The modern automotive industry is replete with a variety of models, in which it is quite difficult for an uninitiated person to understand.
The difference between car brands is not only in engine power and the internal structure of the system (transmission, chassis). The appearance of cars is determined by the body, which in turn is one of the root causes affecting the dimensions of the vehicle, as well as its price.
Light transport by body type is divided into frameless (load-bearing) and semi-frame structures for various purposes: for the carriage of passengers or cargo-passenger. You can learn to distinguish between passenger cars by knowing the structural features of their external load-bearing or semi-carrying body. In addition, the bodies differ in layout - the placement of the passenger compartment in relation to the engine and cargo compartment:
- Single-volume, where the passenger compartment divides the space along with the engine and space for cargo.
- Two-volume, where the cargo and passenger compartments are combined in the passenger compartment, and the engine is located separately, under the hood. A body of this type is distinguished by an unpaired number of doors - three or five - due to the door on the rear wall of the machine for access to the cargo.
- Three-volume, where each compartment is located separately: the cargo compartment - in the luggage compartment, the engine in the front (under the hood), passengers - directly in the cabin.
Each type of body (class of car), which has its own characteristics, has a specific name, regardless of the brand / brand of the car. But there are also terms that combine several types of body, with some common feature. For example, a combi is a body of any car brand with a door on the back wall.
Sedan - This is one of the most common body types. The roof is rigid, located at the same height along the length of the car interior. Sedan refers to passenger transport with a three-volume structure (the cabin is isolated from the trunk and the engine). It has two rows of full-size seats, which can accommodate adults freely, but in the executive class - GAZ 13/14 "Chaika", GAZ 12 ZIM - a third row was added. Characteristics:
- increased security;
- protection of the rear window from dirt;
- voluminous trunk.
A closed body is often equipped with four doors, occasionally a fifth one appears - on the rear wall for the luggage compartment. Example of a four-door sedan - Toyota Camry, "Zhiguli" / "Lada" (VAZ). Outdated brands are two-door Skoda Tudor, Zaporozhets (ZAZ).
The number of doors is not reflected on the base of the car (distance between the axles of the front / rear wheels), although the base is lengthened in the executive models.
Coupe refers to a closed type of three-volume body. Equipped with two doors.
In a separate compartment of the coupe, there are two rows of seats: the first full-size one is designed for the driver and an adult passenger, the second, which occupies a volume of space of no more than 93 cubic meters. cm, suitable for transporting children, small cargo or short-term travel of an adult. Coupe characterized by:
- rear window fixed to the body (no tailgate);
- stylish look;
- increased durability of the skin;
- rather wide doors.
The roof sloping at the rear gives the body a sporty look, but it does not deprive the car of full comfort for placement in the front seats.
Cabriolet Is a type of open three-volume car body for the transport of passengers. The side windows are raised, regardless of the fact that the design provides for a top of a hard or soft cover that can be folded or folded onto the trunk.
An exotic option for our latitudes convertible equipped with 4 armchairs and two doors. Unless it is an executive class with luxurious 4-seat and 4-door seating, such as the Toyota Century, created to enthrone the new emperor of Japan.
Version for open two- or three-volume passenger cars. The top (roof) is covered with a tarpaulin folding cover, sliding side windows are not provided. The car was in great demand in the pre-war and war periods of World War II for moving commanders.
Instead of side windows, clip-on tarpaulin sidewalls with transparent sheets of celluloid film were used. Later they began to be made of glass. Models are available with four (rarely two) doors. The cabin has two (or three) rows of full-size seats.
Modern models only remotely resemble the first versions. Now it is a class of luxury cars for a prestigious audience that appreciates an impressive powerful wheelbase and unrestrained comfort in the cabin.
Roadster - the car body can be either two-volume or three-volume, depending on the class. This is one of the varieties of a convertible with a fully open top or a folding fabric roof, but more closely resembles a sports car.
Unlike its "progenitor" - the convertible - the car's interior is designed exclusively for two passengers (including the driver). A distinctive feature is the presence of two doors. Due to the specific shape of the hull and the windshield, which can be divided into two parts, in some countries the type of body is called Barchetta, which means "small boat" in Italian.
Variable sports version Roadster considered Targa (Targa), which can be distinguished by the following features: a two-seater car with two doors, decent protection from injuries behind the seats (with a roll cage), two comfortable seats.
Landau Is an interesting modification of the three-volume convertible, where the upper front part of the cabin above the driver is protected by a hard covering, while the passenger rear seats are open for free view. The fabric roof above the passengers can be folded, leaving the trunk accessible, or it can be tightly pushed onto the driver's "visor". In the rigid version, this part is removed if necessary.
The cabin has four seats and the same number of doors. The prototype for such a body was the model Maybach DS8 Zeppelin Landaulet 1938, which belonged to the executive class. Currently, the classic version of the landau version (as well as brogam) is considered a rarity, modern models have taken their place on the market.
Brogam this is another example of an open three-box body from a series of four-seat convertibles. In complete contrast to the Landau, the front section of the cabin above the driver's seat is completely open, which vaguely resembles the design of a road carriage with a cab from the XNUMXth century.
The car has 4 doors, the rear passenger seats are covered with a hard visor, to which a removable or folding roof over the driver can be attached. At the moment, the classic versions have become the property of collectors, because the car is no longer produced in this version. It was replaced by more prestigious models with an opening hatch above the front seats (like the Ragtop - Ragtop).
Pickup Is a representative of three-volume cargo-passenger transport with a closed top of the cabin, where two or four (in two rows) seats are located. Accordingly, it can be two-door or have four doors. The main feature of the pickup body is the presence of an open cargo platform, separated from the cab by a stationary partition. Despite the high fuel consumption, the car has a number of advantages:
- high, like an SUV, cross-country ability;
- increased carrying capacity;
- comfortable roomy interior.
Due to the main purpose - cargo transportation - springs are used on the rear suspension under the cargo platform. The design is more often developed on the basis of SUVs or cars.
The pickup body is especially popular in the United States, New Zealand, Australia.
Limousine body refers to the closed three-volume type. Despite its impressive length, it has only 4 doors and two (sometimes three) rows of seats.
The design of the sedan is taken as a basis, so it sometimes "copies" the appearance of the limousine. The difference is that the latter has a stationary rigid partition with a rising glass separating the cabin into a driver's cab and free space for passengers.
The average length of a "normal" limousine reaches 6 - 8,5 meters, naturally, the wheelbase (the distance between the axles of the front and rear wheels) is also lengthened. Prestigious transport does not have too high maneuverability, therefore it is used mainly for ceremonies. In everyday life, there are models in the version of a hatchback, an SUV, a sedan.
Many people confuse a limousine with a stretch (stretch) body, which, unlike the monolithic structure of the first, is mounted by inserting additional sections into the base of the station wagon or sedan to increase the length of the car.
Universal Is a type of 2-volume (occasionally 3-volume) closed body based on a sedan with a flat roof along the entire length up to the trunk with a sloping glazed door. Usually equipped with an unpaired number of doors, five or less often three.
The cabin, with two full-size front seats and a rear sofa, shares space with a cargo hold, which can be expanded by folding the rear seat. The additional cargo space provides a noticeable rear overhang, which makes it possible to transport oversized cargo.
The freed up rear platform turns the station wagon into a kind of closed van with cargo-passenger capabilities, but more comfortable for family country trips or travel.
Of the Russian models made in the station wagon body, one can name the VAZ-2171, Moskvich-423, VAZ-2102; import representatives - Audi Avant, Opel Caravan, Skoda Octavia A5 Combi and dr.
Hatchback - This is a kind of transitional version from a station wagon to a minivan. The difference from the first is a significantly shortened rear overhang, and as a result, a reduced volume of the luggage compartment. In addition, the rear wall with a rising door has a greater slope, smoothly (or not very) passing into the roof of the cabin. However, the carrying capacity of this type of vehicle exceeds that of a sedan.
If the hatchback is slightly "squeezed" from above and raise the rear wall to a vertical position, then, perhaps, you get some similarity in a minivan. The luggage compartment is equipped with two rows of full-size seats and five (or three) doors. This design gives the car:
- high maneuverability and compactness;
- allows for easy loading / unloading of bulky luggage due to the large tailgate.
A body of this type is in great demand in Europe, since it has the ability to transform into a cargo-passenger transport if you remove the cover from the trunk and remove the rear seats. On the Russian market, the hatchback models are Moskvich-2141 or VAZ-2109.
Liftback found in two- and less often in three-volume layout. The structure and equipment of the liftback (from liftback - lift the rear) are very similar to the hatchback, so they are often confused. Despite the primary visual similarities, there are significant differences between the two body types.
For example, the liftback has a larger trunk, moreover, with the rear seat folded out, due to the elongated rear overhang, which makes it akin to a sedan (if not for the sloping rear wall, like a hatchback). For cars of this design:
- loading and unloading takes place without complications due to the wide opening rear door;
- spacious luggage compartment;
- presentable appearance.
The difference between the two samples is also in the length, which is precisely determined by the elongated rear part of the liftback. And another significant difference: the shape of the latter is sometimes found in a stepped design (with three visual volumes), while a hatchback can only be 2-volume.
SUV is - popularly referred to as a jeep, visually has two volumes: an outstanding part with an engine under the hood and a joint passenger and cargo compartment. The body of the passenger transport is equipped with four side doors and one (sometimes consisting of two leaves) door on the rear panel. The cabin can accommodate two to three rows of full-size seats.
The interior of the car creates a comfortable environment thanks to the high ceilings. A car with such a closed body type has increased ground clearance (high ground clearance) and high cross-country ability.
The size of an SUV is not reflected in its main characteristic qualities:
- the relative safety of passengers;
- large capacity of the luggage compartment and salon;
- high cross-country ability.
Cars of this type are full-size, compact and medium-sized, but the increased cross-country ability is the hallmark of the model.
Crossover it is a variant of the closed two-volume body, derived from an SUV, designed for more gentle urban and local conditions. The classic version has two rows of seats and five doors, including the rear, for loading luggage.
The crossover - CUV - has a high flat hard roof, a comfortable roomy interior and a high seating position (ground clearance), combines the qualities (in addition to an SUV) of a station wagon, a hatchback, and a minivan.
The design should not be confused with the SUV variety, which is also originally a modification of an SUV. This type of transport is usually called SUVs, because they are more adapted to civilian conditions than to conquer impassable roads.
Van in fact, it is the same pickup truck, only with a closed cargo area, which in this version serves as a luggage compartment with its own door for convenient loading of luggage. The shape of the body resembles a minibus or minivan, but completely enclosed, without side windows (except for the driver's cabin).
The van belongs to a cargo-passenger one-volume structure. The classic version has two seats and two side doors in the cab. The passenger compartment is separated from the cargo platform by a stationary partition.
Minivan - this is the layout of the body of the minivan is often one-volume, but it also happens with one and a half or two visual volumes. The closed body of the car is designed for passenger transportation with three to four rows of seats (up to 9 seats, including the driver's seat).
The model is created on the platform of a hatchback or station wagon, while the volume inside the cabin, combined with the luggage compartment, is significantly increased due to a higher uniform roof. In Europe, it has its own name, literally meaning "people carrier" - People carrier.
The four-door design can accommodate sliding doors for rear entry. Often, the seats are transformed when necessary to arrange a sleeping area for spending the night.
Compact MPV - This is a modification from a series of "vans", distinguished by its compactness, which is what the name implies. The closed body of a gondola (1,5 - volumetric), less often - a carriage (one-volume) layout. Designed for light vehicles with two or three rows of seats. The salon shares space with the driver's cab and the luggage compartment, which, in principle, can serve as the rear of the cabin with folded seats.
A body with five doors, a shortened rear overhang (which makes it compact), in terms of dimensions, is located in the intermediate zone between the mini and micro van. The purpose of the car is to transport passengers, the number of seats is from 4 to 7 (in three rows), there are options with two rows of three seats each, but five seats are considered a classic. This format can be considered a family one and use a car for going out into the countryside and even traveling.
Microvan - This is the "smallest", but quite roomy representative of the closed-type "van" series, which appeared on the market as a separate species relatively recently. Created on the basis of the B-segment hatchback with approximately the same parameters: ceiling height - 1,5 meters, the length of the entire body - 4 meters (+ -).
One-volume with a short overhang body is usually equipped with 5 doors; the fifth large one on the back wall is designed for loading / unloading bulky baggage; the trunk area is increased due to the transformation of the rear seats. The cabin, which is combined with the driver's cab and the trunk, has two rows of full-size seats.
Minibus - so called minibus - essentially the same van. But unlike the latter, it is a representative of light transport, therefore it has side windows. A semi-hood (1,5 volumetric) or wagon (single-volume) vehicle is often used in urban and intercity transportation and received another name - a minibus (fixed-route taxi).
A closed passenger car can be operated as a passenger transport by a large number of seats, on average 9-16, a high, flat ceiling throughout the entire length (up to 5 m), the presence of large doors: two swinging open in the driver's cab and one, often sliding, for boarding passengers. The rigid body of the minibus has increased safety.
Bus - this wagon body type differs from other modern passenger transport in its structure, the base of which is a steel or aluminum frame. Metal or aluminum sheathing sheets are welded to it.
Bus cladding has a wide variety of options, but all have large panoramic windows, including the windshield. The salon, as a rule, is equipped with the maximum number of seats (along the entire length with a rear sofa) and has a wide central aisle; there are many two-story models.
The height of buses varies, but is designed to accommodate the full height of a tall person, but the steps are usually lowered as low as possible (or lower the height of the entire floor) for easy boarding and disembarkation.
The standard two sliding doors for passengers are located only on the right side of the vehicle; they can fold like an accordion (outdated version), open into the interior of the passenger compartment in special grooves, or move outward on brackets, almost adjoining the body.