Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
 

Abubuwa

Injinan konewa na cikin gida bai fito ba kamar rarrabuwar wutar lantarki da ƙarfi. Maimakon haka, tsohuwar motar ta samo asali ne sakamakon tsabtacewa da haɓaka injunan zafi. Karanta yadda na'urar, wacce muke saba gani a karkashin murfin motoci, ta bayyana a hankali. a cikin labarin daban.

Koyaya, lokacin da motar farko da aka ɗauka da injin konewa na ciki ta bayyana, mutane sun karɓi abin hawa da kansa wanda baya buƙatar ciyarwa koyaushe, kamar doki. Abubuwa da yawa sun canza a cikin injina tun shekara ta 1885, amma rashi daya ya kasance bai canza ba. A lokacin konewar hadin mai (ko wani mai) da iska, ana fitar da abubuwa masu cutarwa da yawa wadanda suke gurbata muhalli.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Idan kafin bayyanar motoci masu tuka kansu, maginan kasashen Turai sun ji tsoron cewa manyan biranen zasu nitse cikin dattin doki, a yau mazaunan megalopolises suna shan iska mai datti.

 

Standardsarfafa ka'idojin muhalli don harkokin sufuri suna tilasta masana'antun abin hawa ƙirƙirar tashar wutar lantarki mai tsafta. Don haka, kamfanoni da yawa sun zama masu sha'awar fasahar da aka kirkira a baya ta Anjos Jedlik - keken da yake tuka kansa kan ƙarancin wutar lantarki, wanda ya bayyana a 1828. Kuma a yau wannan fasaha ta kafu sosai a duniyar motoci ta yadda ba za ku ba kowa mamaki da motar lantarki ko ta iska ba.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Amma abin da ke karfafa gwiwa shi ne cibiyoyin wutar lantarki, wanda sakin su guda daya shi ne ruwan sha. Injin hydrogen ne.

Menene injin hydrogen?

Wannan nau'in injin ne wanda ke amfani da hydrogen a matsayin mai. Amfani da wannan sinadarin zai rage yawan albarkatun hydrocarbon. Dalili na biyu na sha'awar irin waɗannan abubuwan shigarwa shi ne rage gurɓatar muhalli.

 

Dogaro da wane irin motar da za'a yi amfani dashi a cikin jigilar kaya, aikinsa zai bambanta da injin ƙone ciki na yau da kullun ko kuma daidai yake.

Brief history

Injinan konewa na cikin gida ya bayyana a daidai lokacin da ake ci gaba da inganta ka'idar ICE. Wani injiniyan Faransanci kuma mai kirkirar kirkirar injin sa na injin kone ciki. Man da ya yi amfani da shi wajen ci gabansa shine hydrogen, wanda yake bayyana sakamakon wutan lantarki na H2A. A cikin 1807, motar farko ta hydrogen ta bayyana.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
Isaac De Rivaz a cikin 1807 ya gabatar da izinin mallaka don ci gaba da tarakta don kayan aikin soja. a matsayin ɗayan rukunin wutar, ya ba da shawarar amfani da hydrogen.

Unitarfin wutar lantarki fistan ne, kuma ƙonewa a ciki saboda samuwar walƙiya a cikin silinda. Gaskiya ne, halittar farko ta mai kirkirar kayan aiki tana bukatar walƙiya. Bayan shekara biyu kawai, sai ya kammala aikinsa, kuma aka haife motar hawa ta farko mai sarrafa kanta.

Koyaya, a wancan lokacin, ba a ba wa ci gaba muhimmanci, saboda gas ba shi da sauƙin samu da adanawa kamar mai. Ana amfani da injinan Hydrogen a cikin Leningrad a lokacin kawanyar daga rabin rabin 1941. Kodayake, dole ne mu yarda cewa waɗannan ba rukunin hydrogen ne kawai ba. Waɗannan injunan wuta ne na cikin gida na GAZ, kawai babu mai a gare su, amma akwai wadataccen gas a wancan lokacin, tun da balan-balan ke rura wutar su.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

A farkon rabin shekarun 80, kasashe da yawa, ba na kasashen Turai kadai ba, har ma da Amurka, Rasha da Japan, sun dauki nauyin yin gwaji da irin wadannan kayan aikin. Don haka, a cikin 1982, tare da haɗin gwiwa na kamfanin Kvant da kamfanin kera motoci na RAF, haɗakar motar ta bayyana, wacce ke gudana a kan cakuda hydrogen da iska, kuma an yi amfani da batirin 5 kW / h a matsayin tushen makamashi.

Tun daga wannan lokacin, kasashe daban-daban sun yi ta kokarin gabatar da motocin "koren" a cikin layinsu, amma a mafi yawan lokuta irin wadannan motoci ko dai sun ci gaba da kasancewa a rukunin farko ko kuma suna da takaitacciyar buguwa.

 

Yadda yake aiki

Tunda a yau akwai injina masu aiki da yawa na wannan rukunin, tsire-tsire na hydrogen zai yi aiki bisa ga ƙa'idarsa a kowane yanayi. Yi la'akari da yadda gyare-gyare ɗaya ke aiki wanda zai iya maye gurbin injin ƙone ciki na yau da kullun.

A cikin irin wannan motar, tabbas za a yi amfani da ƙwayoyin mai. Su ire-iren janareto ne wadanda suke kunna maganin lantarki. A cikin na'urar, ana yin amfani da hydrogen, kuma sakamakon aikin shine sakin wutar lantarki, tururin ruwa da nitrogen. Ba a fitar da iskar Carbon dioxide a cikin irin wannan shigarwar.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Abin hawa bisa tushen irin wannan motar motar lantarki ɗaya ce, batirin da ke ciki kawai ya fi ƙanƙanci. Kwayar mai tana samar da isasshen makamashi don aiki da dukkan tsarin abin hawa. Abin sani kawai shine tun daga farkon aikin zuwa ƙarni na makamashi, zai iya ɗaukar minti 2. Amma matsakaicin fitarwa na shigarwa yana farawa bayan tsarin yayi dumi, wanda ke ɗauka daga rubu'in sa'a zuwa minti 60.

Don haka wutar lantarki ba ta aiki a banza, kuma ba lallai ba ne don shirya jigilar tafiya don gaba, an shigar da batir na al'ada a ciki. Yayin tuƙi, ana sake caji sabili da murmurewa, kuma ana buƙatarsa ​​musamman don fara mota.

Irin wannan motar tana sanye da silinda na matakai daban-daban, wanda a ciki ake sa hydrogen. Dogaro da yanayin tuki, girman motar da ƙarfin shigarwar lantarki, kilogram ɗaya na gas na iya isa ga tafiyar kilomita 100.

Nau'in injin Hydrogen

Kodayake akwai sauye-sauye da yawa na injunan hydrogen, dukansu sun kasu kashi biyu:

  • Nau'in raka'a tare da kwayar mai;
  • Injin konewa na ciki wanda aka gyara, wanda aka daidaita shi don aiki da hydrogen.

Bari muyi la'akari da kowane nau'i daban: menene fasalin su.

Tsirrai masu ƙarfi dangane da ƙwayoyin mai na hydrogen

Kwayar man fetur ta dogara ne akan ka'idar baturi, wanda aikin lantarki yake gudana. Bambanci kawai tsakanin analog ɗin hydrogen shine mafi ingancinsa (a wasu yanayi, sama da kashi 45).

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Kwayar man fetur daki ne guda daya wanda aka sanya abubuwa biyu a ciki: cathode da anode. Dukansu wutan lantarki sunada platinum (ko palladium). Akwai membrane a tsakanin su. Ya raba rami zuwa ɗakuna biyu. Ana bayar da iskar oxygen a cikin rami tare da cathode, kuma ana samar da hydrogen zuwa na biyu.

A sakamakon haka, wani tasirin sinadarai yana faruwa, wanda sakamakon sa shine hada oxygen da kwayoyin hydrogen don samar da lantarki. Tasirin gefen aikin shine ruwa da nitrogen da aka fitar. An haɗa wayoyin salula mai amfani da wutar lantarki ta motar, gami da motar lantarki.

Injin hydrogen na ciki

A wannan yanayin, kodayake ana kiran injin ɗin hydrogen, yana da tsari iri ɗaya kamar ICE na al'ada. Bambanci kawai shine cewa ba fetur ko propane ne ke ƙonewa, amma hydrogen ne. Idan kun cika silinda da hydrogen, to akwai matsala guda ɗaya - wannan gas ɗin zai rage ingancin naúrar al'ada da kusan kashi 60.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Ga wasu sauran matsaloli tare da sauyawa zuwa hydrogen ba tare da haɓaka injin ba:

  • Lokacin da aka matse HTS, gas ɗin zai shiga cikin aikin sinadarai tare da ƙarfen da aka yi ɗakin konewa da fistan, kuma galibi wannan ma yana iya faruwa tare da man injin. Saboda wannan, an ƙirƙiri wani mahaɗan daban a cikin ɗakin konewa, wanda ba ya bambanta a cikin wata dama ta musamman don ƙonewa mai inganci;
  • Rarraban da ke cikin ɗakin konewa dole ne su zama cikakke. Idan wani wuri tsarin mai yana da aƙalla ƙaramar zube, gas ɗin zai iya sauƙaƙewa idan aka taɓa shi da abubuwa masu zafi.
Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
Motar don Honda Tsabta

Saboda wadannan dalilai, ya fi amfani da amfani da hydrogen azaman makamashi a cikin injunan juyawa (menene fasalinsu, karanta a nan). Yawan kuzari da yawan shaye-shaye na irin wadannan raka'o'in suna daban da juna, saboda haka iskar gas din mashin din baya zafi. Kasance hakane, yayin da ake sabunta injina don kaucewa matsalolin amfani da mai mai rahusa kuma mafi dacewa da muhalli.

Yaya tsawon rayuwar sabis ɗin ƙwayoyin mai?

A duk duniya a yau, irin waɗannan motocin ba su da yawa, kuma ba su cikin jerin, yana da wuya a faɗi abin da tushen makamashi ya samu. Masu sana'a ba su da masaniya game da wannan har yanzu.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Abinda kawai za'a iya fada bisa ga maganganun wakilai toyota cellarfin mai na motar ƙirar Mirai yana iya ci gaba da samar da makamashi har zuwa kilomita dubu 250. Bayan wannan matakin, kana buƙatar saka idanu kan ingancin na'urar. Idan aikinta ya ragu sosai, ana canza sel na mai a cibiyar sabis mai izini. Gaskiya ne, mutum ya yi tsammanin kamfanin zai ɗauki adadi mai kyau don wannan aikin.

Wadanne kamfanoni ne suka riga suka kera ko za su kera motocin hydrogen?

Kamfanoni da yawa suna tsunduma cikin ci gaban rukunin wutar lantarki mai mahalli. Anan akwai nau'ikan motocin, a cikin ofishin ƙira wanda tuni akwai zaɓuɓɓukan aiki, shirye don shiga cikin jerin:

  • Mercedes-Benz wata hanya ce ta GLC F-Cell, wanda aka ba da sanarwar fara shi a cikin 2018, amma ya zuwa yanzu wasu kamfanoni da ma'aikatun Jamus ne suka saye shi. Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfaniWani samfurin tarakta na kwayar halittar hydrogen, GenH2, an gabatar dashi kwanan nan;Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
  • Hyundai - Nexo samfurin, an gabatar dashi shekaru biyu da suka gabata;Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
  • BMW - samfurin hydrogen Hydrogen 7, wanda aka saki daga mai jigilar kaya. Kundin kwafi 100 ya kasance a matakin gwaji, amma wannan ya riga ya zama wani abu.Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Daga cikin motocin haja da za'a saya a Amurka da Turai akwai samfurin Mirai da Clarity daga Toyota da Honda, bi da bi. Ga sauran kamfanoni, wannan ci gaban har yanzu yana cikin sigar zane, ko azaman samfuri mara aiki.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
Toyota Mirai
Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani
Honda bayyananniya

Nawa ne kudin mota mai amfani da hydrogen?

Kudin motar hydrogen mai kyau ne. Dalilin haka shine karafa masu daraja wadanda suke dauke da wutan lantarki na kwayoyin mai (palladium ko platinum). Hakanan, motar zamani tana sanye da tsarin tsaro da yawa da daidaitawar aikin abubuwan lantarki, wanda kuma yana buƙatar albarkatun ƙasa.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Kodayake kiyaye wannan motar (har zuwa lokacin da aka maye gurbin ƙwayoyin mai) bai fi tsada fiye da motar yau da kullun ba. Akwai kasashen da ke daukar nauyin samar da sinadarin hydrogen, amma duk da wannan, za a biya kimanin dala 11 da rabi a kowace kilogram na gas. Dogaro da nau'in injin, wannan na iya isa ga nisan kusan kilomita ɗari.

Me yasa motocin hydrogen suka fi motocin lantarki?

Idan kun ɗauki tsire-tsire na hydrogen tare da ƙwayoyin mai, to irin wannan motar za ta kasance daidai da motar lantarki da muka saba gani a kan hanyoyi. Bambanci kawai shine cewa ana cajin motar lantarki daga cibiyar sadarwa ko daga tashar tashar mai. Jirgin ruwan hydrogen kansa yana samar da wutar lantarki ga kansa.

Game da kudin irin wadannan motoci kuwa, sun fi su tsada. Misali, ƙirar Tesla na asali zai fara daga $ 45 dubu. Ana iya amfani da analogues na Hydrogen daga Japan don raka'a dubu 57. Bavaria, a gefe guda, suna siyar da motocinsu akan mai "kore" akan farashin dala dubu 50.

Idan muka yi la'akari da amfani, zai fi sauƙi a ƙara mai da mota (zai ɗauki kimanin minti biyar) fiye da jira rabin awa (tare da caji mai sauri, wanda ba a ba da izinin kowane irin batir ba) a filin ajiye motoci. Wannan shine karin tsire-tsire na hydrogen.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Wani ƙari - ƙwayoyin mai ba sa buƙatar kulawa ta musamman, kuma rayuwarsu ta aiki babba ce. Game da motocin lantarki, babban batirin su zai bukaci sauyawa a cikin kimanin shekaru biyar saboda cewa yana da yawancin zagayen cajin-caji. A cikin yanayin zafi mai sanyi, batir a cikin motocin lantarki ana cire shi da sauri fiye da lokacin rani. Amma sinadaran da ke shafar aikin hawan hydrogen baya wahala daga wannan kuma yana samar da lantarki tsayayye.

Menene tsammanin motocin hydrogen kuma yaushe za'a gan su akan hanya?

A Turai da Amurka, ana iya samun motar hydrogen. Koyaya, har yanzu suna cikin rukunin son sani. Kuma a yau akwai 'yan tsammanin.

Babban dalilin da cewa irin wannan jigilar ba da daɗewa ba zata cika titunan duk ƙasashe shine rashin ƙarfin samar da abubuwa. Da farko, ya zama dole a kafa samar da hydrogen. Haka kuma, ya zama dole a kai ga wannan matakin wanda, baya ga abotar muhalli, shi ma man fetur ne da ake samu ga mafi yawan masu motoci. Baya ga samar da wannan gas din, ya zama dole a tsara jigilar sa (kodayake saboda wannan zaka iya amintar da manyan hanyoyin da ake jigilar methane), tare da samar da tashoshin cika mai yawa da tashoshin da suka dace.

Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Abu na biyu, kowane mai kera motoci dole ne ya inganta layin samarwa da gaske, wanda ke buƙatar saka hannun jari mai yawa. A cikin tattalin arziki mara ƙarfi saboda ɓarkewar annobar duniya, ƙalilan ne za su ɗauki irin wannan haɗarin.

Idan kayi la'akari da saurin ci gaban sufurin lantarki, tsarin yaduwa ya gudana cikin sauri. Koyaya, dalilin shahararrun motocin lantarki shine ikon adanawa akan mai. Kuma wannan galibi shine dalili na farko da yasa ake sayan su, kuma ba don kiyaye muhalli ba. Game da hydrogen, ba zai yuwu a adana kuɗi ba (aƙalla yanzu), saboda an kashe ƙarin albarkatun makamashi da yawa don samar da shi.

Ribobi da babban rashin amfanin injunan hydrogen

Don haka, bari mu takaita. Fa'idojin injina masu amfani da hydrogen sun hada da dalilai masu zuwa:

  • Fitar da muhalli;
  • Silent aiki na unitungiyar wuta (ƙwanƙwasa lantarki);
  • Game da yin amfani da kwayar mai, ba a buƙatar kiyayewa akai-akai;
  • Saurin mai;
  • Idan aka kwatanta da motocin lantarki, tsarin motsa jiki da tushen makamashi suna aiki da tsayayyiya har ma a yanayin sanyi.
Injin hydrogen. Yadda yake aiki da rashin amfani

Kodayake ci gaban ba za a iya kiran sa sabon abu ba, duk da haka, har yanzu yana da gazawa da yawa waɗanda ke sa matsakaita mai motoci ya dube shi da kyau. Ga wasu daga cikinsu:

  • Don hydrogen ya kunna wuta, dole ne ya kasance cikin yanayin gas. Wannan yana haifar da wasu matsaloli. Misali, ana buƙatar compreso masu tsada na musamman don matse iskar gas. Hakanan akwai matsala game da adanawa da kuma jigilar man, saboda yana da saurin kamawa da wuta;
  • Silinda, wanda za'a girka akan motar, ana buƙatar bincika shi lokaci-lokaci. Don yin wannan, mai motar zai buƙaci ziyarci cibiya ta musamman, kuma wannan ƙarin tsada ne;
  • Motar hydrogen ba ta amfani da babbar batir, duk da haka, girkin yana da nauyi yadda yakamata, wanda ke shafar tasirin halayen abin hawa;
  • Hydrogen - yana ƙonewa a wata 'yar karamar walƙiya, don haka haɗarin da ke tattare da irin wannan motar zai kasance tare da mummunan fashewa. Ganin rashin kulawar da wasu direbobin ke nunawa ga rayukansu da rayukan sauran masu amfani da hanyar, har yanzu ba za a iya sakin irin wadannan motocin kan titunan ba.

Dangane da sha'awar bil'adama a cikin tsabtace muhalli, za mu iya tsammanin za a sami ci gaba game da batun kammala jigilar "koren". Amma idan wannan ya faru, lokaci kawai zai nuna.

A halin yanzu, kalli bitar bidiyo akan Toyota Mirai:

Makomar hydrogen? 2019 Toyota Mirai - Cikakken Sharhi & Bayani
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2 sharhi

  1. "Babbar batirin nasu na bukatar sauyawa a cikin shekaru biyar saboda cewa yana da yawa a lokacin da yake cajin caji."

    A waɗanne motocin lantarki ya kamata ku canza bayan shekaru 5?

  2. A cikin 2020, wani ruwa mai iya ɗaukewa da sakin hydrogen ya sami izinin mallaka.

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