Internal combustion engine device
Engine device. At present, the internal combustion engine is the main type of automobile engine. Internal combustion engine, abbreviated name - ICE. It is a heat engine that converts the chemical energy of the fuel into mechanical work. There are the following main types of internal combustion engines. Piston, rotary piston and gas turbines. Of the types of engines presented, the most common is a piston internal combustion engine, therefore, the device and principle of operation are considered on its example. The advantages of a piston internal combustion engine, which ensures its widespread use, are. Autonomy, flexibility, combination with different consumers, low price, compactness, light weight, ability to quickly start and multi-fuel.
However, internal combustion engines have a number of significant disadvantages, which include. High noise level, high crankshaft speed, exhaust toxicity, low resource, low efficiency. Gasoline and diesel engines are distinguished depending on the type of fuel used. Alternative fuels used in internal combustion engines are natural gas, alcohol fuels - methanol and ethanol, hydrogen. From an environmental point of view, a hydrogen engine is promising and does not generate harmful emissions. Together with internal combustion engines, hydrogen is used to generate electricity in automotive fuel cells. A device with an internal combustion engine. An internal combustion engine with a piston includes a body, two mechanisms, a crank and timing and a number of systems. Intake, fuel, ignition, lubrication, cooling, exhaust and control system.
The engine block integrates the cylinder block and the cylinder head. The crankshaft mechanism converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion of the crankshaft. The gas distribution mechanism ensures the timely supply of air or air-fuel mixture to the cylinders and the release of exhaust gases. The intake system is designed to supply air to the engine. The fuel system supplies the engine with fuel. The combined work of these systems ensures the formation of an air-fuel mixture. The fuel system is based on the injection system. The ignition system provides forced ignition of the fuel mixture in gasoline engines. Diesel engines with self-ignition. The lubrication system has the function of reducing friction between engine parts.
Cooling of engine parts heated during operation is provided by the cooling system. Important functions of exhaust gases from engine cylinders, reducing their noise and toxicity, are prescribed by the exhaust system. The engine management system electronically controls the operation of the combustion engine system. Internal combustion engine operation. The principle of operation of an internal combustion engine is based on the effect of thermal expansion of gases. The fuel-air mixture arising during combustion provides the movement of the piston in the cylinder. The piston engine runs cyclically. Each working cycle takes place in two crankshaft revolutions and includes a four-stroke, four-stroke engine. Suction, compression, stroke and release.
Motor drive and device
During intake and piston strokes, the piston moves downward and the compression and exhaust strokes move upward. The duty cycles in each of the engine cylinders are out of phase. In this way a uniform motor is achieved. In some designs of internal combustion engines, the duty cycle is performed in two cycles. Compression-stroke, two-stroke engines. During the intake stroke, the intake and fuel systems provide an air-fuel mixture. Depending on the design, the mixture is formed in the intake manifold. Central and distributed injection of petrol engines or directly into the combustion chamber. Gasoline direct injection, diesel injection. When the intake valves of the timing mechanism are open, air or an air / fuel mixture is fed into the combustion chamber due to the vacuum caused by the downward movement of the piston.
Workflow and engine design
During the compression stroke, the intake valves close and the air / fuel mixture is compressed into the engine cylinders. A tactful move is accompanied by the ignition of the fuel mixture, forced or self-ignition. As a result of the ignition, a large amount of gas is generated, which puts pressure on the piston and makes it move downward. The movement of the piston through the crankshaft becomes the rotational movement of the crankshaft, which is then used to move the vehicle. During the course of the exhaust gas, the exhaust valves of the timing mechanism open and the exhaust gases are removed from the cylinders in the exhaust system, where they are cleaned, cooled and the noise level is reduced. The gases then enter the atmosphere. The considered principle of operation of an internal combustion engine makes it possible to understand why an internal combustion engine has a low efficiency - about 40%.