Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin
 

Abubuwa

An daɗe da sanin cewa watsawa a cikin mota yana ba ku damar rarraba karfin juzu'in da rukunin wutar ke samarwa. Wannan wajibi ne don santsi ko saurin hanzarin abin hawa. Direba ya shiga wani yanayi na injin rpm, yana hana shi shiga wani babban yanayi.

Amma ga watsa hannu, game da na'urarta da yadda ake adana ta na tsawon lokaci, mun riga mun fada. Kuma wannan yana da alama batun lalata ne. Bari muyi magana game da cvt: wane irin inji ne, aikinsa kuma ko ya cancanci ɗaukar mota tare da irin wannan aikin.

Menene akwatin CVT

Wannan nau'in watsawa ne ta atomatik. Yana cikin rukunin watsa shirye-shirye masu saurin canzawa. Fa'idar sa ta ta'allaka ne da gaskiyar cewa mai bambance-bambancen yana samar da canji mai sauƙi a cikin ƙididdigar kaya a cikin ƙaramin kewayon da ba za a iya cimma shi ba a cikin kanikanci.

 
Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

An sanye shi da motocin da ke aiki a ƙarƙashin kulawar sashin kula da lantarki. Wannan na'urar tana rarraba kayan da yake fitowa daga injin daidai gwargwadon ƙarfin da ake amfani da shi zuwa ƙafafun motar abin hawa.

Ana yin jujjuyawar motsi gaba ɗaya - direba wani lokacin baya ma lura da yadda yanayin aiki na inji yake canzawa. Wannan yana inganta kwanciyar hankali.

Babbar na'urar

Tsarin injin ɗin yana da rikitarwa, wanda shine dalilin da yasa samarwarta take da tsada. Kari akan haka, saboda sarkakiyar da ke cikin zane, watsawar da ake ci gaba da yi ba zai iya samar da rarraba kayan aiki ba a wasu nau'ikan injina.

 
Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Babban banbanci tsakanin watsawa mai saurin canzawa da ma'anar inji shine cewa bashi da kama. A yau, ana bambanta masu canzawa koyaushe, kuma tuni akwai canje-canje da yawa daban-daban. Koyaya, manyan abubuwan akwatin sune:

  • Babban hanyar watsawa itace mai juya karfin juyi. Wannan naúrar ce da ke karɓar ƙarfin juzu'in da injin yake samarwa da watsa shi ga abubuwan aiwatarwa;
  • Babban kayan aikin juzu'i (wanda aka haɗa shi da hakar mai aiki da ruwa) da kuma juzu'i na biyu (yana tura sojoji zuwa ga motar motar);
  • Ana aiwatar da watsa ƙarfi ta hanyar ɗamara, kuma a wasu yanayi, sarkar;Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin
  • Lantarki yana sarrafa canjin yanayin aiki na hanyoyin;
  • Rukuni na daban wanda aka kunna lokacin da yake aiki;
  • Gilashin da ake watsa kidan watsa da babban kayan aiki;
  • Yawancin gyare-gyare ma suna da bambanci.

Ya kamata a lura cewa waɗannan abubuwan ba su ba da fahimtar yadda gearbox ke aiki ba. Duk ya dogara da gyaran na'urar, wanda za'a tattauna shi nan gaba kaɗan, amma yanzu zamuyi la'akari da wace ƙa'idar aikin keɓaɓɓu.

Ta yaya wannan aikin

Akwai manyan nau'ikan watsawa guda uku waɗanda ake amfani dasu a cikin jigilar kaya kuma suna da ƙa'idar aiki kama da cvt:

  • Bayar da wutar lantarki. A wannan yanayin, ana amfani da na'urar kawai don jigilar bayanan martaba. Motar tana tafiyar da dynamo na janareta, wanda ke samar da kuzarin da ya dace don aiki da watsawa. Misalin irin wannan gearbox shine BelAZ;
  • Watsawa daga karfin juyi Irin wannan kayan yana da santsi. Cakule mai aiki da karfin ruwa yana motsawa ta hanyar famfo, wanda ke samar da mai a ƙarƙashin babban matsi, gwargwadon saurin injin. Wannan tsarin yana cikin zuciyar dukkan watsawar atomatik ta zamani;Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin
  • Hydrostatic irin watsa. Tsohon fasaha, amma har yanzu ana amfani dashi a wasu jigilar kaya. Ka'idar irin wannan akwatin - injin konewa na ciki yana tura famfon mai, wanda ke ba da matsi ga injunan lantarki da ke haɗe da ƙafafun tukawa. Misali na irin wannan jigilar wasu samfuran haɗi ne.
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Amma ga masu bambance-bambancen, kodayake suna aiki a kan wani abu mai kama da juna, har yanzu akwai manyan bambance-bambance. Designirƙirar mai bambancin gargajiya ya haɗa haɗuwa da ruwa, wanda undound ɗin ƙarfin na'urar injin yake. Rarraba karfin juyi kawai zuwa mashin ɗin akwatin ana aiwatar dashi ta amfani da matsakaiciyar aba. Mafi sau da yawa, masana'antun irin wannan watsawa suna amfani da bel mai ɗorewa a cikin aikin. Koyaya, akwai kuma sarkar watsawa.

An canza yanayin gear ta hanyar canza diamita na tuki da juzu'i. Lokacin da direba ya zaɓi yanayin tuƙin da ya dace akan mai zaɓin watsawa, ƙungiyar sarrafawa tana yin rikodin bayanai daga ƙafafun da ƙafafun injiniya. Dangane da waɗannan bayanan, lantarki a lokacin da ya dace yana canza bangon abubuwan motsa jiki, saboda abin da tsakiya na tsakiya ke ƙaruwa (irin wannan fasalin na'urar waɗannan sassan). Yanayin kaya yana ƙaruwa kuma ƙafafun sun fara juyawa da sauri.

Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Lokacin da aka shigar da kayan baya, inji ba ya aiki a yanayin baya, amma yana kunna ƙarin na'urar. A mafi yawan lokuta, wannan gearbox ne na duniya.

 

Nau'in bambance-bambancen V-bel

Bayan bayyanar nau'ikan yaduwa iri-iri, sai suka fara bunkasa a fagen kara ingancin sa. Godiya ga wannan, a yau an ba masu motoci mafi sauƙin gyare-gyare, wanda ya nuna kansa ya zama mafi tasiri tsakanin analogues - V-bel variators.

Kowane mai ƙira yana kiran wannan gyaran akwatin gearbox daban. Misali, a cikin Ford darajar Transmatic, Ecotronic or Durashift. Damuwar ta wadata motocin ta da irin wannan aikin, kawai ta hanyar suna Multidrive toyota... Ta mota Nissan akwai kuma V-bel bambance-bambancen, amma sunansa Xtronic ko Hyper. Misali ga duk waɗanda aka ambata daban-daban shine Autotronic, wanda aka girka a cikin samfuran da yawa Mercedes.

A cikin irin waɗannan masu bambancin, manyan abubuwan suna kasancewa iri ɗaya, ƙa'idar kamawar motar da babban kayanta ya ɗan bambanta. Yawancin samfuran kasafin kuɗi suna amfani da CVTs kamar Xtronic, Multidrive da sauransu. A zuciyar waɗannan gyare-gyaren shine mai juyawar karfin juyi.

Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Akwai zaɓi mafi tsada:

  • Cikakken lantarki dangane da aikin electromagnetic hanyoyin. Wadannan bambance-bambancen ana kiransu Hyper;
  • Wani zaɓi kama kama kai tsaye shine Tsarin Mulki. Yana amfani da ƙarfin tsakiya na ruwa mai aiki da karfin ruwa;
  • Idan sunan watsawa yana dauke da kari na Multi, to sau da yawa a irin wannan gyare-gyaren ana amfani da fayafai masu kama-kama da yawa.

Lokacin da aka sayi sabuwar mota da takaddun aikinta na fasaha suka nuna cewa watsa CVT ne, wannan ba koyaushe yake nuna kasancewar mai jujjuyawar juyi ba. Amma a mafi yawan lokuta, akwatin za a sanye shi da wannan aikin kawai.

Fa'idodi da rashin amfani na CVT

Kowane nau'in watsawa yana da mabiyansa, saboda haka, a mafi yawan lokuta, a cewar ɗayan, ana ɗaukar wasu ayyuka a matsayin fa'ida, ɗayan kuma - akasin haka, rashin fa'ida. Idan muka yi la'akari da amincin, to akwatin CVT baya buƙatar kowane kulawa na musamman - kawai canza mai akan lokaci kuma yayi aiki daidai da shawarwarin masana'antun.

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Ga wasu ƙarin fa'idodi:

  • Sufuri yana da sassauƙan yanayi yayin canza yanayin haɓaka, wanda ke ba shi kwanciyar hankali tuƙa-wuri;
  • Don saurin saurin, kawai kuna buƙatar nutsar da ƙafafun gas;
  • Direba ba ya jinkirin canza kayan aiki - alama ce ta musamman don masu farawa;
  • Tare da tsarin aiki, zai yi aiki a natse;
  • Poweraukewar wuta na motar yana cikin kewayon mafi kyau, wanda ba ya ƙyale motar ta yi nauyi ko tafi zuwa saurin gudu;
  • Idan injiniyoyi suka sauya kayan aiki da wuri, abubuwan masarufin sun ƙara damuwa. Don rama wannan, bawul ɗin motsawa yana buɗewa da yawa, kuma ƙarin mai yana shiga cikin silinda, amma a cikin wannan yanayin yana ƙone ƙasa da inganci. A sakamakon haka, wasu abubuwa marasa ƙonewa sun shiga cikin tsarin shaye shaye. Idan motar tana da mai kara kuzari, to ragowar za su ƙone a ciki, wanda zai rage rayuwar aiki sosai.
Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Motocin da ke dauke da mai bambancin ra'ayi ma suna da babbar illa mara kyau:

  • Idan ƙafafun sun zame, akwatin bazai rarraba kayan da kyau ba. Misali, wannan yakan faru ne a kan kankara;
  • Ba ya son manyan sauye-sauye, don haka dole ne direba ya yi hankali a wane lokaci watsawar ba ta ƙara haɓakar kaya ba;
  • Kayan jikin mutum na kayan aiki;
  • Hanyar canza man shafawa a cikin injin ɗin tana da iyakantaccen iyaka - gwargwadon shawarwarin masana'antun, wannan lokacin na iya zama dubu 20, kuma wataƙila 30 000 kilomita;
  • Mai bambance-bambancen ya fi sauƙi ga fasawa fiye da watsawar hannu;
  • Yana da tsada sosai gyara saboda gaskiyar cewa ƙwararren masani ne kawai zai iya yin aikin daidai, wanda zai ɗauki kuɗin da ya dace don ayyukansa.

Manyan ayyuka

Rushewar akwatin mai canzawa matsala ce ta gaske ga mai mota. Koyaya, tare da bin ƙa'idodin masana'antun, yana aiki kwatsam. Ga abin da zai iya kasawa a ciki:

  • Jikin haɗin da ake watsa saƙo daga cikin abin da yake motsawa zuwa abin da yake tukawa. A wasu lokuta bel ne, a wasu kuma sarka ce;
  • Rashin aikin lantarki - asarar lamba, gazawar na'urori masu auna sigina;
  • Lalacewar inji na hadawar ruwa;
  • Rashin abubuwan masu zaben;
  • Rushewar famfo mai rage bawul;
  • Kurakurai a cikin sashen sarrafawa. Ana iya gano wannan matsalar a sauƙaƙe sakamakon cikakkiyar ganewar abin hawa a tsaye.
Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Game da lantarki, nan da nan kwamfutar za ta nuna mene ne kuskuren. Amma tare da raunin inji, bincike-bincike ya zama mafi rikitarwa. Ga abin da zai iya nuna matsala tare da mai bambancin:

  • Muguwar motar, tare da jarkoki;
  • Lokacin da aka zaɓi saurin tsaka tsaki, motar ta ci gaba da motsawa;
  • Wuya ko yuwuwar sauya kayan aikin hannu (idan irin wannan zaɓi yana cikin watsawa).

Aiki na bambance-bambancen

Akwatin CVT yana da damuwa, amma idan kun saba da shi, zai ɗauki dogon lokaci. Ga abin da ya kamata ku sani game da mai motar da irin wannan watsawa ke tuka abin hawarsa:

  • Akwatin ba ya son tuki mai tsauri. Maimakon haka, salon "ritaya" ko motsi da aka auna tare da saurin matsakaici ya dace da ita;
  • Rarraba wannan nau'in ba zai iya tsayayya da babban sauyi ba, don haka idan direba yana da ɗabi'a ta "nutsarwa" akan babbar hanyar nesa, zai fi kyau ya tsaya a kanikanikan. Aƙalla yana da rahusa don gyara shi;
  • A kan mai canzawa, dole ne ka fara farat farat ɗaya kuma ƙyale ƙafafun tuƙi su zame;
  • Wannan watsawa bai dace da abin hawa mai amfani wanda galibi ke dauke da kaya masu nauyi ko jan tirela ba.
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Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Lokacin da mota mai cvt ta shiga cikin laka kuma ta makale, bai kamata ku yi ƙoƙarin fitar da kanku ba. Zai fi kyau don amfani da taimakon baƙi, kamar yadda a cikin wannan yanayin ba shi yiwuwa a guji zamewar ƙafafu.

Wanne ya fi kyau: mai bambance-bambance ko injin atomatik?

Idan kun kwatanta waɗannan nau'ikan kwalaye biyu, to ya kamata nan da nan ku kula da gaskiyar cewa analog ɗin atomatik yana kan kasuwa da yawa fiye da mai canzawa. Saboda wannan dalili, isassun adadin injiniyoyi sun riga sun fahimci na'urar da mahimmancin watsawar atomatik. Amma tare da masu bambancin ra'ayi, halin da ake ciki ya fi muni - ya fi wuya a sami ainihin ƙwararre.

Anan akwai wasu fa'idodi na watsawa ta atomatik:

  • An tsara shi sauƙin fiye da cvt, kuma akwai wadatattun kayan haɗi a cikin dillalan mota;
  • Game da tuƙi, akwatin yana aiki bisa ƙa'idar makanikai - giya a sarari suke, amma ECU ce ke da alhakin sauya su;
  • Aiki mai aiki don inji na atomatik ya fi mai rahusa bambanci. Kuna iya adana kuɗi ta hanyar siyan zaɓi mai rahusa, tunda akwai nau'ikan mai iri iri na injunan atomatik akan kasuwa;
  • Kayan lantarki yana zaɓar mafi kyawu rpm a inda zaka iya canza overdrive;
  • Injin yana lalacewa ƙasa sau da yawa fiye da mai canzawa, musamman game da gazawar lantarki. Wannan saboda gaskiyar cewa rukunin sarrafawa yana sarrafa kashi ɗaya bisa huɗu ne kawai na aikin watsawa. Injinan yi sauran;
  • Injin yana da kayan aiki mafi girma. Idan direba yayi aiki da naúrar a hankali (ya canza mai a kan kari kuma ya guji yawan tuƙi mai tayar da hankali), to inji zai ƙare aƙalla dubu 400, kuma ba zai buƙaci manyan gyare-gyare ba.
Yadda yake aiki: CVT akwatin

Koyaya, duk da fa'idodi, inji kuma yana da rashi ƙwarewa da yawa:

  • Watsawa yadda take aiki ba shi da kyau tunda mafi yawan karfin juyi ana amfani dashi ne wajen kwance karfin karfin juyi;
  • Canza motsi bai zama mai santsi ba - har yanzu direban yana ji lokacin da motar ta canza zuwa wani kaya;
  • Saurin motar ba shi da irin wannan alama mai inganci kamar na mai bambancin - a can cikin sauri an ɗauke saurin;
  • Injinan suna da kwanten mai mafi girma. Ma'aikata na al'ada suna buƙatar kimanin lita uku na man shafawa, mai bambanta - har zuwa takwas, amma injin atomatik - kimanin lita 10.

Idan kun gwada da kyau, to waɗannan gazawar sun fi ƙarfin rufewa da amincin waɗannan rukunin. Koyaya, duk ya dogara da abin da mai shi ke tsammanin motarsa.

Don haka, an tsara mota mai ɗauke da akwatin bambance-bambancen don motsin birni mai nutsuwa. Tare da irin wannan watsawa, direba na iya jin kamar tuka jirgin ruwan ƙasa maimakon matukin motar motsa jiki.

A ƙarshe, yadda za a tantance inda akwatin yake:

Yadda za a zabi mota, wane akwatin ya fi kyau: atomatik, bambance-bambancen, robot, makanikai
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