Menene nau'ikan jikin motar
 

Abubuwa

Masana'antar kera motoci ta zamani cike take da nau'ikan samfuran, wanda a ciki yake da wahala mutum mara wayewa ya fahimta.

Bambanci tsakanin alamun mota ba wai kawai a cikin ƙarfin injiniya da tsarin ciki na tsarin ba (watsawa, chassis). Jiki ne yake tantance bayyanar motocin, wanda hakan yana daga cikin tushen asalin abin da ke shafar girman abin hawa, da kuma farashin sa.

An rarraba jigilar fasinja ta nau'in jiki zuwa mara tsari (ɗaukar kaya) da sifa-sifa-fasali don dalilai daban-daban: don ɗaukar fasinjoji ko fasinja. Kuna iya koyon bambancewa tsakanin motocin fasinja ta hanyar sanin fasalin fasalin kayan da suke ɗauke da su ko ɗaukar jikinsu. Bugu da kari, jikin ya banbanta a shimfida - jeri na sashen fasinjoji dangane da injin da na dakon kaya:

 
  • -Arami ɗaya, inda ɗakin fasinja ya raba sararin samaniya tare da injiniya da sarari don kaya.
  • Volumeara biyu, inda aka haɗa kayan haɗin kaya da na fasinjoji a cikin sashin fasinjojin, kuma injin ɗin yana nan daban, a ƙarƙashin ƙirar. Jikin wannan nau'in ana rarrabe shi da lambar ƙofofi marasa ƙarfi - uku ko biyar - saboda ƙofar a bangon baya na injin don samun damar jigilar kaya.
  • Volume uku, inda kowane sashi yake daban-daban: sashin jigilar kayayyaki - a ɓangaren jigilar kayayyaki, injin a gaban ɓangaren (ƙarƙashin kaho), fasinjoji - kai tsaye a cikin gidan.

Kowane irin jiki (ajin mota), wanda ke da halaye irin nasa, yana da takamaiman suna, ba tare da la'akari da kera / alamar motar ba. Amma akwai kuma kalmomin da suka haɗa nau'ikan jiki da yawa, tare da wasu sifofi na yau da kullun. Misali, combi jikin kowane irin mota ne tare da kofa a bangon baya.

Sedan

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Sedan - Wannan yana daya daga cikin nau'ikan jikin da akafi sani. Rufin yana da tsauri, wanda yake a tsayi ɗaya daidai da tsayin motar. Sedan yana nufin jigilar fasinjoji tare da tsari mai girma uku (an keɓe gida daga akwati da injin). Tana da layuka guda biyu na kujeru masu girma-girma, wadanda akan basu manya a kyauta, amma a ajin zartarwa - GAZ 13/14 "Chaika", GAZ 12 ZIM - an kara layi na uku. Halaye:

  • kara tsaro;
  • kariya daga taga ta baya daga datti;
  • babban akwati.

Wani rufafaffen jiki galibi yana tare da ƙofofi huɗu, wani lokaci na biyar yana bayyana akan bangon baya don ɗakin kaya. Misali na sedan kofa huɗu - toyota Camry, "Zhiguli" / "Lada" (VAZ). Brandsididdigar tsofaffi ƙofar gida biyu ce Skoda Tudor, Zaporozhets (ZAZ).

 

Yawan kofofi ba su bayyana a kan motar ba (tazara tsakanin igiyar ƙafafun gaba / na baya), kodayake tushe yana da tsayi a cikin samfuran zartarwa.

Ma'aurata

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Ma'aurata yana nufin rufaffiyar nau'in girma mai girma uku. Sanye take da kofofi biyu.

A cikin wani sashi na daban na kujerun, akwai layuka biyu na kujeru: na farko shi ne mai cikakken girma ga direba da fasinja babba, na biyu, wanda ke da sararin samaniya wanda bai fi mitikikba 93 ba. cm, wanda ya dace da jigilar yara, ƙaramin kaya ko ɗan gajeren balaguron balagaggu. Ma'aurata halin:

  • tagar da aka gyara wa jiki (babu shinge);
  • mai salo
  • ƙara ƙarfin fata;
  • maimakon kofofi masu fadi.

Rufin da ke gangara ta baya yana ba wa jikin kallo, amma ba ya hana motar cikakkiyar kwanciyar hankali don sanyawa a kujerun gaba.

A yau, al'ada ce don komawa ga babban kujera irin waɗannan alamun BMW i8 Kofin, Audi A5 Maɗaukaki, Cadillac Eldorado, Alfa Romeo 4C, da dai sauransu

Mai sauyawa

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Mai sauyawa Nau'in nau'in mota ne mai bude uku don daukar fasinjoji. Ana tayar da tagogin gefen, ba tare da la'akari da gaskiyar cewa ƙirar ta ba da saman murfin mai wuya ko mai laushi wanda za a iya ninka ko lankwasa shi a jikin akwatin ba.

 

Wani zaɓi na musamman don ƙauyukanmu canzawa sanye take da kujeru masu kujeru 4 da kofofi biyu. Sai dai in ajin zartarwa ne wanda ke da kujeru 4 masu fa'ida da kujeru 4, kamar su Toyota Century, an kirkiresu don nada sabon sarkin Japan.

Fatalwa

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Sigo don buɗe motocin fasinja biyu ko uku. A saman (rufin) an lulluɓe da murfin ninki, ba a ba da tagogin gefen ciki. Motar ta kasance cikin buƙata ta musamman a lokacin yaƙi da lokacin yaƙi na Yaƙin Duniya na II don motsin kwamandoji.

Maimakon tagogin gefen, an yi amfani da bangon bango na bango tare da zanen gado na fim ɗin celluloid. Daga baya aka fara yin su da gilashi. Akwai samfuran tare da ƙofofi huɗu (da wuya sau biyu). Gidan yana da layuka biyu (ko uku) na cikakken kujeru.

Samfurori na zamani kawai suna kama da sifofin farko. Yanzu darasi ne na motocin alfarma ga masu sauraro masu kima waɗanda ke yaba madafan keɓaɓɓen keken ƙasa da kuma jin daɗin da ba a tsare a cikin gidan.

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Mai bin hanya

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Mai bin hanya - jikin mota na iya zama mai girma biyu ko uku, dangane da aji. Wannan shine ɗayan nau'ikan da za'a iya canzawa tare da buɗe saman sama ko rufin masana'anta, amma ya fi kama da motar wasanni.

Ba kamar "magidaninta" ba - mai iya canzawa - an tsara motar ta musamman don fasinjoji biyu (gami da direba). Wani fasali daban shine gaban kofofi biyu. Dangane da takamaiman fasalin ƙwanso da gilashin gilashin motar, wanda za a iya raba shi zuwa sassa biyu, a wasu ƙasashe ana kiran nau'in jikin Barchetta, wanda ke nufin "ƙaramin jirgin ruwa" a cikin Italiyanci.

Siffar wasanni mai canzawa Mai bin hanya an dauke shi Targa (Targa), wanda za'a iya rarrabe shi da waɗannan fasalulluka: mota mai kujeru biyu mai ƙofofi biyu, kariya mai kyau daga raunin da ya faru a bayan kujerun (tare da keji), kujeru masu kyau biyu.

Landau

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Landau Canji ne mai ban sha'awa na juzu'i uku mai canzawa, inda ɓangaren gaban gidan na sama a sama da direba ya sami kariya ta rufi mai ƙarfi, yayin da kujerun baya na fasinjoji suke buɗe don gani kyauta. Za'a iya ninke rufin masana'anta sama da fasinjojin, ta barin akwatin mai sauki, ko kuma a tura shi da karfi kan "visor" na direban. A cikin tsayayyen siga, an cire wannan ɓangaren idan ya cancanta.

Salon yana samar da kujeru huɗu da lambobi iri ɗaya. Samfurin ga irin wannan shine samfurin Maybach DS8 Zeppelin Landaulet 1938, wanda ke cikin rukunin zartarwa. A halin yanzu, fasalin fasalin sigar landau (kazalika da brogam) ana ɗaukarsa mai raɗaɗi, samfuran zamani sun ɗauki matsayin su a kasuwa.

Brogam

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Brogam wannan wani misali ne na buɗaɗɗen akwati uku daga jerin masu canza wuri huɗu. Ya bambanta da Landau, ɓangaren gaban gidan da ke sama da mazaunin direba a buɗe yake, wanda ya yi kama da ƙirar motar mota da taksi daga ƙarni na XNUMX.

Motar tana da kofofi 4, kujerun fasinjoji na baya an rufe su da wani abu mai wuyar gani, wanda za'a iya haɗa rufin cirewa ko naɗewa akan direban. A halin yanzu, sifofin gargajiya sun zama mallakar masu tarawa, saboda ba a samar da motar a cikin wannan sigar. An maye gurbinsa da ƙirar ƙirar masu daraja tare da ƙyanƙyashe buɗewa sama da kujerun gaba (kamar Ragtop - Ragtop).

Motocin daukar kaya

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Motocin daukar kaya Wakili ne na jigilar fasinja mai daukar manyan kaya guda uku tare da rufe saman gidan, inda akwai kujeru biyu ko hudu (a layi biyu). Dangane da haka, yana iya zama kofa biyu ko kuma yana da ƙofofi huɗu. Babban fasalin jikin ɗaukar kaya shine kasancewar wani dandamali na buɗe kaya, wanda aka raba shi da taksi ta wani bangare mara motsi. Duk da yawan amfani da mai, motar tana da fa'idodi da yawa:

  • babba, kamar SUV, ikon ƙetare ƙasa;
  • carryingara ƙarfin ɗaukar hoto;
  • dadi daki mai ciki.

Saboda babbar ma'ana - jigilar kayayyaki - ana amfani da maɓuɓɓuka a bayan dakatarwa ta baya a ƙarƙashin kayan aikin. Designirƙirar ta fi haɓakawa sau da yawa bisa SUVs ko motoci.

Jikin karba ya shahara musamman a Amurka, New Zealand, Australia.

Limousine

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Limousine jiki yana nufin rufaffiyar nau'in girma uku. Duk da tsayi mai ban sha'awa, tana da ƙofofi 4 da layuka biyu (wani lokacin uku).

An ɗauki zane na sedan a matsayin tushe, don haka wani lokacin yana "kwafin" bayyanar limousine. Bambancin shine cewa na biyun yana da tsayayyen bangare mai tsayayye tare da gilashin tashi mai raba gidan a cikin motar direba da kuma sarari kyauta ga fasinjoji.

Matsakaicin tsayin daka na "al'ada" na limousine ya kai mita 6 - 8,5, a zahiri, ana kuma ƙara tsalle-tsalle (nisan da ke tsakanin axles na ƙafafun gaba da na baya). Jigilar kayayyaki ba ta da ƙarfi sosai, saboda haka ana amfani da ita galibi don bukukuwa. A cikin rayuwar yau da kullun, akwai samfura a cikin sigar ƙyanƙyashe, SUV, sedan.

Mutane da yawa suna rikita limousine tare da miƙa jiki, wanda, ya bambanta da tsarin haɗin gwiwa na farko, ana ɗora shi ta hanyar shigar da ƙarin ɓangarori a cikin ƙasan tashar amalanke don ƙara tsayin motar.

Wagon

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Wagon - Wannan nau'i ne mai nauyin 2 (lokaci-lokaci 3 mai yawa) rufaffiyar jiki bisa ga kanshi tare da rufin kwano tare da tsawon tsawon har zuwa gangar jikin tare da ƙyauren ƙyallen ƙofa. Galibi an sanye shi da ƙananan ƙofofi marasa ƙarfi, biyar ko ƙasa da sau uku.

Gidan, tare da kujeru masu cikakken girma biyu da gado mai matasai na baya, yana ba da sarari tare da riƙe kaya, wanda za a iya faɗaɗa shi ta hanyar ninka kujerar ta baya. Spacearin sararin jigilar kayayyaki yana ba da sanannen gyarawa na baya, wanda ya ba da damar jigilar kaya da yawa.

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Tsarin da aka sake daga baya ya sanya keken tashar ya zama wata motar rufewa tare da karfin fasinja, amma ya fi dacewa da tafiye-tafiye na ƙasar dangi ko tafiya.

Daga cikin samfuran Rasha waɗanda aka yi a jikin motar tashar, ana iya kiran VAZ-2171, Moskvich-423, VAZ-2102; wakilan shigo da kaya - Audi Avant, Opel Vanyari, Skoda Octavia A5 Combi da dr.

Kamawa

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Kamawa - Wannan wani zaɓi ne na canzawa daga keken hawa zuwa ƙaramar mota. Bambanci daga na farko ya ta'allaka ne a taƙaitaccen gajeren baya, kuma a sakamakon haka, an rage girman sashin kayan. Bugu da kari, bangon baya tare da kofa mai tasowa yana da gangara mafi girma, santsi (ko ba shi da yawa) yana wucewa zuwa rufin gidan. Koyaya, ƙarfin ɗaukar wannan nau'in abin hawa ya wuce na sedan.

Idan hatchback ɗin ya ɗan matse "daga sama kuma ya ɗaga bangon baya zuwa matsayi na tsaye, to, wataƙila, kuna samun kamanceceniya a cikin ƙaramar mota. An saka sashin kaya tare da layuka biyu na kujeru masu cikakken girma da kofofi biyar (ko uku). Wannan zane yana ba motar:

  • babban motsi da kara karfi;
  • yana ba da damar sauƙin lodawa / saukewa na manyan kaya saboda babbar wutsiyar.

Jikin wannan nau'in yana cikin buƙatu mai yawa a cikin Turai, tunda yana da ikon canzawa zuwa jigilar fasinja, idan kun cire abin da ke kwance daga cikin akwatin kuma cire kujerun baya. A kasuwar Rasha, ƙirar hatchback sune Moskvich-2141 ko VAZ-2109.

Dagawa

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Dagawa samu a cikin biyu da ƙasa sau da yawa a cikin juzu'i mai girma uku. Tsarin da kayan aikin dagawa (daga dagawa - daga ta baya) sun yi kama da hatchback, saboda haka galibi suna cikin rudani. Duk da kamanceceniyar farko, akwai manyan bambance-bambance tsakanin nau'ikan jikin biyu.

Misali, dagawa yana da akwati mai dumbin yawa, haka kuma, tare da nade kujerar baya, saboda tsayin daka da aka yi, wanda ya sa ya yi kama da sedan (in ba don bangon baya mai gangarowa ba, kamar hatchback). Motocin wannan zane:

  • Ana yin lodi da sauke abubuwa ba tare da rikitarwa ba saboda babbar kofa ta baya;
  • sashin kaya mai fadi;
  • bayyanar mai yiwuwa.

Bambanci tsakanin samfuran biyu shima a tsayi ne, wanda aka ƙaddara shi daidai ta hanyar tsawan baya daga dagawar. Kuma wani bambanci mai mahimmanci: ana samun siffar ƙarshen a wasu lokuta a cikin tsararren tsayi (tare da juzu'i na gani uku), yayin da hatchback zai iya zama ƙarar 2 ne kawai.

SUV

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

SUV ne - wanda aka fi sani da jif, a gani yana da kundin biyu: fitaccen sashi tare da injin da ke ƙarƙashin kaho da kuma haɗin haɗin fasinja. Jikin jigilar fasinjoji sanye yake da ƙofofi huɗu na gefe da ƙofa ɗaya (wani lokacin takan ƙunshi ganye biyu) a ƙofar baya. Gidan zai iya ɗaukar layuka biyu zuwa uku na kujeru masu girma.

Cikin motar yana haifar da yanayi mai kyau da godiya saboda manyan rufin. Mota mai irin wannan rufaffiyar jikin ta ƙara haɓakar ƙasa (izinin ƙasa ƙwarai) da kuma ikon ƙetare ƙasa.

Girman SUV ba ya bayyana a cikin manyan halayen halayen sa:

  • lafiyar dangin fasinjoji;
  • babban damar sashin kaya da salon;
  • babban ikon ƙetare ƙasa.

Motocin wannan nau'ikan suna da girman kai, suna da matsakaici kuma suna da matsakaici, amma haɓakar ƙetare ƙetaren ƙasa ita ce alamar samfurin.

Ketarewa (CUV)

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Ketare hanya nau'ikan nau'ikan juzu'i biyu ne wanda aka rufeshi, wanda aka samo daga SUV, an tsara shi don ƙarin yafiya da yanayin birane da na gida. Halin na gargajiya yana da layuka biyu na kujeru da ƙofofi biyar, gami da na baya, don ɗora kaya.

Ketarewa - CUV - yana da babban rufin soro mai laushi, da ɗakuna mai kyau da kuma babban matsayi (izinin ƙasa), ya haɗu da halaye (ban da SUV) na motar amalanke, hatchback, da ƙaramar mota.

Kada ƙirar ta rikice tare da wani irin SUV, wanda kuma asalinsa fasalin SUV ne. Irin wannan jigilar galibi ana kiranta SUVs, saboda sun fi dacewa da yanayin farar hula fiye da mamaye hanyoyin da ba za a iya bi ba.

Van

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Van a zahiri, ita ce motar ɗaukar kaya guda ɗaya, kawai tare da ruɓaɓɓen kayan yanki, wanda a cikin wannan sigar ke aiki azaman ɗakunan kaya tare da ƙofar ta don dacewar ɗaukar kaya. Yanayin jikin yana kama da ƙaramar ƙaramar mota ko ƙaramar mota, amma an haɗa shi kwata-kwata, ba tare da tagogin gefen ba (ban da gidan direba).

Motar motar mallakar fasinja ce mai girma guda ɗaya. Halin na yau da kullun yana da kujeru biyu da ƙofofin gefe biyu a cikin taksi. An raba sashin fasinjoji daga dandalin jigilar kaya ta wani bangare mara motsi.

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Minivan

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Minivan - wannan shine shimfidar jikin minivan sau dayawa sau daya ne, amma kuma yakan faru ne da kundin gani daya da rabi ko biyu. Rufe motar an tsara ta don jigilar fasinja tare da layuka uku zuwa huɗu (har zuwa kujeru 9, gami da kujerar direba).

An ƙirƙira samfurin a kan dandamali na hatchback ko wagon tashar, yayin da ƙarar da ke cikin gidan, haɗe shi da sashin kaya, yana ƙaruwa ƙwarai saboda tsananin rufin ɗaki. A cikin Turai, tana da nata suna, a zahiri ma'anarta "mai ɗaukar mutane" - Jigilar mutane.

Tsarin ƙofa huɗu na iya saukar da ƙofofin zamiya don shigarwa ta baya. Sau da yawa, kujerun suna canzawa idan ya cancanta don shirya yankin barci don kwana.

Karamin MPV

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Karamin MPV - Wannan gyare-gyare ne daga jerin "motocin", wanda aka rarrabe shi ta hanyar karamin shi, wanda shine sunan yake nunawa. Rufaffiyar jikin gondola (1,5 - ƙima), ƙasa da sau ɗaya - shimfidar keɓaɓɓiyar (ƙara ɗaya). An tsara don motocin haske tare da layuka biyu ko uku na kujeru. Salon yana ba da sarari tare da motar direba da kuma jakar kaya, wanda, bisa ƙa'ida, na iya zama ɓangaren baya na ɓangaren fasinjoji tare da kujerun nade.

Jiki tare da kofofi guda biyar, gajeren gajeren baya (wanda ya sanya shi karami), dangane da girma, yana cikin yankin tsakiyar tsakanin ƙarami da ƙaramar motar. Dalilin motar shine ɗaukar fasinjoji, yawan kujerun daga 4 zuwa 7 (a layi uku), akwai zaɓuɓɓuka tare da layuka biyu na kujeru uku kowannensu, amma kujeru biyar ana ɗaukar su na gargajiya. Ana iya ɗaukar wannan tsarin ta iyali ɗaya kuma ana iya amfani dashi don tafiye-tafiye na waje har ma da tafiya.

Microvan

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Microvan - wannan shine "mafi kankanta", amma mai wakilcin daki na jerin "motocin" da aka rufe, wanda ya bayyana a kasuwa a matsayin jinsin jinsin wanda ba da dadewa ba. An ƙirƙira shi a kan ƙirar ƙirar B tare da kusan sigogi iri ɗaya: tsayin rufi - mita 1,5, tsawon jikin duka - mita 4 (+ -).

-Ara ɗaya tare da ɗan gajeren gajere mai yawanci galibi ana buɗe shi da kofofi 5; babba na biyar a bangon baya an tsara shi don lodawa / sauke manyan kaya; an kara yankin gangar jikin saboda canjin kujerun baya. Theakin fasinjoji, wanda aka haɗa shi da takin direba da akwati, yana da layi biyu na cikakken kujeru.

Dooofofi don samun dama zuwa jere na biyu na iya samun ƙirar lilo ta gargajiya ko ƙaura baya kamar ɓangare. Yaren Koriya Hyundai H-1, Jafananci Toyota Hiace, Faransa Citroen Tsalle

Minibus

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Minibus kuma ana kiransa ƙaramar bas - ainihin wannan motar. Amma sabanin na biyun, wakili ne na jigilar haske, saboda haka yana da tagogi na gefe. Ana amfani da motar-Semi-fan (1,5 volumetric) ko wagon (ƙara ɗaya) a cikin jigilar birni da jigilar kayayyaki kuma ya sami wani suna - ƙaramar mota (taksi tsayayyen hanya).

Ana iya aiki da motar fasinjan da aka rufe a matsayin jigilar fasinja ta wurin yawan kujeru, a matsakaita 9-16, babban, rufi mai faɗi a tsawon tsawon (har zuwa 5 m), kasancewar manyan ƙofofi: biyu suna buɗewa a cikin motar direba kuma ɗayan, sau da yawa zamiya, don hawa fasinjoji. Thearfin motar ƙaramar motar ta ƙara aminci.

Bas din

Menene nau'ikan jikin motar

Bas din - wannan nau'ikan jikin karusar ya bambanta da sauran jigilar fasinjoji na zamani a cikin tsarinta, wanda asalinsa karfe ne ko firam ɗin ƙarfe. Ana saka rigunan ƙarfe zuwa gareshi ko kuma ana narkar da zanen zafin aluminium.

Sanya kayan bus suna da zaɓuɓɓuka iri-iri, amma duk suna da manyan tagogi masu faɗi, gami da gilashin gilashi. Salon, a matsayin mai ƙa'ida, an sanye shi da matsakaicin adadin kujeru (tare da tsawon tsawon tare da gado mai matasai na baya) kuma yana da babban tsaka-tsakin hanya; akwai samfuran da yawa masu hawa biyu.

Tsayin motocin ya banbanta, amma an tsara shi ne don ɗaukar tsawan mutum mai tsayi, amma yawanci ana saukar da matakan ƙasa-ƙasa (ko kuma rage tsayin duka bene) don sauƙin shiga da sauka.

Matsakaiciyar kofofin zamiya biyu na fasinjoji suna gefen dama na abin hawa kawai; suna iya ninkawa kamar jituwa (fasalin da ya gabata), buɗewa zuwa cikin ɓangaren fasinja a cikin rami na musamman, ko matsawa waje a kan baka, kusan suna manne da jiki.

LABARUN MAGANA
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