Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Zamkatimu

M'mbiri yonse yopanga magalimoto, mitundu yambiri yamagalimoto idapangidwa yomwe imayenera kuyendetsa galimoto. Masiku ano, oyendetsa magalimoto ambiri amadziwa mitundu iwiri yokha yamagalimoto - injini zamagetsi zamagetsi ndi zamkati.

Komabe, pakati pa zosintha zomwe zikugwira ntchito pamaziko a poyatsira mafuta osakaniza, pali mitundu yambiri. Kusintha koteroko kumatchedwa injini ya nkhonya. Tiyeni tiwone tanthauzo lake, mtundu wamasinthidwe awa ndi wotani, nanga ndi zabwino ndi zoyipa zanji.

Kodi injini ya nkhonya ndi chiyani?

Ambiri amakhulupirira kuti uwu ndi mtundu wamapangidwe ooneka ngati V, koma wokhala ndi chipinda chachikulu. M'malo mwake, uwu ndi mtundu wina wamafuta amkati woyaka. Ndiyamika kamangidwe kameneka, mota uli ndi msinkhu wosachepera.

Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Mu ndemanga, mayunitsi amtunduwu nthawi zambiri amatchedwa wankhonya. Izi zikuwonetsa kuphatikizika kwa gulu la pisitoni - akuwoneka kuti amamanga thumba kuchokera mbali zosiyanasiyana (kusunthana wina ndi mnzake).

Injini yoyamba yomenyera yoyamba idachitika mu 1938. Adapangidwa ndi mainjiniya ku VW. Zinali 4 yamphamvu 2-lita. Kutalika komwe unityo imatha kufikira inali 150 hp.

Chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake apadera, mota imagwiritsidwa ntchito m'matangi, magalimoto ena amasewera, njinga zamoto ndi mabasi.

M'malo mwake, mota yooneka ngati V komanso womenya nkhonya alibe zofanana. Amasiyana momwe amagwirira ntchito.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito injini ya nkhonya ndi kapangidwe kake

Mu injini yoyaka yapakatikati, pisitoni imakwera ndi kutsika kuti ifike ku TDC ndi BDC. Kuti mukwaniritse kuzungulira kosalala kwa ma crankshaft, ma pistoni amayenera kuwombedwa mosinthana ndi zovuta zina panthawi yakukwapula.

Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Mu bokosi la nkhonya, kusalala kumakwaniritsidwa chifukwa choti ma pistoni awiri nthawi zonse amagwira ntchito mofananamo mwina mosiyanasiyana, kapena moyandikana kwambiri.

Mwa mitundu iyi ya injini, ambiri - anayi ndi zisanu yamphamvu, koma palinso zosintha 8 ndi 12 zonenepa (masewera masewera).

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Ma mota awa ali ndi njira ziwiri zosungira nthawi, koma amalumikizidwa ndi lamba umodzi woyendetsa (kapena unyolo, kutengera mtunduwo). Olemba nkhonya amatha kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta ndi mafuta a dizilo (poyatsira chisakanizocho chimasiyana mofananamo ndi injini wamba).

Mitundu yayikulu yamakina ankhonya

Masiku ano, makampani monga Porsche, Subaru ndi BMW nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito injini zamtunduwu mgalimoto zawo. Zosintha zingapo zidapangidwa ndi akatswiri:

  • Wolemba nkhonya;
  • RUSSIA;
  • 5TDF.

Mitundu iliyonse imawoneka chifukwa chakusintha kwamitundu yapitayi.

Boxer

A mbali ya kusinthidwa ndi malo chapakati pa makina tiyipukuse. Izi zimagawira kulemera kwa injini mofanana, komwe kumachepetsa kugwedezeka kuchokera pagawo.

Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Kuonjezera kuyendetsa bwino kwa mota wotere, wopanga amakonzekeretsa ndi chopangira mphamvu zamagetsi. Izi zimawonjezera mphamvu ya injini yoyaka mkati mwa 30% poyerekeza ndi anzawo amlengalenga.

Mitundu yabwino kwambiri imakhala ndi masilindala asanu ndi limodzi, koma palinso mitundu yamasewera yokhala ndi masilindala 12. 6-yamphamvu kusinthidwa ndi ambiri mwa injini ofanana lathyathyathya.

RUSSIA

Makina oyaka amkati amtunduwu ali mgulu la injini ziwiri. A mbali ya kusinthidwa ndi osiyana pang'ono ntchito gulu pisitoni. Pali ma pistoni awiri mu silinda imodzi.

Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Wina akamenyedwa, winayo amachotsa mpweya wotulutsa mpweya ndikuwonetsera chipinda champhamvu. Mu injini ngati izi, palibe yamphamvu mutu, komanso dongosolo yogawa mpweya.

Ndiyamika kamangidwe aka, Motors za kusinthaku ndi pafupifupi theka lopepuka kuposa injini zoyaka zamkati momwemo. Mwa iwo, ma piston ali ndi sitiroko yaying'ono, yomwe imachepetsa kutayika kwamagetsi chifukwa chotsutsana, komanso kumawonjezera kupirira kwa magetsi.

Popeza chomera chamagetsi chimakhala ndi magawo pafupifupi 50%, ndiyopepuka kuposa kusintha kwa sitiroko zinayi. Izi zimapangitsa galimotoyo kukhala yopepuka pang'ono, yomwe imakhudza magwiridwe antchito.

5TDF

Magalimoto oterewa amaikidwa mu zida zapadera. Gawo lalikulu logwiritsira ntchito ndi makampani ankhondo. Amayikidwa m'mathanki.

Makina oyaka amkati awa ali ndi zipilala ziwiri zokhala mbali zotsutsana za nyumbayo. Ma pistoni awiri amakhala mu silinda imodzi. Ali ndi chipinda chimodzi chogwirira ntchito momwe mpweya wamagetsi umayatsidwa.

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Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Mpweya umalowa mu cylinder chifukwa cha turbocharging, monga momwe zimakhalira ndi OROC. Magalimoto amenewa ndi othamanga kwambiri, koma ndi amphamvu kwambiri. Pa 2000 rpm. chipangizocho chimapanga 700 hp. Chimodzi mwazovuta za zosinthazi ndi voliyumu yayikulu (mumitundu ina imafika malita 13).

Ubwino wa injini ya nkhonya

Zomwe zachitika posachedwa mu ma boxer motors zakulitsa kulimba kwawo komanso kudalirika. Kamangidwe mosabisa ka powertrain kali ndi zinthu zambiri zabwino:

  • Pakatikati pa mphamvu yokoka ndi yotsika kuposa ma mota achikale, omwe amathandizira kukhazikika kwa galimoto pamapindidwe;
  • Ntchito yolondola komanso kukonza kwakanthawi kumathandizira kuti pakhale nthawi pakati pakukongoletsa mpaka 1 km. Mileage (poyerekeza ndi injini wamba). Koma eni ake ndi osiyana, chifukwa chake zowonjezerazo zitha kukhala zokulirapo;
  • Popeza mayendedwe obwereza omwe amapezeka mbali imodzi ya injini yoyaka mkati amalipira katunduyo ndi njira yofananira kuchokera mbali inayo, phokoso ndi kugwedezeka mmenemo kumachepetsedwa;Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito
  • Motors a nkhonya akhala odalirika kwambiri;
  • Mapangidwe athyathyathya, ngati atakhudzidwa mwachindunji pangozi, amapita mkati mwa galimoto, zomwe zimachepetsa chiopsezo chovulala kwambiri.

Kuipa kwa injini ya nkhonya

Ichi ndi chitukuko chosowa kwambiri - magalimoto onse apakatikati amakhala ndi ma mota odziwika bwino. Chifukwa cha kapangidwe kake, ndiokwera mtengo kwambiri kukonza.

Kuphatikiza pa kukonza okwera mtengo, omenya nkhonya ali ndi zovuta zina zingapo, koma zambiri mwazi ndizofanana:

  • Chifukwa cha kapangidwe kake, mota wamagalimoto amatha mafuta ambiri. Komabe, kutengera zomwe mungafanizire. Pali injini zapakati zomwe ndizolimba kwambiri mwakuti njira yaying'ono koma yokwera mtengo imaganiziridwa bwino;
  • Zovuta zakukonzanso zimakhala chifukwa cha ochepa akatswiri omwe amamvetsetsa motors zotere. Ena amati magalimoto a nkhonya ndizovuta kusamalira. Nthawi zina, izi zimakhala zowona - mota iyenera kuchotsedwa m'malo mwa ma plugs, ndi zina zambiri. Koma zimadalira mtunduwo;Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito
  • Popeza magalimoto oterewa sapezeka kwenikweni, ndiye kuti zida zawo zogulira zimatha kugulidwa mwa dongosolo, ndipo mtengo wake ukhale wokwera kuposa ma analogu wamba;
  • Pali akatswiri ochepa ndi malo opangira maofesi omwe ali okonzeka kukonza gawoli.
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Zovuta pakukonza ndi kukonza makina ankhonya

Monga tanenera kale, chimodzi mwazovuta zoyipa zamagalimoto ndizovuta kukonza ndi kukonza. Komabe, izi sizikugwirizana ndi zotsutsana zonse. Mavuto ena ndi zosintha zisanu yamphamvu. Ponena za anzawo a 2 ndi 4-silinda, zovuta zimangokhudza mapangidwe (makandulo nthawi zambiri amakhala pamalo ovuta kufikako, nthawi zambiri magalimoto onse amayenera kuchotsedwa kuti asinthe).

Ngati mwini galimoto ali ndi injini ya nkhonya ndiye woyambitsa, ndiye mulimonsemo, muyenera kulumikizana ndi malo othandizira anthu. Ndi zolakwika zina, mutha kuphwanya mosavuta magwiridwe antchito amagetsi.

Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Mbali ina yokonza magalimoto oterewa ndi njira yovomerezeka yothetsera zonenepa, ma pistoni ndi ma valve. Pakapanda kusungika kwa kaboni pazinthu izi, moyo wautumiki wa injini yoyaka mkati ungakulitsidwe. Ndi bwino kuchita opareshoni iyi kugwa, kuti mota izitha kuyenda nthawi yachisanu.

Ponena za kukonzanso kwakukulu, vuto lalikulu kwambiri ndilokwera mtengo kwambiri kwa "capital". Ndiokwera kwambiri kotero kuti ndikosavuta kugula galimoto yatsopano (kapena yogwiritsidwa ntchito, koma yokhala ndi moyo wokwanira) kuposa kukonza yomwe yalephera.

Poganizira zomwe zidalembedwa mu injini ya nkhonya, omwe adakumana ndi chisankho: kuli koyenera kugula galimoto yokhala ndi injini yotere kapena ayi, tsopano pali zambiri kuti mudziwe zomwe akuyenera kunyengerera. Ndipo pankhani yotsutsana, kunyengerera kokha ndi nkhani yazachuma.

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Chifukwa chiyani injini ya boxer ndiyabwino? Chigawo choterechi chimakhala ndi mphamvu yokoka (chimawonjezera kukhazikika kwa makina), kugwedezeka pang'ono (ma pistoni amagwirizana), komanso ali ndi ntchito yaikulu (millionaire).

Ndani Amagwiritsa Ntchito Boxer Engines? Mu zitsanzo zamakono, boxer imayikidwa ndi Subaru ndi Porsche. M'magalimoto akale, injini yotere imapezeka ku Citroen, Alfa Romeo, Chevrolet, Lancia, ndi zina zotero.

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Waukulu » nkhani » Injini ya nkhonya: mitundu, chida ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito

Ndemanga ya 1

  1. Ma injini a nkhonya akhala akutali kwakanthawi kuposa momwe mungaganizire. Injini yoyamba ya Henry Ford inali womenya nkhonya, 2 silinda 2 lita mu 1903 ndipo Karl Benz anali nayo mu 1899. Ngakhale Jowett waku Bradford sanachitenso china chilichonse kuyambira 1910 mpaka 1954. Opanga oposa 20 agwiritsa ntchito ankhonya m'magalimoto, osanyalanyaza ma mota ambiri aero.

Kuwonjezera ndemanga