Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD
 

Abubuwa

A cikin tarihin masana'antar kera motoci, an sami mafita da yawa na ci gaba, zane-zanen kayan aikin da majalisai sun canza. Fiye da shekaru 30 da suka gabata, yunƙuri masu aiki sun fara matsar da injin piston zuwa gefe, suna ba da fa'idar ga injin piston na jujjuyawar Wankel. Koyaya, saboda yanayi da yawa, Rotary Motors basu sami haƙƙin rayuwa ba. Karanta duk wannan a ƙasa.

Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD

Yadda yake aiki

Rotor yana da siffar mai kusurwa uku, a kowane gefe yana da maɗaukakiyar siffar da take aiki azaman fistan. Kowane gefen rotor yana da hutu na musamman wanda ke ba da sararin samaniya don cakudar mai-iska, ta haka yana ƙara saurin aikin injin. A saman gefuna an sanye shi da ƙaramin hatimi na hatimi wanda ke sauƙaƙa aiwatar da kowane duka. A gefuna biyu rotor yana sanye da zoben hatimi wanda ya zama bangon ɗakunan. Tsakanin na'ura mai juyi sanye take da hakora, tare da taimakon abin da injin ke juyawa.

Ka'idar aikin injin Wankel ta sha bamban da ta zamani, amma, suna hade ne ta hanya daya wanda ya kunshi shanyewar jiki 4 (shan-matsawa mai aiki-shaye shaye). Man fetur ya shiga cikin ɗaki na farko da aka kafa, an matsa shi a karo na biyu, sa'annan rotor ya jujjuya kuma aka cakuda abin da aka matsa shi ta hanyar toshewar fitila, bayan haɗin aikin yana juya rotor ɗin kuma ya fita zuwa sharar yawancin. Babban ka'idojin rarrabewa shine a cikin motar piston mai juyawa, ɗakin aiki ba tsayayye bane, amma an ƙirƙira shi ta motsi na rotor.

 
Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD

Na'urar

Kafin fahimtar na'urar, ya kamata ka san ainihin abubuwan da ke jikin motar piston mai juyawa. Injin Wankel ya ƙunshi:

  • stator gidaje;
  • na'ura mai juyi
  • saitin giya;
  • eccentric shaft;
  • walƙiya (toshewa da kunnawa bayan wuta).

Motar juyawa ita ce ƙungiyar konewa ta ciki. A cikin wannan motar, dukkanin bugun jini 4 na aiki suna faruwa cikakke, duk da haka, ga kowane lokaci akwai ɗakin kansa, wanda rotor yake kafa ta juyawar motsi. 

Lokacin da aka kunna wutar, mai farawa zai juya ƙwanƙwasa kuma injin ya fara. Juyawa, na'ura mai juyi, ta hanyar rawanin giya, yana watsa karfin juzu'i zuwa ramin haɗari (don injin piston, wannan kamshi ne). 

 

Sakamakon aikin injin Wankel ya kamata ya zama matsin lamba na cakuda mai aiki, tilastawa da sake maimaita motsin juyi na rotor, watsa juzu'i zuwa watsawa. 

A cikin wannan motar, silinda, piston, ƙusoshin katako tare da sandunan haɗawa sun maye gurbin dukkanin gidajen stator da rotor. Godiya ga wannan, ƙarar injin ya ragu ƙwarai, yayin da wutar ta ninka sau da yawa fiye da ta tsohuwar motar tare da kayan kwalliya, tare da girma ɗaya. Wannan ƙirar tana da babban gearbox kuma saboda ƙananan asara.

🚀ari akan batun:
  Shahararren gidan rediyo mafi shahara a duniya daga ciki

Af, saurin aikin injin zai iya wuce 7000 rpm, yayin da injunan Mazda Wankel (don gasar wasanni) ya zarce 10000 rpm. 

Zane

Ofaya daga cikin mahimman fa'idodin wannan rukunin shine ƙaramin aiki da ƙananan nauyi idan aka kwatanta da injina na zamani masu girma ɗaya. Salon yana ba ka damar rage tsakiyar nauyi, kuma wannan yana da tasiri mai tasiri kan kwanciyar hankali da kaifin sarrafawa. Advantageananan jirage, motocin motsa jiki da motocin motsa jiki suna jin daɗin wannan fa'idar. 

Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD

История

Tarihin asali da yaduwar injin Wankel zai baku damar fahimtar dalilin da yasa ya zama mafi inganci a zamanin ta, kuma me yasa aka watsar dashi a yau.

Ci gaban farko

A shekarar 1951, kamfanin NSU Motorenwerke na kasar Jamus ya samar da injina guda biyu: na farko - na Felix Wankel, da sunan DKM, na biyu kuma - KKM Hans Paschke (bisa ci gaban Wankel). 

 

Tushen aikin sashin Wankel shine jujjuyawar jiki da rotor, saboda wannan juyi yakai 17000 a minti daya. Rashin kwanciyar hankali shine cewa injin dole ne a warwatse don maye gurbin fulogan walƙiya. Amma injin KKM yana da tsayayyen jiki kuma ƙirarta ta kasance mafi sauki fiye da babban samfuri.

Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD

Ba da lasisi

A cikin 1960, NSU Motorenwerke ya sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya tare da kamfanin kera kayayyakin Amurka na Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Yarjejeniyar ta kasance ga injiniyoyin Bajamushe su mayar da hankali kan ci gaban kananan injunan piston masu jujjuya motocin haske, yayin da Ba'amurke Curtis-Wright ta tsunduma cikin aikin kera injunan jirgin sama. Hakanan an sake daukar Injiniyan inji dan kasar Jamus Max Bentele a matsayin mai zane. 

Mafi yawan masana'antar kera motoci a duniya, gami da Citroen, Porsche, Ford, Nissan, GM, Mazda da sauransu. A cikin 1959, kamfanin Amurka ya gabatar da ingantaccen injin na Wankel, kuma shekara guda bayan haka kamfanin Rolls Royce na Burtaniya ya nuna injin dinta na dizal mai hawa biyu.

A halin yanzu, wasu masu kera motoci na Turai sun fara kokarin wadata motoci da sabbin injina, amma ba duka suka samu aikace-aikacen su ba: GM ya ki, Citroen ya kafu kan kirkirar injin mai dauke da piston na jirgi, kuma Mercedes-Benz ya sanya motar piston mai juyawa a cikin gwajin C 111. 

A cikin 1961, a cikin Tarayyar Soviet, NAMI, tare da sauran cibiyoyin bincike, suka fara haɓaka injin Wankel. Yawancin zaɓuɓɓuka an tsara su, ɗayansu ya sami aikace-aikacensa a cikin motar VAZ-2105 don KGB. Ba a san takamaiman adadin motocin da aka harhada ba, amma bai wuce dozin da yawa ba. 

🚀ari akan batun:
  Injin injin. Manufar, na'urar, zane

Af, shekaru daga baya, kawai kamfanin mota na Mazda da gaske ya sami amfani don injin piston mai juyawa. Babban misali na wannan shine RX-8.

Ci gaban babur

A Biritaniya, kamfanin kera babura Norton Motorcycles ya kirkiro injin piston mai sanyaya iska mai sanyaya iska ga motocin. Kuna iya koyo game da ci gaba ta hanyar karantawa game da babur ɗin Hercules W-2000.

Suzuki bai tsaya gefe ba, kuma shima ya fitar da babur dinta. Koyaya, injiniyoyin sunyi aiki da ƙirar motar, sun yi amfani da ferroalloy, wanda hakan ya haɓaka aminci da albarkatun naúrar.

Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD

Ci gaban motoci

Bayan sanya hannu kan kwangilar bincike tsakanin Mazda da NSU, kamfanonin sun fara yin gasa don zakara a cikin kerar mota ta farko tare da rukunin Wankel. Sakamakon haka, a shekarar 1964, NSU ta gabatar da motarta ta farko, wato NSU Spider, a matsayin martani, Mazda ta gabatar da samfurin injunan juyawa 2 da 4. Bayan shekaru 3, NSU Motorenwerke ya fito da samfurin Ro 80, amma ya sami ra'ayoyi marasa kyau saboda yawan gazawa game da asalin zane mara kyau. Ba a warware wannan matsalar ba har sai 1972 kuma kamfanin ya shiga cikin hankali bayan shekaru 7. Audi, kuma injunan Wankel sun riga sun sami mummunan suna.

Kamfanin Mazda na kasar Japan ya sanar da cewa injiniyoyinsu sun warware matsalar hatimce saman (don matsi tsakanin ɗakunan), sun fara amfani da injin ba kawai a cikin motocin motsa jiki ba, har ma a cikin motocin kasuwanci. A hanyar, masu motocin Mazda tare da injin keɓaɓɓu sun lura da maƙasudin maƙarƙashiya da haɓakar injin ɗin.

Daga baya Mazda yayi watsi da babbar gabatarwar injin gaba, yana girkawa kawai akan nau'ikan RX-7 da RX-8. Don RX-8, an ƙera injin Renesis, wanda aka inganta ta hanyoyi da yawa, wato:

  • ƙauraran hayakin da aka ƙaura don inganta fashewa, wanda ya haɓaka ƙarfin gaske;
  • kara wasu sassan yumbu don hana gurbataccen yanayin zafi;
  • da kyakkyawan tsarin sarrafa injiniyan lantarki;
  • kasancewar fulogogi biyu (babba da na bayan wuta);
  • ƙara jaket na ruwa don kawar da haɓakar carbon a mashigar.

A sakamakon haka, an sami ƙaramin injin da ke da ƙarfi na lita 1.3 da ƙarfin fitarwa na kimanin 231 hp.

Injin Wankel - na'urar da ƙa'idar aiki ta motar RPD

Amfanin

Babban fa'idodi na injin piston mai juyawa:

  1. Weightaramin nauyi da girma, wanda kai tsaye ya shafi tushen ƙirar mota. Wannan lamarin yana da mahimmanci yayin tsara motar motsa jiki tare da ƙananan cibiyar nauyi.
  2. Detailsan bayanai kaɗan. Wannan ba kawai zai ba ku damar rage farashin kiyaye motar ba, har ma don rage asarar wuta don motsi ko juyawar sassan da ke da alaƙa. Wannan factor kai tsaye rinjayi babban dace.
  3. Tare da girma iri daya kamar na injin fistan gargajiya, karfin injin piston mai juyawa ya ninka sau 2-3.
  4. Laushin laushi da taushi na aiki, rashi motsi na zahiri saboda gaskiyar cewa babu wani motsi na jujjuyawar manyan raka'a.
  5. Injin zai iya amfani da wutar lantarki mai ƙarancin octane.
  6. Tsarin kewayon saurin aiki yana ba da izinin amfani da watsawa tare da gajeren giya, wanda ya dace da yanayin birane sosai.
  7. Providedarin karfin juyi “shiryayye” an bayar dashi ne ⅔ na sake zagayowar, kuma ba kwata ba, kamar yadda yake a cikin injin Otto.
  8. Kusan babu gurɓataccen mai injin, gurɓataccen magudanar ya nunka sau da yawa. Anan, mai ba batun konewa bane, kamar a cikin motocin piston, wannan tsari yana faruwa ta zobba.
  9. Babu fashewa.
🚀ari akan batun:
  Me yasa sabbin taya zasu kasance akan duwawun baya?

Af, an tabbatar da cewa koda wannan injin ɗin yana gab da samun albarkatu, yana cin mai mai yawa, yana aiki a ƙananan matsi, ƙarfinsa zai ɗan ragu kaɗan. Wannan fa'idar ce ta ba ni cin hanci don girka injin fistan a cikin jirgin sama.

Tare da fa'idodi masu ban sha'awa, akwai kuma rashin amfani wanda ya hana injin piston mai juyawa zuwa ga talakawa.

 shortcomings

  1. Tsarin konewa ba shi da inganci, saboda abin da amfani da mai ke ƙaruwa da ƙa'idodin yawan guba. An warware matsalar ta wani ɓangaren toshewar walƙiya ta biyu wacce ke kona aikin.
  2. Babban amfani da mai. Rashin dacewar hakan ya kasance saboda gaskiyar cewa injunan Wankel suna daɗaɗa mai, kuma a wasu wurare, wani lokacin, mai na iya ƙonewa. Akwai wadataccen mai a cikin yankunan konewa sakamakon haifar da haɓakar carbon. Sunyi kokarin magance wannan matsalar ta girka bututun "zafi" wanda yake inganta tura wuta da kuma daidaita yanayin zafin mai a cikin injin din.
  3. Matsalar gyarawa. Ba dukkan kwararru bane suke shirye da kwarewa don gyara injin Wankel ba. A tsari, naúrar ba ta da rikitarwa fiye da ta zamani, amma akwai nuances da yawa, waɗanda ba kiyaye su ba zasu haifar da gazawar injina da wuri. A kan wannan muke ƙara yawan kuɗin gyara.
  4. Resourcearamar hanya. Ga masu Mazda RX-8, nisan kilomita 80 yana nufin lokaci ya yi da za a yi garambawul. Abin baƙin cikin shine, irin wannan ƙimar da ƙarfin aiki dole ne a biya ta tare da gyare-gyare masu tsada da tsaurara kowane kilomita kilomita 000-80.
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