Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira

Zamkatimu

Galimoto iliyonse yokhala ndi injini yoyaka mkati, yamagetsi, imakhala ndi makina oyatsira. Kuti chisakanizo cha mafuta atomized ndi mpweya m'misilamu uziyatsa, kutulutsa koyenera kumafunikira. Kutengera kusinthidwa kwa maukonde agalimoto, chiwerengerochi chikufikira ma 30 volts zikwi.

Kodi mphamvuzi zimachokera kuti ngati batire m'galimoto limangotulutsa ma volts 12? Chofunikira kwambiri chomwe chimapanga magetsiwa ndi koyilo yoyatsira. Zambiri pazomwe zimagwirira ntchito komanso zosintha zomwe zikupezeka zafotokozedwa mu ndemanga yapadera.

Tsopano tiona mfundo za ntchito imodzi mwa mitundu ya machitidwe poyatsira - kukhudzana (za mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya SZ anafotokoza apa).

Kodi njira yolumikizirana yamagalimoto ndiyotani

Magalimoto amakono alandila magetsi amtundu wa batri. Chiwembu chake ndi ichi. Mtengo wabwino wa batri umalumikizidwa ndi mawaya pazida zonse zamagetsi zamagalimoto. Chotsalira chimalumikizidwa ndi thupi. Kuchokera pachida chilichonse chamagetsi, waya wolakwika umalumikizidwanso ndi gawo lachitsulo lolumikizidwa ndi thupi. Izi zimabweretsa mawaya ochepa mgalimoto ndipo magetsi amatsekedwa kudzera mthupi.

Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira
Mivi yakuda - yamagetsi otsika pano, ofiira - okwera

Makina oyatsira magalimoto amatha kukhala olumikizana, osalumikizidwa kapena amagetsi. Poyamba, makinawo amagwiritsa ntchito njira yolumikizirana. Mitundu yonse yamakono ilandila zamagetsi zomwe ndizosiyana kwambiri ndi mitundu yam'mbuyomu. Poyatsira mwa iwo amayang'aniridwa ndi microprocessor. Njira yolumikizirana ilipo monga kusintha kwakanthawi pakati pa mitundu iyi.

Monga momwe mungasankhire njira zina, cholinga cha SZ iyi ndikupanga mphamvu zamagetsi ndikulunjika ku pulagi yapadera. Mtundu wolumikizana ndi dongosololi uli ndi wosokoneza kapena wofalitsa. Izi zimayang'anira kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu zamagetsi mu koyilo loyatsira ndikugawa zomwe zimakhudzidwa ndi masilindala. Chida chake chimakhala ndi kamera yomwe imazungulira pamphika ndipo imatseka maseketi amagetsi a kandulo inayake. Zambiri pakapangidwe kake ndi kagwiritsidwe kake zafotokozedwa m'nkhani ina.

Mosiyana ndi makina olumikizirana, analogi yosalumikizana imakhala ndi mtundu wama transistor pakuwunjikira ndi kugawa kwa kugunda.

Lumikizanani ndi mawonekedwe oyatsira

Kuyanjana kwa SZ kumakhala ndi:

  • Poyatsira loko. Ili ndi gulu lolumikizirana lomwe makina oyendetsa galimoto amayatsidwa ndipo injini imayamba kugwiritsa ntchito sitata. Izi zimaphwanya magetsi amgalimoto iliyonse.
  • Rechargeable magetsi. Pamene injini sikuthamanga, mphamvu yamagetsi imachokera ku batri. Batire yamagalimoto imagwiranso ntchito ngati zosunga zobwezeretsera ngati chosinthacho sichikupatsani mphamvu zokwanira kugwiritsa ntchito zida zamagetsi. Kuti mumve zambiri za momwe batire imagwirira ntchito, werengani apa.
  • Wogulitsa (wogulitsa). Monga momwe dzinali likusonyezera, cholinga cha chipangizochi ndikufalitsa mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi kuchokera pamagetsi oyatsira moto mpaka kumapeto kwa mapulagi onse. Kuti muwone momwe magwiridwe antchito amagwirira ntchito, mawaya amtundu wautali wautali wosiyanasiyana amachokera kwa omwe amagawa (mukalumikizidwa, ndikosavuta kulumikiza zonenepa kwa omwe amagawa).
  • Condenser. The capacitor imalumikizidwa ndi thupi la valavu. Zochita zake zimathetsa kuphulika pakati pakutseka / kutsegula makamera a omwe amagawa. Kuthetheka pakati pazinthu izi kumapangitsa kuti makamu awotche, zomwe zingayambitse kulumikizana pakati pa ena mwa iwo. Izi zimapangitsa kuti pulagi inayake isayake, ndipo mafuta osakanikirana ndi mpweya amaponyedwa osatenthedwa mu chitoliro cha utsi. Kutengera kusinthidwa kwa mawonekedwe oyatsira, ma capacitance a capacitor atha kukhala osiyana.
  • Kuthetheka pulagi. Zambiri za chipangizochi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito amafotokozedwa payokha... Mwachidule, chidwi chamagetsi kuchokera kwa omwe amagawa chimapita ku electrode wapakati. Popeza pali mtunda wochepa pakati pawo ndi mbali yam'mbali, kuwonongeka kumachitika ndikupanga mphamvu yayikulu, yomwe imayatsa chisakanizo cha mpweya ndi mafuta mu silinda.
  • Yendetsani. Wogulitsa samakhala ndi zoyendetsa payekha. Yakhala pampando womwe umalumikizidwa ndi camshaft. Makina ozungulira a makinawo amazungulira mochedwa kwambiri ngati crankshaft, monga camshaft yanthawi.
  • Poyatsira coils. Ntchito ya chinthuchi ndikusintha mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi yotsika kwambiri. Mosasamala kanthu za kusinthaku, dera lalifupi limakhala ndi ma windings awiri. Magetsi amadutsa koyambirira kuchokera pa batri (pomwe galimoto siyinayambike) kapena kuchokera ku jenereta (injini yoyaka mkati ikuyenda). Chifukwa cha kusintha kwamphamvu kwa maginito ndi magwiridwe antchito amagetsi, gawo lachiwiri limayamba kudziunjikira pamagetsi ambiri.
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Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira
Jenereta 1; 2 poyatsira lophimba; 3 wogulitsa; Wosweka 4; 5 mapulagi; 6 poyatsira koyilo; 7 batire

Pali zosintha zingapo pamachitidwe olumikizirana. Izi ndizosiyana kwambiri:

  1. Chiwembu chofala kwambiri ndi KSZ. Ili ndi kapangidwe kabwino: koyilo imodzi, yophulika komanso yogawira.
  2. Kusinthidwa kwake, komwe kumaphatikizapo sensa yolumikizira komanso chosungira mphamvu zoyambirira.
  3. Mtundu wachitatu wa njira yolumikizirana ndi KTSZ. Kuphatikiza pa olumikizana nawo, chipangizocho chimakhala ndi transistor ndi chida chosungira cha mtundu wa induction. Poyerekeza ndi mtundu wakale, njira yolumikizirana ndi transistor ili ndi maubwino angapo. Chowonjezera choyamba ndikuti mphamvu yamagetsi siyidutsa pamalumikizidwe. Valavu imangogwira ntchito yolamulira, ndiye kuti palibe phula pakati pa makamu. Chida choterechi chimapangitsa kuti zisagwiritse ntchito capacitor mwa omwe amagawa. Pazosintha zolumikizana ndi transistor, mapangidwe amtundu wa mapulagi amatha kusintha (mphamvu yama voliyumu yachiwiri ndiyokwera, chifukwa chake phula la pulagi limatha kukulitsidwa kuti cheche chikhale chotalikirapo).

Kuti mumvetsetse SZ yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito m'galimoto inayake, muyenera kuyang'ana zojambula zamagetsi. Izi ndi zomwe mawonekedwe amachitidwe awa amawoneka:

Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira
(КСЗ): 1 - mapulagi amoto; 2 - wogulitsa; 3- sitata; 4 - poyatsira lophimba; 5 sitata samatha kulandirana; 6 - kukana kowonjezera (kusiyanasiyana); 7 - poyatsira koyilo
Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira
(KTSZ): 1 - mapulagi amoto; 2 - wogulitsa poyatsira; 3 - sinthani; 4 - poyatsira koyilo. Chizindikiro cha ma elekitirodi a transistor: K - wokhometsa, E - emitter (mphamvu zonse); B - m'munsi (woyang'anira); R ndi wotsutsa.

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito yolumikizirana

Monga makina osalumikizirana ndi zamagetsi, analogi yolumikizirana imagwira ntchito potembenuza ndikusunga mphamvu, yomwe imaperekedwa kuchokera pa batri mpaka kumulowetsa koyilo koyatsira. Chipangizochi chili ndi kapangidwe ka thiransifoma yomwe imasintha 12V kukhala magetsi mpaka 30 zikwi volts.

Mphamvu imeneyi imagawidwa ndi omwe amagawa ku pulagi iliyonse yamphamvu, chifukwa chake kachulukidwe kamapangidwe kazitsulo mosiyanasiyana, kutengera nthawi ya ma valavu ndi zikwapu za injini, zokwanira kuyatsa VTS.

Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira

Ntchito zonse zogwiritsa ntchito poyatsira kukhudzana zitha kugawidwa m'magulu otsatirawa:

  1. Kuyambitsa magetsi. Woyendetsa amatembenuza kiyi, gulu lolumikizana limatseka. Magetsi ochokera ku batri amapita kudera loyambirira.
  2. Mphamvu zamagetsi zamakono. Izi zimachitika chifukwa cha kupangidwa kwa maginito pakati pamagawo oyambira ndi achiwiri.
  3. Kuyambira galimoto. Kutsegula kiyi wotsekemera njira zonse zomwe zimayambitsa kulumikizana kwa oyambira ndi netiweki yamagalimoto yamagalimoto (zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa pakugwiritsa ntchito makinawa zafotokozedwa apa). Kutembenuza crankshaft kumapangitsa kuti magwiridwe antchito azigawo azigwiritsa ntchito (chifukwa ichi, lamba kapena unyolo umagwiritsidwa ntchito, womwe umafotokozedwa m'nkhani ina). Popeza kuti wofalitsa nthawi zambiri amayamba kugwira ntchito limodzi ndi camshaft, olumikizana nawo amatsekedwa mosiyanasiyana.
  4. Mphamvu zamagetsi zamakono. Chombocho chimayambitsidwa (magetsi amasowa mwadzidzidzi pamapeto oyambira), maginito amatha mwadzidzidzi. Pakadali pano, chifukwa cha kupatsidwa ulemu, pakadali pano pakupezeka koyenda kwachiwiri ndi magetsi ofunikira pakupanga kandulo. Chizindikiro ichi chimadalira pakusintha kwamachitidwe.
  5. Kufalitsa zikhumbo. Mukangotseka kumene, mzere wamagetsi othamanga kwambiri (waya wapakati kuchokera koyilo kupita kwa wogawira) umapatsidwa mphamvu. Pakazungulira kwa shaft yogawira, kutsetsereka kwake kumazunguliranso. Imatseka kuzungulira kwa kandulo inayake. Kudzera pa waya wamagetsi othamanga kwambiri, chidwi chimalowa nthawi yomweyo choyikapo nyali.
  6. Kuthetheka mapangidwe. Mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi ikagwiritsidwa ntchito pakatikati pa pulagi, kamtunda kakang'ono pakati pake ndi ma elekitirodi am'mbali kumayambitsa arc flash. Kusakaniza kwa mafuta / mpweya kumayatsa.
  7. Kudzikundikira kwa mphamvu. Pakadutsa mphindi, omwe amagawawo akutseguka. Pakadali pano, dera loyambira loyenda latsekedwa. Mphamvu yamaginito imapangidwanso pakati pake ndi dera lachiwiri. Komanso, KSZ imagwira ntchito molingana ndi mfundo zomwe tafotokozazi.
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Lumikizanani ndi zovuta zamagetsi

Chifukwa chake, kuyendetsa bwino kwa injini kumadalira osati kokha pamlingo womwe mafuta azisakanikirana ndi mpweya komanso nthawi yotsegulira ma valve, komanso panthawi yomwe chikoka chimakhudzidwa ndi mapulagi. Oyendetsa magalimoto ambiri amadziwa mawu ngati nthawi yoyatsira.

Popanda kufotokoza mwatsatanetsatane, ino ndi nthawi yomwe moto umagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga kupsinjika. Mwachitsanzo, kuthamanga kwambiri kwa injini, chifukwa cha inertia, pisitoni imatha kuyamba kuchita sitiroko, ndipo VTS sinakhale ndi nthawi yoyatsira. Chifukwa cha izi, kuthamangitsidwa kwa galimotoyo kudzakhala kwaulesi, ndipo kuphulika kumatha kupangika mu injini, kapena valavu ya utsi ikatsegulidwa, chisakanizo choyaka moto chidzaponyedwa muzambiri.

Izi zithandizira kuwonongeka konse. Pofuna kupewa izi, makina oyatsira kukhudzana amakhala ndi pulogalamu yopumira yomwe imayankha kukankhira pamagetsi ndikusintha SPL.

Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira

Ngati SZ isakhazikika, njirayo itha kutaya mphamvu kapena sangathe kugwira ntchito konse. Nayi zolakwika zazikulu zomwe zingakhudzidwe ndimakina.

Palibe magetsi pamakandulo

Kuthetheka kumazimiririka ngati izi:

  • Kuphulika kwa waya wotsika kwambiri kwapangika (kumachokera pa batiri kupita koyilo) kapena kulumikizana kwatha chifukwa chakutsekemera;
  • Kutayika kwa kulumikizana pakati pa osunthira ndi omwe amagawa. Nthawi zambiri izi zimachitika chifukwa cha kupangidwa kwa mpweya pa iwo;
  • Kusweka kwa dera lalifupi (kusweka kwa kutembenuka kwamizere), kulephera kwa capacitor, mawonekedwe a ming'alu pachikuto cha wofalitsa;
  • Kutchinjiriza kwa mawaya amphamvu kwambiri kuthyoka;
  • Kutha kwa kandulo komweko.
Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira

Pofuna kuthana ndi zovuta, m'pofunika kuyang'anitsitsa kukhulupirika kwa ma circuits okwera ndi otsika (ngati kulumikizana pakati pa mawaya ndi malo, ngati kulibe, ndiyetsani kulumikizana), ndikuwonanso mawonekedwe . Munthawi yozindikira matenda, mipata yomwe ilipo pakati pa omwe amacheza nawo amasinthidwa. Zinthu zopunduka zimalowedwa m'malo ndi zatsopano.

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Popeza zikhumbo za dongosolo zimayang'aniridwa ndi zida zamakina, zosavomerezeka ngati kaboni kapena gawo lotseguka ndizachilengedwe, chifukwa zimakwiya chifukwa cha kuvala kwachilengedwe kwa magawo ena.

Injini imayenda mosiyanasiyana

Ngati, poyambirira, kusowa kwa ma plugs sikungalole kuti mota iyambe, ndiye kuti kusakhazikika kwa injini yoyaka mkati kumatha kuyambitsidwa ndi zolakwika zamagetsi osiyana (mwachitsanzo, kuwonongeka kwa imodzi mwa zingwe zophulika).

Nazi zovuta zina mu SZ zomwe zingayambitse kuyendetsa bwino kwa chipangizocho:

  • Kusweka kwa kandulo;
  • Kukula kwakukulu kapena kochepa pakati pa ma plug a spark plug;
  • Kusiyana kolakwika pakati pa ocheza nawo;
  • Chivundikiro cha omwe amagawa kapena rotor inaphulika;
  • Zolakwitsa pakukhazikitsa UOZ.

Kutengera mtundu wakuwonongeka, amachotsedwa pokhazikitsa UOZ yolondola, mipata ndikusintha magawo osweka ndi atsopano.

Lumikizanani ndi zida zoyatsira

Kuzindikira kwa zovuta zilizonse zamtunduwu wamagetsi kumakhala kuwunika kowoneka kwa zigawo zonse zamagetsi amagetsi. Chophimbacho chikatha, gawoli limangosinthidwa ndi latsopano. Zovuta zake zimatha kudziwika pofufuza ngati mukuthyola mosinthana ndi ma multimeter pamayendedwe oyimba.

Kuphatikiza apo, tikupangira kuti tiwone kuwunika kwakanthawi kakanema momwe makina oyatsira omwe amagawira amagwirira ntchito:

Kodi wogulitsa poyatsira (wofalitsa) ndi chiyani ndipo zimagwira ntchito bwanji?

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Chifukwa chiyani makina oyatsira osalumikizana ndi abwinoko? Popeza mulibe chogawa chosunthika komanso chophwanyira mmenemo, zolumikizirana ndi dongosolo la BC sizifuna kukonza pafupipafupi (kusintha kapena kuyeretsa kuchokera ku ma depositi a kaboni). M'dongosolo loterolo, chiyambi chokhazikika cha injini yoyaka mkati.

Ndi makina oyatsira otani? Pazonse, pali mitundu iwiri ya machitidwe oyatsira: kukhudzana ndi osalumikizana. Pachiyambi choyamba, pali cholumikizira cholumikizira. Chachiwiri, chosinthira chimagwira ntchito ya wosweka (ndi wogawa).

Kodi makina oyatsira amagetsi amagwira ntchito bwanji? M'makina oterowo, kutengeka kwamphamvu komanso kugawa kwamagetsi kwamphamvu kwambiri kumayendetsedwa pakompyuta. Alibe zinthu zamakina zomwe zimakhudza kugawa kapena kusokonezeka kwa ma pulses.

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