Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic
 

Abubuwa

Duk wata mota ta zamani ba zata iya farawa kuma ta tafi daidai ba idan babu wata hanyar watsawa a cikin naurarta. A yau, akwai nau'ikan nau'ikan gearboxes iri-iri, wanda ba wai kawai ba direba damar zaɓin zaɓi wanda ya dace da ƙwarewar kayansa ba, amma kuma yana ba da damar samun kwanciyar hankali daga tuki abin hawa.

A taƙaice game da manyan nau'ikan watsawa aka bayyana a ciki raba bita... Yanzu bari muyi magana dalla-dalla game da menene gearbox gear, babban bambancin sa daga gearbox din hannu, sannan kuma yayi la'akari da tsarin aikin wannan naúrar.

Menene gearbox gear

Aikin gearbox kusan yayi daidai da analog ɗin inji banda wasu fasalulluka. Na'urar robot din ta hada bangarori da yawa wadanda suka hada da injinan kwalin da kowa ya sanshi. Babban bambanci tsakanin mutum-mutumi shine cewa sarrafa ta na nau'in microprocessor ne. A cikin irin wannan gearboxes, ana canza jujjuya ta hanyar lantarki bisa ga bayanai daga na'urori masu auna sigina na injin, fedawar gas da ƙafafun.

 
Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Hakanan ana iya kiran akwatin robotic inji na atomatik, amma wannan sunan ba daidai bane. Gaskiyar ita ce, ana amfani da watsa atomatik azaman ra'ayi na gama gari. Don haka, wannan bambance-bambancen yana da yanayin atomatik don sauya matakan haɓaka, don haka ga wasu kuma atomatik ne. A zahiri, dangane da tsari da ka'idar aiki, mutum-mutumi yana kusa da akwatin inji.

A waje, ba shi yiwuwa a rarrabe watsa ta hannu daga watsa ta atomatik, saboda suna iya samun mai zabi iri daya da jiki. Zaka iya duba watsawan kawai yayin abin hawa yana tuƙi. Kowane nau'i na ƙungiya yana da halaye na kansa na aiki.

Babban mahimmancin watsawar mutum-mutumi shine sanya tuki cikin sauƙi-sosai. Direba baya buƙatar canza kayan aiki da kansa - wannan aikin ana yin shi ta ƙungiyar sarrafawa. Baya ga ta'aziyya, masana'antun watsa ta atomatik suna ƙoƙari su sa samfuwansu su yi arha. A yau, mutum-mutumi shine nau'in gearbox mafi yawan kasafin kuɗi bayan injiniyoyi, amma baya samar da irin wannan tuki mai motsa jiki azaman mai bambanta ko atomatik.

 

Tsarin ka'idar gearbox

Jigilar mutum-mutumi na iya canzawa zuwa saurin gaba ko dai ta atomatik ko ta atomatik. A farkon lamari, bangaren microprocessor yana karbar sigina daga firikwensin, wanda akasarin shi ne aka samar da aikin algorithm da mai sana'anta ya tsara.

Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Yawancin gearboxes suna sanye take da mai zaɓin jagora. A wannan yanayin, saurin har yanzu zai kunna kai tsaye. Abinda kawai shine cewa direban na iya sigina da kansa lokacin canzawa a kan kayan sama ko ƙasa. Wasu watsa shirye-shiryen atomatik na nau'in Tiptronic suna da irin wannan ƙa'idar.

Don haɓaka ko rage gudu, direban yana matsar da maɓallin kewayawa zuwa + ko zuwa -. Godiya ga wannan zaɓin, wasu mutane suna kiran wannan watsawa bi da bi.

Akwatin mutummutumi yana aiki bisa ga makirci mai zuwa:

  1. Direba ya taka birki, ya fara injin sannan ya matsar da yanayin tuki zuwa matsayin D;
  2. Alamar daga naúrar ta tafi zuwa sashin sarrafa akwatin;
  3. Dogaro da yanayin da aka zaɓa, sashin sarrafawa yana kunna madaidaicin algorithm gwargwadon abin da rukunin zai yi aiki;
  4. A yayin aiwatar da motsi, na'urori masu auna sigina suna aika sigina zuwa "kwakwalwar mutum-mutumi" game da saurin abin hawa, game da kayan wutar lantarki, da kuma yanayin gearbox na yanzu;
  5. Da zaran alamomin suka daina dacewa da shirin da aka sanya daga masana'anta, rukunin sarrafawa yana ba da umarnin canza zuwa wani kaya. Wannan na iya zama ƙari ko raguwa cikin sauri.
🚀ari akan batun:
  Rage kuma ƙara yawan matsawa
Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Lokacin da direba ke tuka mota mai kanikanci, dole ne ya ji motarsa ​​domin sanin lokacin da zai sauya zuwa wani saurin. A cikin analog ɗin mutum-mutumi, irin wannan aikin yana faruwa, direba ne kawai ba ya buƙatar yin tunani game da lokacin da zai motsa liver ɗin motsawa zuwa matsayin da ake so. Madadin haka, microprocessor yayi shi.

Tsarin yana kula da dukkan bayanai daga duk na'urori masu auna sigina kuma yana zaɓar kayan aiki mafi kyau don takamaiman kaya. Don haka lantarki zai iya canza kayan aiki, watsawar yana da mai aiwatar da aikin hydromechanical. A cikin sigar da aka fi amfani da ita, maimakon hydromechanics, an shigar da tuki na lantarki ko kuma servo drive, wanda ke haɗa / cire haɗin ƙwanƙwasa a cikin akwatin (ta hanyar, wannan yana da kamanceceniya da gearbox na atomatik - kamawar ba ta inda yake a cikin watsawar hannu ba, wato kusa da ƙwanƙwasa, amma a cikin gidan kanta watsa).

 

Lokacin da sashin sarrafawa ya ba da alama cewa lokaci ya yi da za a sauya zuwa wani saurin daban, ana fara kunna servo drive na farko na lantarki (ko hydromechanical). Yana rarraba abubuwan saman gogewa. Sabulu na biyu sannan ya motsa giya a cikin inji zuwa matsayin da ake so. Sannan na farkon yana sakin kama a hankali. Wannan ƙirar tana ba inji damar yin aiki ba tare da sa hannun direba ba; sabili da haka, inji mai ɗauke da mutum-mutumi ba shi da feda mai kamawa.

Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Yawancin akwatunan zaɓaɓɓu sun tilasta matsayin aiki. Wannan abin da ake kira tiptronic yana bawa direba damar sarrafa kansa lokacin canzawa zuwa mafi sauri ko ƙarami.

Kayan aikin gearbox

A yau, akwai nau'ikan watsa shirye-shirye na mutum-mutumi da yawa ga motocin fasinja. Suna iya bambanta da juna a cikin wasu masu aiwatarwa, amma manyan sassan suna kama ɗaya.

Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Anan ga nodes ɗin da aka haɗa a cikin gearbox:

  1. Kamawa. Dogaro da masana'antun da gyare-gyaren naúrar, wannan na iya zama ɓangare ɗaya tare da saman gogayya ko wasu fayafai masu kama da yawa. Mafi sau da yawa, waɗannan abubuwan suna cikin ruwan sanyi, wanda ke daidaita aikin ƙungiyar, yana hana shi zafin jiki. Zaɓin zaɓi ko zaɓi na biyu ana ɗaukarsa mafi tasiri. A cikin wannan gyare-gyare, yayin da ɗayan kaya ke aiki, saiti na biyu yana shirye don kunna saurin gudu.
  2. Babban sashi shine akwatin kayan inji na yau da kullun. Kowane masana'anta na amfani da kayayyaki daban-daban. Misali, mutum-mutumi daga alama Mercedes (Speedshift) yana cikin watsawar atomatik ta 7G-Tronic. Bambanci kawai tsakanin rukunin shine cewa maimakon mai canzawa, ana amfani da kama tare da fayafayan diski da yawa. Damuwa tana da irin wannan tsarin BMW... Aikin gearbox na SMG ya dogara ne akan gearbox mai saurin tafiya.
  3. Kamawa da watsawa. Akwai zaɓuɓɓuka biyu - tare da motar lantarki ko analog ɗin hydromechanical. A cikin farko, ana fitar da kama ta hanyar motar lantarki, kuma a cikin na biyu - ta hanyar silinda masu motsi tare da EM bawul. Motsi na lantarki yana aiki a hankali fiye da na lantarki, amma baya buƙatar kiyaye matsin lamba koyaushe a cikin layin, daga inda nau'in lantarki ke aiki. Wani mutum-mutumi mai aiki da karfin ruwa, yana tafiya zuwa mataki na gaba da sauri (sakan 0,05 da sakan 0,5 na na'urar analog na lantarki). Ana shigar da gearbox na lantarki mafi yawa akan motocin kasafin kuɗi, kuma an sanya gearbox na hydromechanical akan motocin wasannin motsa jiki, tunda saurin matattarar yana da mahimmanci a cikin su ba tare da katse wutar lantarki zuwa mashin motar ba.Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic
  4.  Na'urar haska bayanai. Akwai irin wadannan bangarorin da yawa a cikin mutum-mutumi. Suna lura da sigogi daban-daban na watsawa, misali, matsayin cokula masu yatsu, juyin juya halin shigar da shafuka, wanda a inda ake kulle mai zaben, yanayin zafin jikin mai sanyaya, da dai sauransu. Duk waɗannan bayanan ana ciyar dasu zuwa na'urar sarrafa inji.
  5. ECU wani ɓangaren microprocessor ne, wanda aka tsara algorithms daban-daban tare da alamun da ke zuwa daga na'urori masu auna sigina. Wannan rukunin yana da alaƙa da babban naúrar sarrafawa (daga can ne bayanai kan aikin injin suke zuwa), da kuma tsarin kulle ƙafafun lantarki (ABS ko ESP).
  6. Masu aiki - silinda masu motsi ko injin lantarki, gwargwadon gyare-gyaren akwatin.
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Ayyadadden aikin RKPP

Don abin hawa ya fara aiki lami lafiya, dole ne direba ya yi amfani da ƙwanƙolin kamawa daidai. Bayan ya haɗa kayan farko ko na baya, yana buƙatar sakar ƙafafun cikin nutsuwa. Da zarar direba ya ji daɗin shigar da faya-fayan, yayin da yake sakin feda, zai iya ƙara yin gyare-gyare a cikin injin don kada motar ta tsaya. Wannan shine yadda makanikai ke aiki.

Wani tsari iri ɗaya yake faruwa a cikin takwaran mutum-mutumi. Kawai a wannan yanayin ba a buƙatar ƙwarewa mai yawa daga direba. Kawai yana buƙatar matsar da canjin akwatin zuwa matsayin da ya dace. Motar zata fara motsawa daidai da saitunan ƙungiyar sarrafawa.

Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Sauƙi mafi sauƙin ɗaure kama yana aiki kamar injiniyoyi na gargajiya. Koyaya, a lokaci guda, akwai matsala ɗaya - lantarki ba sa rikodin bayanan kamawa. Idan mutum zai iya tantance yadda yakamata ya saki feda a wani yanayi, to aikin atomatik yayi aiki sosai, don haka motsin motar yana tare da jarkoki na zahiri.

Wannan ana jin shi musamman a cikin gyare-gyare tare da motar lantarki na masu aiwatarwa - yayin da gear ke canzawa, kama zai kasance cikin yanayin buɗewa. Wannan yana nufin ɗan hutu a cikin kwararar karfin juyi, saboda abin da motar ta fara raguwa. Tunda saurin juyawar ƙafafun ya riga ya ƙasa da jituwa tare da kayan aiki, ɗan ƙaramin abu yana faruwa.

Hanyar kirkirar wannan matsalar ita ce ci gaba da sauye-sauye kama biyu. Babban wakilin wannan watsa shine Volkswagen DSG. Bari muyi cikakken duba abubuwansa.

Fasali na gearG robotic gearbox

Taƙaitaccen tsaye ga gearbox na motsi kai tsaye. A zahiri, waɗannan akwatunan inji guda biyu ne waɗanda aka girka a cikin gida ɗaya, amma tare da ma'ana ɗaya haɗin ma'anar injin. Kowane inji yana da nasa kama.

Babban fasalin wannan gyare-gyare shine yanayin zaɓin zaɓi. Wato, yayin da sandar farko ke gudana tare da kayan aiki, kayan lantarki tuni ya haɗu da giya masu dacewa (lokacin hanzarta ƙara ƙira, lokacin da yake sauka zuwa ƙasa) na biyu. Babban mai aiwatarwa kawai yana buƙatar cire haɗin ɗayan ɗayan kuma haɗa wani. Da zaran an karɓi sigina daga sashin sarrafawa don canzawa zuwa wani mataki, kamawar aiki tana buɗewa, kuma na biyun da ke da giya tuni an haɗa shi kai tsaye.

Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Wannan ƙirar tana ba ka damar hawa ba tare da ƙarfi ba yayin hanzarta. Ci gaban farko na zaɓin zaɓaɓɓe ya bayyana a cikin 80s na ƙarni na ƙarshe. Gaskiya ne, sa'annan an sanya mutummutumi tare da kamala biyu akan jerin gwanon motoci da tsere wanda gudu da daidaito na sauya kaya suna da mahimmanci.

Idan muka kwatanta akwatin DSG tare da mai sarrafa kansa ta atomatik, to zaɓi na farko yana da fa'idodi da yawa. Na farko, saboda sanannen tsarin manyan abubuwa (mai ƙirar na iya ɗaukar kowane samfurin analog ɗin da aka shirya a matsayin tushe), irin wannan akwatin zai zama mai rahusa akan siyarwa. Hakanan ya shafi tasirin sashin - injiniyoyi sun fi aminci kuma sun fi sauƙi a gyara.

🚀ari akan batun:
  Tsarin TSC, ABS da ESP. Ka'idar aiki

Wannan ya baiwa masana'antar damar girka sabbin bayanai akan samfuran kasafin kudin samfuran su. Abu na biyu, yawancin masu motocin da ke da irin wannan gearbox suna lura da ƙaruwar ƙimar motar idan aka kwatanta da ƙirar iri ɗaya, amma tare da akwatin gearbox daban.

Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Injiniyoyin damuwa na VAG sun haɓaka bambance-bambancen guda biyu na watsawar DSG. Ofayan daga cikinsu an lakafta shi 6, ɗayan kuma 7, wanda ya yi daidai da adadin matakai a cikin akwatin. Hakanan, atomatik mai sauri shida yana amfani da kamawa mai danshi, kuma analog mai saurin gudu guda bakwai yana amfani da kama mai bushe. A cikin dalla-dalla dalla-dalla game da fa'idodi da rashin fa'idar akwatin DSG, kazalika da yadda kuma samfurin DSG 6 ya bambanta da canji na bakwai, an bayyana shi a cikin dabam labarin.

Abũbuwan amfãni da rashin amfani

Nau'in watsawar da aka ɗauka yana da bangarori masu kyau da marasa kyau. Fa'idodin akwatin sun haɗa da:

  • Ana iya amfani da irin wannan watsawa a haɗe tare da rukunin wutar kusan kowane iko;
  • Idan aka kwatanta da mai banbancin ra'ayi da na'ura na atomatik, fasalin mutum-mutumi ya fi rahusa, kodayake wannan ci gaban ne na zamani;
  • Robobi sun fi aminci fiye da sauran watsa atomatik;
  • Saboda kamanceceniyar cikin gida da kanikanci, ya fi sauki a samu kwararre wanda zai dauki nauyin gyaran bangaren;
  • Efficientarin sauya kayan aiki da kyau yana ba da damar amfani da ƙarfin injin ba tare da mahimmancin ƙaruwar amfani da mai ba;
  • Ta inganta ingantaccen aiki, inji yana fitar da abubuwa marasa haɗari cikin mahalli.
Hanyar watsawa - gearbox robotic

Duk da wadatar fa'idodi akan sauran watsa shirye-shirye ta atomatik, robot din yana da babbar illa mai yawa:

  • Idan motar tana sanye take da mutum-mutumi mai fayel-fayel, to, ba za a iya kiran tafiya a kan irin wannan abin ɗari daɗi ba. Lokacin canza giya, za a sami jarkoki na zahiri, kamar dai direba ya jefa kwalliyar ƙwanƙwasa akan kanikanikan.
  • Mafi sau da yawa, kama (ƙananan sassaucin aiki) da masu aiwatarwa basa cin nasara a ƙungiyar. Wannan yana rikitar da gyaran watsawa, tunda suna da ƙaramar hanyar aiki (kusan kilomita dubu 100). Ba a iya gyara Servos da yawa kuma sabbin hanyoyin suna da tsada.
  • Amma ga kama, kayan diski shima ƙananan ne - kusan dubu 60. Bugu da ƙari, kusan a rabin albarkatun ya zama dole don aiwatar da "haɗin" akwatin a ƙarƙashin yanayin yanayin gogayyar sassan.
  • Idan muka yi magana game da zaɓaɓɓen zaɓi na DSG, to ya zama abin dogara ne saboda ƙarancin lokaci don sauya saurin (godiya ga wannan, motar ba ta ragu sosai). Duk da wannan, mannewar har yanzu yana shan wahala a cikinsu.

La'akari da abubuwanda aka lissafa, zamu iya yanke hukunci cewa har zuwa abin dogaro da rayuwar aiki, makanikai basu da kwatankwacinsu tukunna. Idan an sanya girmamawa a kan iyakar jin daɗi, to ya fi kyau a zaɓi mai bambance-bambance (abin da ke keɓancewarta, karanta a nan). Ya kamata a tuna cewa irin wannan watsawa ba zai ba da damar adana mai ba.

A ƙarshe, muna ba da ɗan gajeren kwatancen bidiyo na manyan nau'ikan watsawa - fa'idodi da fa'idodin su:

Yadda za a zabi mota, wane akwatin ya fi kyau: atomatik, bambance-bambancen, robot, makanikai
LABARUN MAGANA
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