Hall sensor: purpose and principle of operation



Hall effect sensors are essential for the automotive industry. It has several installation locations in the car:

  • Crankshaft position and motion sensor;
  • The position sensor is located on the camshaft;
  • ABS system;
  • ESP, VCS, PSM systems;

The Hall sensor is one of the most important vehicle systems, especially the crankshaft and camshaft sensor. It recognizes the position of the crankshaft and camshaft, thus synchronizing the operation of the engine.

This sensor reads and provides information on the exact timing of fuel injection, depending on the position of the pistons and valves. If these sensors do not work, symptoms immediately appear, by which you can understand that there is a problem. In four-stroke engines (4 cylinders), which are the most common, a Hall sensor detects the position of the shaft cam. In this way, it knows which cylinder is currently in the combustion position and therefore it synchronizes the vehicle's stroke and fuel injection.

There are two types of Hall sensors in a car, which are the most important sensors in a car:

  • Crankshaft sensor;
  • Camshaft sensor;
Hall sensor: purpose and principle of operation

What is it for, how does it work?

It is mainly used to synchronize individual components in a vehicle. Measures engine speed, piston and valve position through crankshaft position. It controls the ignition timing of the car, fuel injection into the engine cylinders.

Replacement of Hall sensors and their types:

There are several types of Hall sensors:

  • induction sensors,
  • Hall effect sensor (magnetic principle of operation),
  • optical sensors
  • other.

In the automotive industry, magnetic sensors and optical sensors are used in older vehicles. They have a long lifespan, but over time they get dirty and don't work properly, so they need diagnostics and cleaning.

Hall sensor replacement

Replacing the crankshaft sensor is easy. First you need to find it. Most often it is located around the chain (belt) of the car. The Hall sensor is fixed with one bolt (on some Mercedes it has a plate with two bolts). This will ensure that you find the correct sensor. Take a look at the images below for a better understanding of how this looks. It is easily disassembled, there is a socket for disconnecting and unscrewing the bolt.

Hall sensor: purpose and principle of operation

In most cases, vehicle sensors only need cleaning.

Crankshaft Hall Sensor Failure Symptoms

Here are some of the more common symptoms of a broken, damaged, dirty crankshaft sensor:

  • Incorrect operation of one of the cylinders
  • Does not come out to start the car engine
  • Shutter speed after pressing the gas pedal
  • Engine vibration
  • Dashboard warning light

Replacing the crankshaft sensor

Replacing the crankshaft sensor or cleaning it is not difficult, you just need to find its location. Most cars are easy to disassemble and have access to, but some are difficult to access. The battery terminals must be removed during disassembly.

Cleaning the crankshaft sensor

In our opinion, cleaning the crankshaft sensor is the most correct solution. In most cars, it is dirty, which interferes with its normal operation. After cleaning, everything should be in order. Use a solvent for cleaning to remove the layer of oil and dirt on it. The video shows the replacement and cleaning of the Opel crankshaft sensor. If this is the problem, you will immediately notice the difference in the car's behavior.

Cleaning the crankshaft sensor RENAULT DASTER 1.6


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