Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Zamkatimu

Kapangidwe ka injini ya sitiroko inayi, yomwe imagwira ntchito potulutsa mphamvu panthawi yoyaka mafuta osakaniza ndi mafuta, imaphatikizapo chinthu chimodzi chofunikira, chopanda chomwe chipangizocho sichingagwire ntchito. Iyi ndi njira yogwiritsira ntchito nthawi kapena gasi.

Mu injini zambiri, imayikidwa pamutu wamphamvu. Zambiri pazomwe zimapangidwira zimafotokozedwera nkhani yapadera... Tsopano tiona zomwe nthawi ya valavu ili, komanso momwe ntchito yake imakhudzira zisonyezo zamagetsi zamagetsi ndi magwiridwe antchito ake.

Kodi valavu yamagetsi ndi chiyani?

Mwachidule pazomwe zimagwira nthawi. Chotsitsa chopyola pagalimoto (m'makina ambiri oyaka mkati amakono, tcheni chimayikidwa m'malo mwa lamba wampira) chalumikizidwa camshaft. Dalaivala akuyambitsa injini, sitata imayamba kugwedezeka. Shafts onse amayamba atembenuka synchronously, koma pa liwiro osiyana (kwenikweni, mu kusintha kamodzi kwa camshaft, ndi crankshaft amapanga kusintha awiri).

Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Pali cams yapadera yooneka ngati dontho pa camshaft. Dongosolo likamazungulira, kamera imakankhira motsutsana ndi kasupe wadzaza ndi valavu. Valavu imatseguka, kulola kuti mafuta / mpweya usakanizike kuti ulowe mu silinda kapena utsi wazambiri.

Gawo logawira gasi ndi nthawi yeniyeni yomwe valavu iyamba kutsegula polowera isanakwane. Katswiri aliyense wogwira ntchito yopanga mphamvu yamagetsi amawerengera kutalika kwa kutsegula kwa valavu, komanso kutalika kwakanthawi.

Kukopa kwakanthawi kwa valavu pakugwiritsa ntchito injini

Kutengera ndi momwe injini imagwirira ntchito, magawidwe amafuta amayenera kuyamba kale kapena mtsogolo. Izi zimakhudza magwiridwe antchito, chuma chake komanso makokedwe ake. Izi ndichifukwa choti kutsegula / kutseka kwakanthawi kwamankhwala ndi kutulutsa kwakanthawi ndikofunikira kuti mugwiritse ntchito bwino mphamvu zomwe zimatulutsidwa pakuyaka kwa HVAC.

Ngati valavu yodyera iyamba kutseguka munthawi ina pomwe pisitoni imagunda, ndiye kuti kudzazidwa kosagwirizana kwamphamvu ndi mpweya watsopano kudzachitika ndipo mafuta azisakanikirana kwambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kuyaka kosakwanira.

Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Ponena za valavu yotulutsa utsi, iyeneranso kutsegulidwa posachedwa pomwe pisitoniyo imafika pakatikati pakufa, koma pasanathe nthawi yayitali. Poyambirira, kupanikizika kudzagwa, ndipo galimotoyo itaya mphamvu. Kachiwiri, zinthu zoyaka moto ndi valavu yotsekedwa zimapangitsa kuti pisitoni isalimbane, yomwe yayamba kukwera. Ichi ndi katundu wowonjezera pamakina oyimilira, omwe angawononge ziwalo zake zina.

Kuti mugwiritse ntchito mphamvu yamagetsi, pamafunika nthawi yamagetsi yosiyana. Mwa njira imodzi, ndikofunikira kuti ma valve atsegulidwe koyambirira ndi kutseka pambuyo pake, ndi kwa ena, mosemphanitsa. Chomwe chimakhalapo ndiwofunikanso - ngakhale ma valve onse atsegulidwa nthawi imodzi.

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Mitundu yambiri yamagalimoto imakhala ndi nthawi yake. Injini yotere, kutengera mtundu wa camshaft, imakhala ndi magwiridwe antchito kwambiri mwina pamasewera kapena poyendetsa poyenda pang'onopang'ono.

Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Masiku ano, magalimoto ambiri apakati komanso oyambira amakhala ndi ma motors, omwe amagawira gasi momwe angasinthire magawo ena otsegulira valavu, chifukwa kudzazidwa kwapamwamba komanso mpweya wabwino wamasilamu kumachitika pama liwiro osiyanasiyana a crankshaft.

Umu ndi momwe nthawi iyenera kuchitidwira mosiyanasiyana ma injini:

  1. Idling imafuna magawo omwe amatchedwa ochepa. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ma valve amayamba kutseguka pambuyo pake, ndipo nthawi yotseka kwawo, m'malo mwake, ndi koyambirira. Palibe mawonekedwe otseguka munthawi yomweyo (ma valve onse sadzatsegulidwa nthawi yomweyo). Kusinthasintha kwa crankshaft sikofunikira kwenikweni, magawo akagundana, mpweya wotuluka umatha kulowa munthawi zambiri, ndipo voliyumu ina ya VTS imatha kulowa mu utsi.
  2. Njira yamphamvu kwambiri - imafunikira magawo ambiri. Imeneyi ndi njira yomwe, chifukwa cha kuthamanga kwambiri, ma valve amakhala ndi malo otseguka. Izi zimabweretsa kuti pakuyendetsa masewerawa, kudzaza ndi kupumira kwama cylinders kumachitika mosayenera. Pofuna kuthana ndi vutoli, nthawi ya valavu iyenera kusinthidwa, ndiye kuti ma valve ayenera kutsegulidwa koyambirira, ndipo nthawi yawo pamalo amenewa iyenera kukulirakulira.

Akamapanga kapangidwe ka ma mota okhala ndi nthawi yosinthira ya valve, mainjiniya amaganizira kudalira kwa mphindi yotsegulira valavu pa liwiro la crankshaft. Machitidwe otsogola awa amalola kuti njingayo ikhale yosunthika momwe ingathere pamayendedwe osiyanasiyana okwera. Chifukwa cha izi, chipangizocho chikuwonetsa mwayi wambiri:

  • Pazovuta zochepa, mota iyenera kukhala yocheperako;
  • Pamene ma revs akuchulukira, sayenera kutaya mphamvu;
  • Mosasamala kanthu momwe makina oyaka amkati amagwirira ntchito, mafuta azachuma, komanso kuyendetsa bwino zachilengedwe, akuyenera kukhala ndi gawo labwino kwambiri pagawo linalake.
Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Magawo onsewa amatha kusinthidwa posintha kapangidwe ka ma camshafts. Komabe, pakadali pano, kuyendetsa bwino kwamagalimoto kumangokhala ndi njira imodzi. Nanga bwanji mota imatha kusintha mbiri yake yokha kutengera kuchuluka kwa crankshaft?

Kusintha kwakanthawi kwa valavu

Lingaliro lokha pakusintha nthawi yotsegulira valavu panthawi yamagetsi siyatsopano. Lingaliro ili nthawi zambiri limapezeka m'malingaliro a mainjiniya omwe anali akupangabe injini za nthunzi.

Kotero, chimodzi mwa zochitikazi chimatchedwa zida za Stevenson. Makinawo adasintha nthawi ya nthunzi yolowa mu silinda yogwira ntchito. Bungweli limatchedwa "kudula nthunzi". Makinawo atayambitsidwa, kukakamizidwa kunasinthidwa kutengera kapangidwe ka galimotoyo. Pachifukwachi, kuwonjezera pa utsi, sitima zakale zoyendetsa nthunzi zimatulutsanso nthunzi pamene sitima idayima.

Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Kugwira ntchito pakusintha nthawi yamavalavu kunachitikanso ndi magulu oyendetsa ndege. Kotero, chitsanzo choyesera cha injini ya V-8 kuchokera ku kampani ya Clerget-Blin yomwe ili ndi mphamvu ya mphamvu ya akavalo 200 ingasinthe chizindikiro ichi chifukwa chakuti mapangidwe a makinawo anali ndi camshaft yothamanga.

Ndipo pa mota wa Lycoming XR-7755 anaika ma camshafts, momwe munali ma cams awiri pa valavu iliyonse. Chipangizocho chinali ndi makina oyendetsa, ndipo adatsegulidwa ndi woyendetsa ndegeyo. Amatha kusankha njira imodzi mwanjira ziwiri kutengera ngati angafunike kukwera ndegeyo kupita kumwamba, kuthawa, kapena kungoyendetsa ndege.

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Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Ponena za msika wamagalimoto, mainjiniya adayamba kuganiza zakugwiritsa ntchito lingaliro ili m'zaka za m'ma 20 zapitazo. Cholinga chake chinali kutuluka kwama mota othamanga kwambiri omwe adayikidwa pagalimoto zamasewera. Kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu yamagulu amtunduwu kunali ndi malire, ngakhale chipangizocho chimatha kusokonekera kwambiri. Kuti galimoto ikhale ndi mphamvu zambiri, poyamba injini yamagetsi yokha idakulitsidwa.

Woyamba kukhazikitsa nthawi yama valve osinthika anali Lawrence Pomeroy, yemwe ankagwira ntchito yopanga wamkulu wa kampani yamagalimoto Vauxhall. Iye analenga galimoto imene camshaft wapadera anaikidwa mu njira yogawa mpweya. Makamu ake angapo anali ndi mbiri zingapo.

Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Mtundu wa H wa 4.4-lita H, kutengera kuthamanga kwa crankshaft ndi katundu womwe udakumana nawo, ukhoza kuyendetsa camshaft m'mbali mwa kotenga nthawi. Chifukwa cha ichi, nthawi ndi kutalika kwa ma valve zidasinthidwa. Popeza gawoli linali ndi malire poyenda, kuwongolera gawo kulinso ndi malire.

Porsche analinso ndi lingaliro lomweli. Mu 1959, patent idawonekera kwa "makamu osunthika" a camshaft. Kukula uku kunayenera kusintha kukweza kwa valavu, ndipo nthawi yomweyo, nthawi yotsegulira. Kukula kunatsalira pantchitoyo.

Njira yoyamba yoyendetsera nthawi yama valve idapangidwa ndi Fiat. Kupanga kumeneku kunapangidwa ndi Giovanni Torazza kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 60s. Makinawa adagwiritsa ntchito ma hydraulic pusher, omwe adasintha malo oyambira a valavu. Chipangizocho chinagwira ntchito kutengera kuthamanga kwa injini komanso kupsinjika kwakanthawi kambiri.

Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Komabe, galimoto yoyamba yopanga yokhala ndi magawo osiyanasiyana a GR inali yochokera ku Alfa Romeo. Mtundu wa Spider 1980 udalandira makina amagetsi omwe amasintha magawo kutengera magwiridwe antchito amkati oyaka moto.

Njira zosinthira kutalika ndi kutalika kwa nthawi ya valavu

Lero pali mitundu ingapo yamakina omwe amasintha mphindi, nthawi ndi kutalika kwa kutseguka kwa valavu:

  1. Mwapangidwe kake kosavuta, ndi cholumikizira chapadera chomwe chimayikidwa pazoyendetsa nthawi (gawo shifter). Kuwongolera kumachitika chifukwa cha hayidiroliki pamakina oyendetsa, ndipo kuwongolera kumachitika ndi zamagetsi. Injini ikakhala idled, camshaft ili pamalo ake oyamba. Ma revs akangowonjezeka, zamagetsi zimayendera gawo ili, ndikuyambitsa ma hydraulic, omwe amasinthasintha camshaft pang'ono poyerekeza ndi malo oyamba. Chifukwa cha izi, ma valve amatsegulira pang'ono pang'ono, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti azitha kudzaza zonenepa ndi gawo latsopano la BTC.Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito
  2. Kusintha mbiri ya cam. Ichi ndi chitukuko chomwe oyendetsa galimoto akhala akugwiritsa ntchito kwanthawi yayitali. Kukwanitsa camshaft ndi ma cams omwe siabwino kungapangitse kuti chipangizocho chizigwira bwino ntchito pamtunda wapamwamba. Komabe, kukweza koteroko kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi makina odziwa bwino, zomwe zimabweretsa zinyalala zambiri. Mu injini zomwe zili ndi VVTL-i, ma camshafts ali ndi ma cams angapo okhala ndi mbiri zosiyanasiyana. Injini yoyaka mkati ikangokhala, zinthu wamba zimagwira ntchito yake. Chizindikiro cha liwiro la crankshaft chikadutsa pa 6 zikwi, camshaft imasunthira pang'ono, chifukwa chake ma cams ena amagwiranso ntchito. Zomwezo zimachitika pomwe injini imazungulira mpaka 8.5 zikwi, ndipo gawo lachitatu la makamu limayamba kugwira ntchito, zomwe zimapangitsa magawowa kukhala okulirapo.Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito
  3. Sinthani kutalika kwa kutsegula kwa valavu. Kukula uku kumakuthandizani kuti musinthe nthawi yomweyo magwiridwe antchito, komanso kupatula valavu yampweya. Mwanjira zotere, kukanikiza pamagetsi othamangitsira kumayendetsa makina amagetsi omwe amachititsa kuti magetsi azitseguka. Njirayi imachepetsa kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwamafuta pafupifupi 15% ndikuwonjezera mphamvu ya unit ndi kuchuluka komweko. M'magetsi amakono kwambiri, osati makina, koma analogue yamagetsi imagwiritsidwa ntchito. Ubwino wachiwiriwo ndikuti zamagetsi zimatha kusintha moyenera ndikusintha njira zotsegulira valavu. Kutalika kwanyengo kumatha kukhala pafupi ndi nthawi yabwino ndipo nthawi yotsegulira imatha kukhala yokulirapo kuposa mitundu yam'mbuyomu. Kukula kotereku, pofuna kupulumutsa mafuta, kumatha kuzimitsa ma cylinders ena (osatsegula ma valve ena). Ma mota awa amayendetsa makinawo galimoto ikayima, koma injini yoyaka mkati sifunikira kuti izimitsidwe (mwachitsanzo, pamoto) kapena dalaivala akachedwetsa galimotoyo pogwiritsa ntchito injini yoyaka mkati.Kodi ma valve nthawi ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito
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Chifukwa kusintha nthawi vavu

Kugwiritsa ntchito njira zomwe zimasinthira nthawi ya valve kumalola:

  • Ndizosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito zowonjezera zamagetsi m'njira zosiyanasiyana;
  • Zomwe mphamvu popanda kufunika kukhazikitsa camshaft mwambo;
  • Pangani galimotoyo kukhala yosafuna ndalama zambiri;
  • Perekani zodzaza ndi mpweya wabwino wamasilime othamanga kwambiri;
  • Chulukitsani mayendedwe achilengedwe chifukwa choyatsa bwino kwa mafuta osakaniza ndi mpweya.

Popeza mitundu yosiyanasiyana yogwiritsira ntchito injini zoyaka zamkati zimafunikira magawo ake a nthawi ya valavu, pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosinthira FGR, makinawo amatha kulumikizana ndi magawo amphamvu, makokedwe ,ubwenzi wazachilengedwe komanso chuma. Vuto lokhalo lomwe palibe wopanga yemwe angathetse pakadali pano ndi mtengo wapamwamba wa chipangizocho. Poyerekeza ndi mota wamba, analogue yokhala ndi makina ofananawo adzawononga pafupifupi kuwirikiza kawiri.

Oyendetsa magalimoto ena amagwiritsa ntchito nthawi yamagetsi yamagetsi kuti achulukitse mphamvu yamagalimoto. Komabe, mothandizidwa ndi lamba wosintha nthawi, ndizosatheka kufinya pazipita. Werengani za mwayi wina apa.

Pomaliza, timapereka chithandizo chaching'ono pamagwiridwe anthawi yamagetsi:

Makina osinthira nthawi yama valve pogwiritsa ntchito chitsanzo cha CVVT

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi nthawi ya valve ndi chiyani? Iyi ndi nthawi yomwe valavu (kulowetsa kapena kutuluka) imatsegula / kutseka. Mawu awa akufotokozedwa mu madigiri a injini crankshaft kasinthasintha.

ЧChimakhudza bwanji nthawi ya valve? Nthawi ya valve imakhudzidwa ndi momwe injini ikuyendera. Ngati palibe gawo shifter mu nthawi, ndiye zotsatira pazipita zimatheka kokha osiyanasiyana osiyanasiyana galimoto zosintha.

Kodi chithunzi cha nthawi ya valve ndi chiyani? Chithunzichi chikuwonetsa momwe kudzaza, kuyaka ndi kuyeretsa m'masilinda kumachitikira pamtundu wina wa RPM. Zimakuthandizani kuti musankhe bwino nthawi ya valve.

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