chizindikiro SWIne 2013–201590-130
mpikisanoD 2010-2014115-120
safiro2005-2011115-120
kanaliIne 2008–2015100-140
Meriva2010-2015125-140
AstraH 2004-2015110-157
Astra SWJ 2011-2015120-160
Astra sedanJ 2011-2015110-130
Mocha2012-2015110-130
Zafira wovutaC 2012-201595-135
VectraC 2002-2008110-160
Antara2006-2015100-140
Omega2008100-112
PEUGEOT1072005-201490-120
2061998-2006130-150
206 Sedani1998-2012120-152
2072006-2013119-147
2082013 – n.v165-180
20082014 – n.v140-160
3012013 – n.v105-130
3072001-2008108-145
3082008-2015100-120
308 Chatsopano2015 – n.v110-160
30082009 – n.v100-145
4072004-2010100-120
4082012 – n.v100-115
40082012-201660-100
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mnzanga2007 – n.v100-120
Akatswiri2007 – n.v95-115
RCZ2010 – n.v115-145
YAM'MBUYOBokosi s2012-2016 (981)95-116
Kayene2010 - pano (988)120-140
Kayene2002-2010 (955)120-140
Nkhumba2013 – n.v116-128
Panamera2009 – n.v110-140
RENAULTLogan2014 – n.v130-155
Logan2004-2015120-150
Sandero2014 – n.v130-155
Sandero2009-2014110-130
Sandero sitepe2010-2014145-160
Megane2009 – n.v125-145
Megane2003-2009115-135
Megane RS2009 – n.v170-240
Fluence2010 – n.v130-155
Clio2005-2012130-150
chizindikiro2008-201290-120
Laguna2007-2015130-160
Koleos2008-2015130 - 150
Duster2011 – n.v130-165
SAAB9-32002-2012110-130
9-51997-2010130-150
MPANDOLeonIII 2013130 - 145
Leon STIII 2013170- 200
Leon Cuprandi 2009130-160
Alhambrandi 2010140-155
IbizaIV 2012105-130
SKODAFabia2007-2015130-155
Octavia2013 – n.v160-190
Octavia2004-2013160-180
Mwamsanga2012 – n.v160-193
Malo2006-2015110-130
Yeti2009 – n.v140-180
Wopambana2015 – n.v125-150
Wopambana2008-2015110-140
Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Dzipangireni nokha popuma
Ssang Yong, Subaru, Suzuki, Tesla, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo, ГАЗ, УАЗ
PanganilachitsanzoZaka zopanga / thupiUtoto wa utoto, ma microns
SsangyongZovuta2010 – n.v110-140
Zamgululi2005 – n.v100-110
Rexton2002 – n.v120-150
SubaruBRZ2012-2016110-160
Nkhoswe2013 – n.v100-140
Nkhoswe2008-2013105-140
Zosintha2012 – n.v110-140
Zosintha2005-2012125-140
WRX2014 – n.v85-130
Chithunzi cha WRX STI2005-2014115-150
Cholowa2009-2014110-140
Cholowa2003-2009110-115
Kumidzi2015 – n.v110-130
Kumidzi2009-2014115-130
XV2011 – n.v110-155
Tribeca2005-2014140-170
SuzukiSX42006-2016120-135
SX4 Chatsopano2013 – n.v115-125
Swift2010-2015115-135
Vitara2014 – n.v90-120
Grand vitara2005 – n.v95-120
Jimmy1998 – n.v100-130
kuwaza2008-201590-115
TESLAChitsanzo S2012 – n.v140-180
ToyotaAlphard2015 – n.v100-140
Alphard2008-2014105-135
Auris2012 - pano (E160)100-130
Auris2007-2012 (E140)115-130
Zolemba2009-2015 (T260)80-120
Zolemba2003-2009 (T240)80-110
Celica1999-2006 (T230)120-145
Camry2011 – n.v (XV50)120-145
Camry2006-2011 (XV40)125-145
Camry2001-2006 (XV30)120-150
Corolla2013 - pano (E170)100-130
Corolla2006-2013 (E150)90-110
Corolla2001-2007 (E120)100-130
Corolla Hatchback2010 – n.v110-140
Corolla Verso2005 – n.v100-110
Rexton2002 – n.v120-150
GT862012-2016110-160
hilux2013 – n.v100-140
ng'ombe2008-2013105-140
ng'ombe2007-2014 (U40)135-150
Land Cruiser 1001997-2007110-135
Land Cruiser 2002007 – n.v120-160
Land Cruiser Prado 1202002-200980-110
Land Cruiser Prado 1502009 – n.v110-135
Chofunika2009-201580-110
Chofunika2003-2009110-120
Rav 42013 – n.v115-140
Rav 42006-201380-110
Rav 42000-200580-100
Kumenya2009 – n.v120-160
Kuti2012 – n.v175-210
yaris2005-201180-95
Sienna115-125
Fortuner110-125
VolkswagenAmarok2010 – n.v115-135
Chikumbu2013 – n.v150-220
Bora1998-2005120-145
Chingwe2009-2015105-135
gofu2013 – n.v (MkVII)100-130
gofu2009-2012 (MkVI)80-120
gofu2003-2009 (MkV)120-140
gofu1997-2003 (MkIV)120-140
Malo Ogulitsira Gofu2009-2014120-140
Jetta2011 – n.v (MkVI)140-155
Jetta2005-2011 (MkV)120-140
Multivan2015 – n.v90-135
Passat2015 - pano (B8)180-220
Passat2011-2016 (B7)110-130
Passat2005-2011 (B6)120-140
CC yapitayi2008 – n.v120-130
Sirocco2009-2016125-145
Caddy2013115-130
Polo2014110-130
Magalimoto a Polo 
Tiguan2011190-220
Touareg wosakanizidwa2014180-200
Touareg2013130-215
Ulendo 
Transporter 
Wopanga 
VolvoC302013105-140
S40 
V40 
V50 
S602003110-130
S60ndi 201195-115
V70 
S802013105-140
XC602013115-135
XC702013105-140
XC902013115-135
MafutaCyber200890-105
31105200680
Sable 
Gazelle 
Mbawala Kenako 
UAZmsaki 
Mnyamata 

Malangizo Othandizira

Pafupifupi, wopanga amapereka chitsimikizo cha zaka zitatu cha utoto, koma pali mitundu yambiri yazinthu zomwe sizingagwere pansi pazomwezo. Chifukwa chake, muyenera kusamalira bwino zokutira. Chifukwa chake chikhala nthawi yayitali. Nawa maupangiri:

  • osapukuta dothi louma ndi nsalu youma;
  • osasiya galimoto pansi pa dzuwa kwa nthawi yayitali, kuwala kwa ultraviolet kumawononga penti, kumatha;
  • Mbeu za popula zimatulutsa utomoni, womwe umawononga utoto ukatenthedwa, osayika galimoto pansi pamitsinje;
  • Ndowe za njiwa ndizosautsa komanso zimawononga utoto;
  • nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito polishi yoteteza ngati galasi lamadzi, izi zimapanga zowonjezera;
  • nthawi zambiri samachita kupukutira kwamphamvu, chifukwa kumachotsa ma microns angapo okutira;
  • yendetsani galimoto mosamala, musakande ndi nthambi, ndi zina zambiri.

Zojambula, monga thupi, ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zodula kwambiri m'galimoto. Mkhalidwe wa utoto unganene zambiri zagalimoto. Kuyesa makulidwe molondola ndikuwunika momwe utoto ulili kudzakuthandizani kudziwa kugula kwa galimoto yomwe idagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi utoto uyenera kukhala wandiweyani bwanji pagalimoto? Utoto wa fakitale pamitundu yonse yamagalimoto uli ndi makulidwe apakati a 90 mpaka 160 ma microns. Izi zimaphatikizidwa ndi malaya oyambira, utoto woyambira ndi varnish.

Momwe mungayesere molondola makulidwe a utoto? Kwa izi, makulidwe a makulidwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kuti mudziwe bwino mtundu wa zojambula zonse pogula galimoto yogwiritsidwa ntchito, muyenera kuyang'ana makulidwe m'malo angapo a galimoto (denga, zitseko, zotetezera).

Ndi ma microns angati mutatha kujambula? Zimatengera chifukwa chojambula. Ngati makina agunda, padzakhala wosanjikiza wa putty. Kuyeza kwa makulidwe kudzawonetsanso makulidwe a wosanjikiza uyu (kumatsimikizira mtunda wachitsulo).

NKHANI ZOFANANA
Waukulu » Thupi lagalimoto » Zithunzi za galimoto ndi zotani komanso makulidwe ake pamitundu yosiyanasiyana

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