Tire manufacturers hide the exact recipe for their manufacture. The main components remain unchanged. The characteristics of different models are different. This must be taken into account when choosing tires for the car.
Types of rubber
Regardless of the manufacturer, there are two types of tires on the market. Their technical characteristics are practically the same. Types of rubber:
- Made from natural raw materials. The composition is based on vegetable rubber. It is a natural substance that is extracted from the sap of trees. At the initial stage of car tire production, only vegetable rubber was used.
- From synthetic raw materials. Modern tires are made from rubber that is manufactured using chemicals. The material is resistant to vegetable and animal oils. Products made from synthetic rubber have good air retention. Thanks to this, the material has become widespread in the manufacture of car tires.
Rubber made from natural or synthetic raw materials is used on cars all over the world. Manufacturers produce tires with different technical characteristics due to changes in the rubber composition. This improves the grip of the wheels on dry, wet or icy surfaces.
The exact chemical composition and recipe is different for each manufacturer. The companies do not disclose the ingredients and their exact dosage. The main components used for the production of tires are known. These include rubber, silicic acid, carbon black, resins and oils.
What is natural rubber
The raw material is an elastic material with water-repellent properties. Natural rubber is extracted from the sap of trees. For this, incisions are made on the bark of plants. After assembly, the liquid is sent for processing.
Latex is produced from natural raw materials. It is used for the manufacture of various rubber products, including auto tires. To obtain latex, natural tree sap is mixed with acid. The result is a thick elastic mass.
Excess moisture is removed from the latex. To do this, the mass is placed under a press or passed through rolling rolls. Thus, it is possible to obtain pure latex from natural raw materials.
Other tire composition elements
In addition to rubber, other elements are added to the composition during the manufacture of tires. They are necessary to improve the strength properties of the product and change its technical characteristics. Manufacturers add the following ingredients to the composition:
- Carbon black. The mass fraction of a substance can be up to 30%. Carbon black is required to improve the strength characteristics of rubber. The wheel of the machine becomes resistant to abrasion when driving on surfaces of various qualities.
- Silicic acid. Improves the grip of wheels on wet road surfaces. Manufacturers use it as a substitute for carbon black. This is due to the fact that silicic acid has a lower cost. It should be borne in mind that tires made with silicic acid are less abrasion resistant.
- Oils and resins. They are used to improve the elastic properties of rubber. Manufacturers add this type of additive to the composition to achieve tire softness. It is in demand in tires intended for winter use.
- Secret ingredients. Manufacturers add specialized chemicals to the composition. They allow you to change the characteristics of the rubber. So it is possible to improve the car's handling, reduce the braking distance, etc.
The mass fraction of components in products from different manufacturers is different. When selecting tires, their characteristics are taken into account.
Step-by-step tire production process
The manufacturing method may differ from company to company. Thanks to modern equipment, it is possible to automate some processes. The main stages of tire production:
- Processing of tree sap into latex.
- Removing excess moisture from elastic material.
- Grinding latex.
- Curing. For this process, latex is mixed with sulfur.
After vulcanization with the addition of the right ingredients, it is possible to obtain a rubber that is resistant to abrasion and high temperatures. Car tires are made from it.
Modern rubber for tires
The growth in the number of vehicles has led to a shortage of natural rubber. The result was a synthetic material. By its properties, it is not inferior to vegetable rubber.
Modern tires are made of rubber, which contains natural or synthetic rubber. Additional ingredients have more influence on the characteristics of products. Despite this, the cost of tires made from natural rubber is higher than from synthetic rubber.
How tires are assembled
Specialized equipment is used to assemble tires. The number and type of machines are selected separately for each case, depending on the production capacity.
Tires consist of a metal frame and rubber. This allows you to give the product the desired shape. The construction of tires from different manufacturers is different.
Modern tires are made from natural or synthetic rubber. To improve the characteristics of rubber, specialized additives are included in the composition. This way it is possible to reduce the braking distance and improve the vehicle's handling, regardless of the quality of the road surface.