Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Zamkatimu

Mu magalimoto oyamba, kuti ayambe injini, woyendetsa galimotoyo amayenera kukhala ndi chogwirira chapadera. Ndi thandizo lake, iye anatembenuka crankshaft lapansi. Popita nthawi, mainjiniya apanga chida chapadera chomwe chimathandizira izi. Ichi ndi choyambitsa galimoto. Cholinga chake ndikuti kuyambitsa injini, dalaivala amangofunika kutsegulira kiyi mu loko, ndi m'mitundu yambiri yamakono, ingodinani batani Yoyambira (kuti mumve zambiri za mwayi wopanda, onani m'nkhani ina).

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Ganizirani za chipangizochi, mitundu ndi kuwonongeka kwodziwika kwa autostarter. Izi sizingakuthandizeni kukonzekera dipuloma, koma kumakulolani kukulolani kuti muone ngati kuli koyenera kuyesa kukonza makinawa panokha mukawonongeka.

Choyambitsa galimoto ndi chiyani

Kunja, oyambitsa magalimoto ndi galimoto yaying'ono yamagetsi yokhala ndi makina oyendetsa. Ntchito yake imaperekedwa ndi magetsi a 12-volt. Ngakhale mitundu yazida zosiyanasiyana imapangidwira mitundu yamagalimoto osiyanasiyana, imakhala ndi njira yolumikizirana yomwe ili m'bwalo.

Chithunzichi pansipa chikuwonetsa chithunzi chofananira cholumikizira:

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto
1) choyambira; 2) kukhazikika; 3) gulu lolumikizana ndi loko koyatsira; 4) batri; A) kulandirana kwakukulu (pini 30); B) kumapeto kwa 50 yamagetsi olamulira; C) pa bokosi lalikulu lama fuyusi (F3); KZ - sitata kulandirana.

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito yoyambira mgalimoto

Mosasamala kanthu kuti galimoto kapena galimoto, zoyambira zizigwiranso ntchito chimodzimodzi:

  • Pambuyo poyambitsa makina oyendetsa galimoto, fungulo limatsegulidwa pachotsekera, kenako limakhota. Makina a maginito a vortex amabwezeretsanso wobwezeretsanso, chifukwa chake koyilo imayamba kukoka pachimake.
  • A bendix yakhazikika pachimake. Makinawa amalumikizidwa ndi korona wa flywheel (kapangidwe kake ndi mfundo zake zikufotokozedwa kubwereza kwina) ndipo amachita ndi kulumikizana kwa zida. Kumbali inayi, khobidi limayikidwa pachimake, lomwe limatseka olumikizana ndi mota wamagetsi.
  • Komanso, magetsi amaperekedwa ku nangula. Malinga ndi malamulo a fizikiya, felemu yoyikidwa pakati pamiyala yamagetsi yolumikizidwa ndi magetsi izungulira. Chifukwa cha maginito omwe stator amapanga (mumitundu yakale, kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwachisangalalo, ndipo m'magulu amakono, nsapato zamaginito zimayikidwa), zida zimayamba kuzungulira.
  • Chifukwa cha kusinthasintha kwa zida za bendix, flywheel, yomwe imalumikizidwa ndi crankshaft, imasinthasintha. Makina oyesera Makina oyaka amkati amayamba kusuntha ma pistoni muzitsulo. Nthawi yomweyo, fayilo ya dongosolo poyatsira и mafuta dongosolo.
  • Makina onsewa akayamba kugwira ntchito palokha, sipafunikanso kuti wina ayambe kugwira ntchito.
  • Makinawo amalephera kuyendetsa pomwe dalaivala asiya kugwira kiyi pachitseko. Masika a gulu lomwe amalumikizana limabwezeretsa malo amodzi kumbuyo, omwe amapatsa mphamvu zoyambira zamagetsi zoyambira.
  • Magetsi akangoyima kupita ku sitata, mphamvu yamaginito imatha posakhalitsa. Chifukwa cha ichi, chimake chodzaza masika chimabwerera kumalo ake, pomwe chimatsegula zida zankhondo ndikusunthira bendix kutali ndi korona wa flywheel.
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  "Kuwongolera nyengo" ndi momwe zimagwirira ntchito

Sitata chipangizo

Woyambitsa galimoto amasintha mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi, popanda zomwe sizingatheke kutembenuza chowulutsira. Injini iliyonse yoyaka yamkati imakhala ndi chida chamagetsi ichi.

Chithunzichi m'munsimu chikuwonetsa gawo la oyambira magalimoto.

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Kapangidwe ka mota yamagetsi ndi iyi:

  1. Sitimayi. Padzakhala nsapato zamaginito mkatimo. Monga tanenera kale, awa ndi maginito wamba, ndipo poyambirira adagwiritsa ntchito maginito amagetsi okhala ndi zoyeserera.
  2. Nangula Ili ndiye shaft yomwe pachimake imakanikizidwa. Kupanga chinthu ichi, ntchito magetsi zitsulo. Grooves amapangidwa mmenemo, pomwe mafelemu amaikidwa, omwe, magetsi akaperekedwa, amayamba kuzungulira. Pali osonkhanitsa kumapeto kwa mafelemuwa. Maburashi amalumikizidwa kwa iwo. Nthawi zambiri pamakhala zinayi - ziwiri pamtengo uliwonse wamagetsi.
  3. Ogwiritsira burashi. Burashi iliyonse imakhazikika m'nyumba zapadera. Alinso ndi akasupe omwe amatsimikizira kulumikizana kosalekeza kwa maburashi ndi wosonkhanitsa.
  4. Zimbalangondo. Gawo lirilonse lozungulira liyenera kukhala lokwanira. Izi zimathetsa kukhathamira ndipo zimalepheretsa kutsinde kutenthetsera pomwe mota ikuyenda.
  5. Bendix. Zida zimayikidwa pamtsinde wamagalimoto amagetsi, omwe amalumikiza ndi flywheel. Gawoli limatha kuyenda mozungulira axial. The bendix palokha imakhala ndi zida zoyikidwa mnyumba (imakhala ndi khola lakunja ndi lamkati, momwe mumakhala ma roller odziyimira kumapeto omwe amaletsa kusunthika kwa torque kuchokera ku flywheel kupita ku shaft shaft). Komabe, kuti isunthire pamutu pawhewheel, pamafunika njira ina.
  6. Kulandirana kwa Solenoid. Awa ndi maginito ena amagetsi omwe amasunthira kulumikizana kwa zida zankhondo. Komanso, chifukwa cha kuyenda kwa chinthuchi ndi mphanda (mfundo yogwirira ntchito ya lever), bendix imayenda mozungulira, ndikubwerera chifukwa cha kasupe.

Kuyanjana kwabwino kuchokera ku batri kulumikizidwa kumtunda kwa nyumba yoyambira. Magetsi amadutsa mafelemu omwe adakwera m'manja ndikupita kukakumana ndi maburashi. Oyambitsa mota amafunikira poyambira yayikulu kuti ayambe injini. Kutengera mtundu wa chipangizochi, pulogalamuyi ikhoza kukhala pafupifupi 400 amperes. Pachifukwa ichi, posankha batiri yatsopano, muyenera kuganizira zomwe zikuyambira (kuti mumve zambiri za momwe mungasankhire magetsi atsopano omwe makina ena ayenera kukhala nawo, onani payokha).

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Zigawo zikuluzikulu

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Chifukwa chake, choyambira choyambitsa mota chimakhala ndi:

  • Stator ndi maginito;
  • Zitsulo zokhala ndi mafelemu, zomwe zimaperekedwa ndi magetsi;
  • Kutumizira kwa solenoid (kudzapangidwa ndi maginito amagetsi, pachimake ndi olumikizana nawo);
  • Chofukizira ndi maburashi;
  • Bendiksa;
  • Mafoloko a Bendix;
  • Nyumba.

Mitundu yoyambira

Kutengera mtundu wa injini, pamafunika kusintha kosiyana kwa sitata, komwe kumatha kugwedeza crankshaft. Mwachitsanzo, makokedwe a makinawo ndi osiyana ndi mafuta ndi dizilo, chifukwa kugwira ntchito kwa injini ya dizilo kumakhudzana ndi kuchuluka kwa kupanikizika.

Ngati titha kusiyanitsa zosintha zonse, ndiye kuti:

  • Mtundu wochepetsera;
  • Mtundu wopanda magiya.

Ndi zida

Mtundu wamagetsi umakhala ndi zida zazing'ono zamagetsi. Imawonjezera kuthamanga kwa oyambitsa magalimoto osagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa. Mtunduwu umakuthandizani kuti muyambitse injini mwachangu, ngakhale batiriyo ili yakale komanso ikutha msanga.

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Poyambira izi, mkati mwake mudzakhala maginito okhazikika, kuti stator yovutikira isavutike, popeza kulibe. Komanso, chipangizocho sichimawononga mphamvu ya batri kuti imitsegulire kumunda. Chifukwa chosowa kwa stator, makinawo ndi ocheperako poyerekeza ndi analogue yakale.

Chokhachokha pazida zamtunduwu ndikuti zida zimatha kutha msanga. Koma ngati gawo la fakitoli limapangidwa ndi mtundu wapamwamba, kusokonekera uku sikuchitika nthawi zambiri kuposa poyambira wamba.

Popanda zida

Mtundu wopanda magiya ndimayambira wamba momwe zida za bendix zimalumikizidwira molunjika ndi korona wa flywheel. Ubwino wa zosinthazi ndi mtengo wawo komanso kukonza kosavuta. Chifukwa cha magawo ochepa, chipangizochi chimakhala ndi moyo wautali.

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Zoyipa zamtunduwu ndizoti zimafunikira mphamvu zambiri kuti zigwiritse ntchito. Ngati muli ndi batire yakufa yakufa m'galimoto, ndiye kuti poyambira pakadali pano sipangakhale yokwanira kuti chipangizocho chizungulireni flywheel.

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Zoyipa zazikulu ndi zoyambitsa

Woyambitsa magalimoto samalephera mwadzidzidzi. Nthawi zambiri, kuwonongeka kwake kumalumikizidwa ndi zinthu zingapo zomwe zimasokoneza ntchito yake. Kwenikweni, kuwonongeka kwa zida ndizambiri. Zolakwitsa zonse zitha kugawidwa pamitundu iwiri. Uku ndi kulephera kwamakina kapena kwamagetsi.

Mitundu, chipangizo ndi mfundo zoyambira zoyambira zamagalimoto

Kufotokozera za kulephera kwamakina kumaphatikizapo:

  • Kukanikiza kwa mbale yolumikizirana yamagetsi yamagetsi;
  • Zovala zachilengedwe za mayendedwe ndi manja opeza;
  • Kukula kwa cholembera bendix m'mipando (cholakwika ichi chimapangitsa kuti katundu azigudubuza poyambira injini yoyaka yamkati);
  • Mphero ya bendix foloko kapena kutulutsa tsinde lolandirana.

Ponena za zolakwika zamagetsi, nthawi zambiri zimalumikizidwa ndi chitukuko pamaburashi kapena mbale zosonkhetsa. Komanso, kusokonekera kwamphamvu nthawi zambiri kumachitika chifukwa chotopa kapena kufupika. Ngati pali yopuma mu kumulowetsa, ndiye kuti m'malo m'malo limagwirira kuposa kuyesa kupeza malo olephera. Pakakhala maburashi ovala, amasinthidwa, chifukwa awa ndi zida zamagetsi zamagetsi.

Kuwonongeka kwamakina kumatsagana ndi phokoso lakunja, lirilonse lomwe lingafanane ndi kuwonongeka kwina. Mwachitsanzo, chifukwa cha kukokoloka (kukula kwa mayendedwe), oyambitsa amagogoda poyambitsa injini.

Kusanthula mwatsatanetsatane kwa sitata ndi kukonza kwake kumakambidwa muvidiyo yotsatirayi:

KUKHALA KWAMBIRI KWA MANKHWALA

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi choyambitsa chimagwira ntchito bwanji mwachidule? Kiyi yoyatsira ikatembenuzidwa, mafungulo apano amayenda kupita ku solenoid (kukoka-mu relay). Foloko ya bendix imayiyika pa mphete ya flywheel. Galimoto yamagetsi imazungulira bendx poyendetsa flywheel.

Kodi ntchito yoyambira ndi chiyani? Choyambira m'galimoto chimafunika kuti magetsi ayambitse gawo lamagetsi. Ili ndi mota yamagetsi yoyendetsedwa ndi batire. Mpaka injini itayamba, injini yoyambira imalandira mphamvu kuchokera ku batri.

Kodi Bendix sitata imagwira ntchito bwanji? Kiyi yoyatsira ikatembenuka, foloko imasuntha bendx (giya) kupita ku mphete ya flywheel. Kiyi ikatulutsidwa, pompopompo imasiya kupita ku solenoid, ndipo kasupe amabwezeretsa bendix pamalo ake.

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