Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Zamkatimu

Makina ena agalimoto amafuna magetsi kuti agwire ntchito. Ena amagwiritsa ntchito gawo lochepa chabe lamphamvu, mwachitsanzo, pokhapokha pakuchita sensa imodzi. Machitidwe ena ndi ovuta ndipo sangathe kugwira ntchito popanda magetsi.

Mwachitsanzo, poyambitsa injini koyambirira, madalaivala amagwiritsa ntchito kachingwe kapadera. Adalowetsedwa mu dzenje lomwe adapangira ndipo, mothandizidwa ndi mphamvu yakuthupi, injini yoyaka injiniyo idasinthidwa. Simungagwiritse ntchito makina otere m'galimoto zamakono. M'malo mwa njirayi, sitata imagwirizanitsidwa ndi flywheel. Izi zimagwiritsa ntchito pakadali pano kutembenuza chowuluka.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Kuti apereke makina onse agalimoto ndimagetsi, opanga amapangira batire. Takambirana kale momwe tingasamalire izi. mu umodzi mwamaphunziro am'mbuyomu... Tsopano tiyeni tikambirane za mitundu ya mabatire omwe amatha kuwonjezeredwa.

Kodi batri ndi chiyani

Tiyeni tiyambe ndi mawu. Batire yamagalimoto ndiye gwero lamakono lamagetsi yamagalimoto. Imatha kusunga magetsi pomwe injini ikuyenda (jenereta imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita izi).

Ndi chida chobwezerezedwanso. Ikatulutsidwa mpaka kufika pomwe galimoto singayime, batire imachotsedwa ndikulumikizidwa ndi charger, yomwe imagwira ntchito pamagetsi apanyumba. Njira zina zoyambira injini batire ikabzalidwa ikufotokozedwa apa.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto, batire limatha kukhazikitsidwa m'chipinda cha injini, pansi, munjira ina kunja kwa galimoto kapena thunthu.

Chipangizo cha batri

Batri yowonjezera imapangidwa ndi maselo angapo (otchedwa bank bank). Selo lirilonse liri ndi mbale. Platinamu iliyonse imakhala ndi chindapusa chabwino kapena choyipa. Pali chosiyanitsa china pakati pawo. Imaletsa madera amfupi pakati pa mbale.

Kuchulukitsa malo olumikizirana ndi electrolyte, mbale iliyonse imapangidwa ngati gridi. Zapangidwa ndi lead. Zinthu yogwiritsira ntchito imakanikizidwa mchipinda, chomwe chimakhala ndi porous (izi zimapangitsa kuti mbaleyo igwirizane).

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mbale yabwino imapangidwa ndi lead ndi sulfuric acid. Sarium sulphate imaphatikizidwa mu kapangidwe ka mbale yoyipa. Pakulipira, chinthu chamtengo wapatali chimasinthira kapangidwe kake ndipo chimakhala dioxide yoyipa. Mzere woyipa wa pole umakhala mbale wamba. Chaja ikadulidwa, mbaleyo imabwerera pomwe idasinthirako ndikusintha kwa kapangidwe ka mankhwala.

Ma electrolyte amathiridwa mumtsuko uliwonse. Ndi chinthu chamadzimadzi chomwe chimakhala ndi asidi ndi madzi. Madziwo amachititsa kuti mankhwala azigwira ntchito pakati pa mbale, zomwe zimapangidwira pakali pano.

Maselo onse a batri amakhala mnyumba. Zimapangidwa ndi mtundu wina wapulasitiki womwe umagonjetsedwa ndi kuwonetseredwa kosalekeza ku malo okhala ndi acidic.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito batri yosungira (accumulator)

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Batire yamagalimoto imagwiritsa ntchito kayendedwe ka tinthu tating'onoting'ono popanga magetsi. Njira ziwiri zosiyanasiyana zimachitika mu batri, chifukwa chomwe gwero lamagetsi lingagwiritsidwe ntchito kwa nthawi yayitali:

  • Low batire. Pakadali pano, chinthu chogwiracho chimasokoneza mbale (anode), yomwe imabweretsa kutulutsa kwa ma elekitironi. Tinthu timeneti timalunjika pa mbale yachiwiri - katemera. Chifukwa cha kusintha kwa mankhwala, magetsi amamasulidwa;
  • Kutengera kwa batri. Pakadali pano, njira yotsutsana imachitika - ma elekitironi amasandulika ma proton ndipo zinthuzo zimawasamutsira - kuchokera ku cathode kupita ku anode. Zotsatira zake, ma mbalewo amabwezeretsedwanso, kuti njira yotsatira yotulutsira itheke.

Mitundu ndi mitundu ya mabatire

Pali mabatire osiyanasiyana masiku ano. Amasiyana wina ndi mzake pazakudya za mbale ndi kapangidwe ka electrolyte. Mitundu yachikhalidwe cha acid-lead imagwiritsidwa ntchito mgalimoto, koma pamakhala milandu yambiri yogwiritsa ntchito matekinoloje apamwamba. Nazi zina mwazinthu za izi ndi mitundu ina ya batri.

Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Zinthu 5 zofunika kukumbukira m'galimoto
Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Zachikhalidwe ("antimony")

Batire yokhala ndi asidi, mbale zake zomwe zili 5 peresenti kapena kuposa antimoni. Katunduyu adawonjezeredwa pakupanga maelekitirodi kuti awonjezere mphamvu. Electrolysis muzinthu zamagetsi zotere ndizoyambirira kwambiri. Nthawi yomweyo, mphamvu yokwanira imatulutsidwa, koma ma mbalewo amawonongeka mwachangu (njirayi imayamba kale pa 12 V).

Choipa chachikulu pamabatire otere ndikutulutsa kwakukulu kwa oxygen ndi haidrojeni (ma bubu amlengalenga), komwe kumapangitsa kuti madzi azitini asanduke nthunzi. Pachifukwa ichi, mabatire onse antimoni amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito - kamodzi pamwezi, muyenera kuyang'ana mulingo ndi kachulukidwe ka electrolyte. Kukonza kumaphatikizapo kuwonjezera kwa madzi osungunuka, ngati kuli kofunikira, kuti mbalezo zisawuluke.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mabatire oterowo sagwiritsidwanso ntchito mgalimoto kuti zikhale zosavuta momwe driver angayendetsere galimoto. Ma analogs otsika antimony asintha mabatire otere.

Antimoni ochepa

Kuchuluka kwa antimony m'mapangidwewo kumachepetsedwa kuti muchepetse njira yotulutsa madzi. Mfundo ina yabwino ndiyakuti batire silimatuluka mwachangu chifukwa chosungira. Zosintha zoterezi zimawerengedwa ngati zosamalira zochepa kapena zosasamalira.

Izi zikutanthauza kuti mwini galimoto sayenera kuyang'ana kuchuluka kwa ma elekitirodi ndi voliyumu mwezi uliwonse. Ngakhale sangatchulidwe kukhala osasamalira kwathunthu, popeza madzi omwe ali mmenemo amawira mulimonse, ndipo voliyumu iyenera kudzazidwanso.

Ubwino wa mabatire oterewa ndi kudzichepetsa kwawo pakugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu. Mumayendedwe amtundu wamagalimoto, mafunde angakwere ndi kutsika kumatha kuchitika, koma izi sizimakhudza mphamvu yamagetsi, monga momwe zimakhalira ndi calcium kapena gel analogue.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Pachifukwa ichi, mabatire awa ndioyenera kwambiri pagalimoto zoweta zomwe sizingadzitamande pokhala ndi zida zamagetsi zomwe zimagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu. Amayeneranso oyendetsa galimoto omwe ali ndi ndalama zambiri.

Calcium

Uku ndikusinthidwa kwa batri yotsika kwambiri ya antimony. M'malo mokhala ndi antimoni, calcium imangowonjezeredwa m'ma mbale. Kuphatikiza apo, nkhaniyi ndi gawo lama electrode amitengo yonse iwiri. Ca / Ca imawonetsedwa pamtundu wa batri lotere. Pofuna kuchepetsa kukana kwamkati, ma mbale omwe nthawi zina amakhala okutidwa ndi siliva (kachigawo kakang'ono kwambiri ka zomwe zili).

Kuwonjezera kwa calcium kunachepetsanso kuchepa kwa gassing panthawi yama batire. Kuchuluka kwake ndi kuchuluka kwa ma elekitirodi mu zosinthazi pantchito yonseyo sikuyenera kuyang'aniridwa konse, chifukwa chake amatchedwanso kuti osasamalira.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mphamvu yamagetsi yamtunduwu ndi yocheperako 70% (poyerekeza ndi kusinthidwa kwam'mbuyomu) kutengera kudzitulutsa. Chifukwa cha izi, zimatha kusungidwa kwa nthawi yayitali, mwachitsanzo, nthawi yosungira zida m'nyengo yozizira.

Ubwino winanso ndikuti samawopa kukokomeza, chifukwa ma electrolysis mwa iwo samayambiranso zaka 12, koma pa 16 V.

Ngakhale pali zinthu zambiri zabwino, mabatire a calcium ali ndi zovuta zingapo zazikulu:

  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu kumatsika ngati atulutsidwa kwathunthu kangapo kenako ndikupatsidwanso mphamvu. Kuphatikiza apo, gawo ili limachepa kwambiri kotero kuti batire limafunikira kulowanso m'malo, popeza mphamvu yake siyokwanira kuti magwiridwe antchito azolumikizidwe ndi netiweki yamagalimoto;
  • Mtengo wowonjezeka wa malonda umafuna ndalama zambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ogwiritsa ntchito omwe ali ndi ndalama zambiri azipezeka;
  • Gawo lalikulu logwiritsiridwa ntchito ndi magalimoto akunja, popeza zida zawo ndizokhazikika pamphamvu yamagetsi (mwachitsanzo, magetsi am'mbali nthawi zambiri amangozimitsa, ngakhale dalaivala mwangozi atayiwala kuzimitsa, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimabweretsa kutulutsidwa kwathunthu kwa batri);
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito batriyiti kumafunikira chidwi, koma ndi chisamaliro choyenera chagalimoto (kugwiritsa ntchito zida zapamwamba kwambiri komanso chidwi kuti chikwaniritse zonse), batire iyi imatha nthawi yayitali kuposa mnzake wotsutsana nayo.
Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Jekeseni wamadzi mu injini yamagalimoto

Zophatikiza

Mabatirewa amatchedwa Ca +. Mbale ndiosakanizidwa pakusintha uku. Chotsatiracho chikhoza kuphatikizapo antimony, ndipo cholakwika chingakhale calcium. Potengera magwiridwe antchito, mabatire oterewa ndi otsika poyerekeza ndi a calcium, koma madzi amawira mwa iwo mocheperapo kuposa ma antimoni ochepa.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mabatire otere samavutika kwambiri ndikutulutsidwa kwathunthu, ndipo samawopa kubweza. Njira yabwino kwambiri ngati njira yosankhira bajeti siyokhutiritsa mwaukadaulo, ndipo palibe ndalama zokwanira za analogue ya calcium.

Gel osakaniza, AGM

Mabatire amenewa amagwiritsa ntchito gel electrolyte. Chifukwa chopangira mabatire oterowo chinali zinthu ziwiri:

  • Maelekitirodi amadzimadzi a mabatire ochiritsira amatuluka msanga pakakhala vuto la nkhawa. Izi sizodzaza ndi kuwonongeka kwa katundu kokha (thupi lamagalimoto lidzawonongeka msanga), komanso limatha kupweteketsa thanzi la munthu pomwe woyendetsa akuyesera kuchita kena kake;
  • Patapita kanthawi, mbale, chifukwa chogwira ntchito mosasamala, zimatha kugwa (kutayika).

Mavutowa adathetsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito gelled electrolyte.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mukusintha kwa AGM, chida chowonjezera chimaphatikizidwa ndi chipangizocho, chomwe chimanyamula gel pafupi ndi mbale, kuteteza mapangidwe ang'onoang'ono mdera lawo.

Ubwino wa mabatire otere ndi awa:

  • Saopa kupendekera - kwa mitundu yokhala ndi maelekitirodi amadzimadzi, izi sizingatheke, chifukwa panthawi yomwe akugwira ntchito, mpweya umapangidwabe, womwe, utatembenuzidwa, umavumbula mbale;
  • Kusungidwa kwakanthawi kwa batri komwe kumaloledwa kumaloledwa, popeza ali ndi malire ocheperako;
  • Kuzungulira konsekonse pakati pamilandu, imapanga nyengo yokhazikika;
  • Saopa kutulutsa kwathunthu - mphamvu ya batriyo siyimatayika nthawi yomweyo;
  • Moyo wogwira ntchito pazinthu zotere umafikira zaka khumi.

Kuphatikiza pa maubwino, mabatire amtundu wamagalimoto ali ndi zovuta zingapo zomwe zimasokoneza ogwiritsa ntchito ambiri omwe akufuna kuziyika mgalimoto yawo:

  • Zabwino kwambiri kulipiritsa - izi zimafunikira kugwiritsa ntchito ma charger apadera omwe amapereka chiwongolero chokhazikika komanso chotsika;
  • Kutcha mwachangu sikuloledwa;
  • M'nyengo yozizira, mphamvu ya batire imagwa kwambiri, popeza gel osakaniza amachepetsa katundu wawo akamakhazikika;
  • Galimotoyo iyenera kukhala ndi jenereta yokhazikika, chifukwa chake zosintha zotere zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mgalimoto zapamwamba;
  • Mtengo wapamwamba kwambiri.

Alkaline

Mabatire agalimoto amatha kudzazidwa ndi acidic komanso ma alkaline electrolyte. M'malo mwa lead, mbale pazosinthidwa izi zimapangidwa ndi faifi tambala ndi cadmium kapena faifi tambala ndi chitsulo. Potaziyamu hydroxide imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati wochititsa wogwira ntchito.

Maelekitirodi m'mabatire amenewa safunika kudzazidwanso, chifukwa samatentha pomwe akugwira ntchito. Poyerekeza ndi anzawo a asidi, mabatire amtunduwu ali ndi izi:

  • Osawopa kugulitsa ngongole mopitirira muyeso;
  • Batiri imatha kusungidwa ikutha, ndipo siyitaya katundu wake;
  • Kubwezeretsanso sikofunikira kwa iwo;
  • Kukhazikika kwambiri kutentha pang'ono;
  • Sizingatheke kutaya okha;
  • Sizimatulutsa nthunzi zowononga, zomwe zimawalola kuti azilipiritsa malo okhala;
  • Amasunga mphamvu zambiri.
Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Asanagule zosinthazi, mwini galimoto ayenera kudziwa ngati ali wokonzeka kuchita izi:

  • Batiri yamchere imatulutsa mphamvu yamagetsi yochepa, motero zitini zambiri zimafunikira kuposa mnzake wa asidi. Mwachilengedwe, izi zimakhudza kukula kwa batri, komwe kungapatse mphamvu zofunikira pa netiweki inayake;
  • Mtengo wapamwamba;
  • Yoyenera kutengera kuposa zoyambira.
Zambiri pa mutuwo:
  Konzekeretsani injini musanayendetse: kodi ndikofunikira kapena ayi?

Li-ion

Zotsogola kwambiri pakadali pano ndizosankha za lithiamu-ion. Mpaka kumapeto, ukadaulo uwu sunamalizidwe - kapangidwe kazakudya kosasintha kamasintha nthawi zonse, koma chinthu chomwe zoyeserera zimachitika ndi ma lithiamu ayoni.

Zifukwa zosinthira izi ndizowonjezera chitetezo panthawi yogwira ntchito (mwachitsanzo, chitsulo cha lithiamu chinkaphulika), komanso kuchepa kwa kawopsedwe (kusinthidwa ndi mayankho a manganese ndi lithiamu oxide kunali koopsa kwambiri, ndichifukwa chake magalimoto amagetsi pazinthu zotere sizikanatchedwa "zobiriwira" thiransipoti).

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mabatire awa adapangidwa kuti azikhala okhazikika komanso otetezeka momwe angathere. Ubwino wazinthu zatsopanozi ndi monga:

  • Kukula kwakukulu poyerekeza ndi mabatire ofanana;
  • Mphamvu yamagetsi yayikulu (banki imodzi imatha kupereka 4 V, yomwe imapitilira kawiri kuposa analogi ya "classic");
  • Sangathe kutaya mtima pakokha.

Ngakhale izi zili bwino, mabatire otere sanakwanitse kupikisana ndi ma analogues ena. Pali zifukwa zingapo izi:

  • Samagwira bwino ntchito mu chisanu (kutentha kotentha kumatulutsa msanga);
  • Ozungulira ochepa omwe amalipiritsa / kutulutsa (mpaka mazana asanu);
  • Kusungidwa kwa batri kumabweretsa kuchepa kwa mphamvu - pakatha zaka ziwiri ichepetsa ndi 20%;
  • Amaopa kutuluka kwathunthu;
  • Amapereka mphamvu zochepa kuti azitha kuyigwiritsa ntchito poyambira - zida zizigwira ntchito kwa nthawi yayitali, koma palibe mphamvu yokwanira yoyambira mota.

Palinso chitukuko china chomwe akufuna kuti akwaniritse mgalimoto zamagetsi - supercapacitor. Mwa njira, magalimoto apangidwa kale omwe amayendetsa batire yamtunduwu, komabe, ali ndi zovuta zina zomwe zimawalepheretsa kupikisana ndi mabatire owopsa komanso owopsa. Kukula koteroko ndi galimoto yamagetsi yoyendetsedwa ndi magetsi kubwereza kwina.

Moyo wa batri

Ngakhale masiku ano kafukufuku akuchitika kuti athandize kuchita bwino ndi chitetezo cha mabatire amtundu wa galimoto, mpaka pano zotchuka kwambiri ndizosankha acid.

Zinthu zotsatirazi zimakhudza moyo wa batri:

  • Kutentha komwe kumagwiritsidwa ntchito magetsi;
  • Battery;
  • Makina opanga magwiridwe antchito;
  • Kukonzekera kwa batri;
  • Njira Yokwera;
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zida zikazimitsidwa.

Kusungidwa koyenera kwa batri komwe sikukugwiritsidwa ntchito kwafotokozedwera apa.

Batire m'galimoto - ndichiyani?

Mabatire ambiri a asidi amakhala ndi moyo wochepa wogwira ntchito - omwe ali abwino kwambiri, ngakhale malamulo onse ogwira ntchito akawonetsedwa, adzagwira ntchito kuyambira zaka zisanu mpaka zisanu ndi ziwiri. Nthawi zambiri awa ndi mitundu yosamaliridwa. Amadziwika ndi dzina lodziwika bwino - opanga odziwika samasokoneza mbiri yawo ndi zinthu zotsika kwambiri. Komanso, chinthu choterocho chimakhala ndi nthawi yayitali yotsimikizira - zaka ziwiri.

Njira yosankhira bajeti izikhala zaka zitatu, ndipo chitsimikizo cha iwo sichidutsa miyezi 12. Simuyenera kuthamangira ku njirayi, chifukwa ndizosatheka kupanga mabatire abwino.

Ngakhale ndizosatheka kudziwa komwe kumagwirira ntchito kwazaka zambiri, izi ndizofanana ndi zamatayala agalimoto, omwe amafotokozedwa m'nkhani ina... Batire yapakati imayenera kupirira kuzungulira kwa 4 / kutulutsa.

Zambiri pazokhudza batri zafotokozedwa muvidiyoyi:

Kodi batri yamagalimoto imatenga nthawi yayitali bwanji?

Mafunso ndi Mayankho:

Kodi batire imatanthauza chiyani? Accumulator batire - batire yosungirako. Ichi ndi chipangizo chomwe chimapanga magetsi odziyimira pawokha ofunikira kuti azigwiritsa ntchito zida zamagetsi m'galimoto.

Kodi batire imachita chiyani? Akayimitsidwa, magetsi amayamba kupanga mankhwala. Batire ikapanda kulipiritsidwa, njira yamankhwala imayambika kuti ipange magetsi.

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