In the modern world, few people are attracted by the prospect of becoming a "happy" owner of Russian classics. Even in Soviet times, new cars did not shine with high quality. This was due to modest funding and tight production times.
Nevertheless, for history buffs and collectors, some models of the Soviet automobile industry are of particular interest. We present the TOP-10 of such machines.
This machine was created for military purposes. In the first half of the 1950s. The USSR Ministry of Defense faced a daunting task. How to transport bulky military cargo and firing installations over rough terrain? On the one hand, a vehicle was needed with the patency of tracked vehicles. On the other hand, the vehicle had to reach a speed much higher than a tank.
In 1956, a design bureau was created in the country, which was supposed to design a special car. It should be a 4-axle all-wheel drive truck with a maximum tonnage of 5-6 thousand kilograms.
Engineers and designers have created an off-road truck. The experimental model could overcome a wall 60 cm high, the maximum ascent slope was 35 degrees and a meter ford. However, its maximum carrying capacity was 3 tons. The machine did not satisfy the customer's requests. Therefore, the model remained in a single copy.
ZIL E 167
Another SUV was also created for military purposes already in 1963. The model was planned to be operated in Siberia on snowy roads.
The ground clearance was a whopping 85 centimeters. It should have made the perfect snowmobile. It was equipped with three axles with six driving wheels. Two ZIL engines (375th model) were used as a power unit. The total power was 118 horsepower.
During testing, the all-terrain vehicle showed good cross-country results (slightly below a meter, depending on its density). In the snow, he moved at a speed of 10 kilometers per hour. On a flat road, it accelerated to 75 km / h.
The car never went into mass production, as the engineers failed to develop a stable gearbox.
The unique amphibian was developed during the space race. The device was used to search for the arriving cosmonauts. The model was included in the search group, which consisted of three pieces of equipment. She was transported to the landing site of the spacecraft. It was used in case the crew of the ship was somewhere in the swamp, where the usual technology could not reach.
A feature of this amphibian is the auger-rotor chassis. It was driven by two VAZ engines of 77 horsepower each. The ground clearance was 76 centimeters. The amphibian accelerated to 25 kilometers per hour.
The small search engine was released in a limited edition of 20 pieces. An analogue of this car was used in the taiga to transport small-sized timber. True, the civilian version was different from the military one. On water, the device developed a speed of 10, on a swamp - 6, and on snow - 11 km / h.
The craving of Soviet engineers for SUVs was gaining popularity. And developments have gone beyond military technology. So, in 1971, drawings of the first off-road passenger car appeared. The authorities planned to create a people's car at an affordable price.
The main indicator of a car of this class is four-wheel drive. The Togliatti Automobile Plant completed the experimental model with engines, which were subsequently installed in the sixth series Zhiguli. All-wheel drive in conjunction with a 1,6-liter engine showed good results. However, due to the unpresentable appearance, the car never went into series. Only two prototypes remained, one of which was green. For which the vaz received the nickname "Crocodile".
Over time, the development came in handy. On the basis of the experience gained in the development of an off-road vehicle, the familiar Niva was created.
In parallel with the previous experimental vehicle, engineers began developing a light amphibious vehicle. The Niva prototype was used as a base. The model was created for the command staff of military units. Given the specifics of use, special requirements were imposed on the car. Therefore, the prototype was refined six times.
The model has received all the necessary permissions to enter the series. However, in 1988 the project stopped at the initial stage of production.
The engineers never managed to make the all-terrain vehicle fast and practical on the water. The problem with speed was that the movement was performed solely by rotating the wheels. To increase the speed, the driver needed to increase the number of engine revolutions. The motor and gearbox were placed in sealed boxes. Therefore, due to insufficient cooling, the power unit was constantly overheating.
A powerful executive car - this was supposed to be the new sedan. However, he also froze in time. Considering the target audience, the car received the most advanced "stuffing" at that time. The exclusive limousine was equipped with a serious multimedia system. CD-player and ten speakers - very few people even in a dream "appeared" such a luxury.
A 7,7-liter V-shaped engine was installed under the hood, developing a power of 315 horsepower. The design bureau planned to create several variants of an elite car. The project featured the development of a convertible, limousine and station wagon.
Two prototypes came out of the assembly shop. Black for General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee M. Gorbachev. The second (golden) is for his wife. Despite the uniqueness of the interior and layout, the project was closed. There were several reasons for this. Among them are the "whims" of officials and the difficult situation in the country.
Today one of these retro cars of the Soviet automobile industry is in the ZIL Museum.
This old car, which did not go into mass production, had a great future. In 1988, a subcompact prototype was presented at the Geneva Motor Show. Critics and auto show participants were delighted with the new product.
Engineers designed the body so that the car received excellent streamlining - a coefficient of 0,23 cd. Not every modern car meets such indicators.
In addition, the salon is very comfortable. The car control system includes cruise control and servo steering. Under the hood is a small engine with a volume of 0,65 liters. 35 horses accelerated the small car to an incredible 150 kilometers / hour for the era of low-power engines.
If the car went to the conveyor, the domestic auto industry would have a completely different reputation.
Another "victim" of an incomprehensible coincidence of circumstances - a great prototype of the truck. The model was first seen at the Geneva Motor Show in 1988. Like the previous exhibit, this "strongman" received special praise from critics.
For the first time, engineers and designers of the Soviet automobile industry have developed an enviable vehicle. The modular design turned out to be a feature of the body. Thanks to the use of unique engineering ideas, the main elements of the power unit have moved under the cab. This significantly reduced the length of the car, and freed up space for additional cargo by a whole cubic meter.
Unfortunately, the delightful novelty was not released into the series. Perhaps by coincidence, a couple of years later, the French concern released a serial Renault Magnum truck.
Homemade car "Pangolin"
The idea to create a beautiful sports car was "infected" not only by foreign automakers. In the USSR, production was strictly controlled by the opinion of statesmen. Therefore, enthusiasts, inspired by the beauty and power of foreign cars, decided to create handmade "concept cars".
And the car shown in the photo is the fruit of such work. The model is made in the style Lamborghini Countach. She's still on the move. The body of a retro racing car is made of fiberglass. Under the hood, the head of the technical circle installed a “kopeck” engine.
The peculiarity of the only Pangolina in the world was a lifting hood instead of opening doors. True, a restyled version with a door opening mechanism has reached our time. The exclusive racing car accelerated to 180 km / h. despite the installed standard Zhiguli engine.
Homemade car "Laura"
Another "hint" that the country needs sports cars is "Laura". Unlike copyright copies of foreign models, this vintage car is unique in its kind. It was based solely on the author's idea of two engineers from then Leningrad.
The sports car received a 1,5-liter internal combustion engine with a capacity of 77 horsepower. The speed limit of the exclusive was 170 km / h. Only two copies were created. Each car was equipped with a primitive on-board computer.
In the second half of the 90s. the car has changed beyond recognition thanks to a wealthy enthusiast from Smolensk.